Assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury--true GFR versus urinary creatinine clearance and estimating equations.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early AKI are lacking. We evaluated the agreement of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) and three commonly used estimating equations, the Cockcroft Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in comparison to GFR measured by the infusion clearance of chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), in critically ill patients with early AKI after complicated cardiac surgery. METHODS: Thirty patients with early AKI were studied in the intensive care unit, 2 to 12 days after complicated cardiac surgery. The infusion clearance for 51Cr-EDTA obtained as a measure of GFR (GFR51Cr-EDTA) was calculated from the formula: GFR (mL/min/1.73m2)=(51Cr-EDTA infusion rate×1.73)/(arterial 51Cr-EDTA×body surface area) and compared with the urinary CrCl and the estimated GFR (eGFR) from the three estimating equations. Urine was collected in two 30-minute periods to measure urine flow and urine creatinine. Urinary CrCl was calculated from the formula: CrCl (mL/min/1.73m2)=(urine volume×urine creatinine×1.73)/(serum creatinine×30 min×body surface area). RESULTS: The within-group error was lower for GFR51Cr-EDTA than the urinary CrCl method, 7.2% versus 55.0%. The between-method bias was 2.6, 11.6, 11.1 and 7.39 ml/min for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. The error was 103%, 68.7%, 67.7% and 68.0% for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated poor precision of the commonly utilized urinary CrCl method for assessment of GFR in critically ill patients with early AKI, suggesting that this should not be used as a reference method when validating new methods for assessing kidney function in this patient population. The commonly used estimating equations perform poorly when estimating GFR, with high biases and unacceptably high errors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most studies on obesity surgery have measured renal function using the estimated GFR. However, due to the reduction of muscle mass, and therefore creatinine that accompanies weight loss, such measures can falsely suggest an improvement in renal function. To balance the risks of surgery versus any potential benefits on renal function, we need to be able to determine renal function using valid and reliable methodologies. In this pilot study we aimed to measure renal function in patients with CKD undergoing obesity surgery using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA GFR clearance methodology which is independent of measures of muscle mass. METHODS:Nine consecutive obese patients with CKD underwent obesity surgery. Their renal function was assessed using 51Cr-EDTA GFR, cystatin C and serum creatinine as well as using eGFR equations including MDRD CKD Epi, Cockcroft Gault and CKD Epi cystatin before and 12?months after surgery. RESULTS:Renal function using the 51Cr-EDTA measured GFR did not change significantly after surgery. Similar results were obtained when Cystatin C, CKD Epi cystatin, CKD Epi cystatin creatinine and adjusted Cockcroft Gault Creatinine clearance methods were used. In contrast there were either trends or significant improvements in renal function measured using the MDRD and CKD Epi equations. CONCLUSIONS:In this pilot study using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA method we found stabilisation in renal function after obesity surgery. Until further definitive data emerge it is critical to balance the risk and benefits of surgery, especially if renal function may not improve as often as previously suggested. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01507350 . Registered June 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intestinal permeability can be assessed by monitoring renal excretion of orally administered radioactively 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA). Although considered safe, patient participation in using radio-labeled tracers is low. Here, we used orally administered 52Cr-EDTA as non-radioactive alternative to assess intestinal permeability in CD and analyzed the association with disease activity, disease location and gut microbial dysbiosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:60 CD patients with low (n = 25) and increased (n = 35) fecal calprotectin levels (cut-off: 100 ?g/g feces) ingested 20 mL 52Cr-EDTA (20 mmol/L) solution whereafter 24-h urine was collected. Urinary 52Cr-EDTA concentrations were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fecal Enterobacteriaceae and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were quantified using FISH. Correlations between urinary 52Cr-EDTA excretion and other parameters were established using nonparametric Spearman's correlation coefficients (?). RESULTS:CD patients with increased fecal calprotectin levels (> 100 ?g/g) demonstrated an elevated urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio (772 vs. 636 ?mol/mol, P = 0.132). Patients with primarily colonic disease showed the highest 52Cr-EDTA excretion. Importantly, a positive correlation was observed for the urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio and fecal calprotectin levels (? = 0.325, P < 0.05). Finally, urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (? = -0.221, P = 0.092), while positively correlating with Enterobacteriaceae (? = 0.202, P = 0.126). CONCLUSIONS:Orally administered and renal excreted 52Cr-EDTA may be used to assess intestinal permeability in CD and correlates with fecal calprotectin levels and bacterial species relevant to CD. This test may improve non-invasive detection of disease exacerbations and help monitor disease activity.
Project description:Overestimation of GFR by urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) at lower levels of GFR has long been attributed to enhanced creatinine secretion. However, this does not take into consideration the contribution of errors in measured GFR (and CrCl) due to short-term biologic variability or test imprecision.We analyzed cross-sectional data among 1342 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study with baseline measurement of GFR by iothalamate clearance (iGFR) and CrCl by 24-hour urine collection. We examined the CrCl/iGFR ratio classified by categories of iGFR and also by categories of CrCl.Overall, mean CrCl/iGFR ratio was 1.13. CrCl/iGFR ratio was higher at lower iGFR categories. In contrast, this ratio was lower at lower CrCl levels. We hypothesize these relationships could be due to measurement error, which is bolstered by replicating these trends in a simulation and modeling exercise in which there was no variation in the ratio of CrCl/iGFR with true kidney function but taking into account the effect of measurement error in both CrCl and iGFR (of magnitudes previously described in the literature). In our simulated data, the observed CrCl/iGFR ratio was higher at lower observed iGFR levels when patients were classified by categories of observed iGFR. When the same patients were classified by categories of observed CrCl, the observed CrCl/iGFR ratio was lower at lower observed CrCl levels.The combined empirical and modeling results suggest that measurement errors (in both CrCl and iGFR) should be considered as an alternative explanation for the longstanding observation that the ratio of CrCl to iGFR gets larger as iGFR decreases.
Project description:Accurate assessment of kidney function is important for the management of solid-organ transplant recipients. In other clinical populations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) most commonly is estimated using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine or the 4-variable MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study equation. The accuracy of these equations compared with other GFR estimating equations in transplant recipients has not been carefully studied.Diagnostic test study.Solid-organ transplant recipients longer than 6 months posttransplantation from 5 clinical populations (N=3,622, including recipients of kidney [53%], liver [35%], and other or multiple organs [12%]).Estimated GFR (eGFR) using creatinine-based GFR estimating equations identified from a systematic review of the literature. Performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine and the MDRD Study equations was compared with alternative equations.Measured GFR (mGFR) from urinary clearance of iothalamate or plasma clearance of iohexol.Error (difference between mGFR and eGFR) expressed as P30 (proportion of absolute percent error <30%) and mean absolute error.We identified 26 GFR estimating equations. Mean mGFR was 55.1±22.7 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2). P30 and mean absolute error for the CKD-EPI and the MDRD Study equations were 78.9% (99.6% CI, 76.9%-80.8%) for both and 10.6 (99.6% CI, 10.1-11.1) versus 11.0 (99.6% CI, 10.5-11.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively; these equations were more accurate than any of the alternative equations (P <0.001 for all pairwise comparisons for both measures). They performed better than or as well as the alternative equations in most subgroups defined by demographic and clinical characteristics, including type of transplanted organ.Study population included few nonwhites and people with solid-organ transplants other than liver and kidneys.The CKD-EPI creatinine and the MDRD Study equations perform better than the alternative creatinine-based estimating equations in solid-organ transplant recipients. They can be used for clinical management.
Project description:Accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for diagnosis and risk stratification in chronic kidney disease and for selection of living donors. Ethnic differences have required correction factors in the originally developed creatinine-based GFR estimation equations for populations around the world. Existing equations have not been validated in the vegetarian Indian population. We examined the performance of creatinine and cystatin-based GFR estimating equations in Indians.GFR was measured by urinary clearance of inulin. Serum creatinine was measured using IDMS-traceable Jaffe's and enzymatic assays, and cystatin C by colloidal gold immunoassay. Dietary protein intake was calculated by measuring urinary nitrogen appearance. Bias, precision and accuracy were calculated for the eGFR equations.A total of 130 participants (63 healthy kidney donors and 67 with CKD) were studied. About 50% were vegetarians, and the remainder ate meat 3.8 times every month. The average creatinine excretion were 14.7 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 13.5 to 15.9 mg/kg/day) and 12.4 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 11.2 to 13.6 mg/kg/day) in males and females, respectively. The average daily protein intake was 46.1 g/day (95% CI: 43.2 to 48.8 g/day). The mean mGFR in the study population was 51.66?±?31.68 ml/min/1.73m2. All creatinine-based eGFR equations overestimated GFR (p?<?0.01 for each creatinine based eGFR equation). However, eGFR by CKD-EPICys was not significantly different from mGFR (p?=?0.38). The CKD-EPICys exhibited lowest bias [mean bias: -3.53?±?14.70 ml/min/1.73m2 (95% CI: -0.608 to -0.98)] and highest accuracy (P30: 74.6%). The GFR in the healthy population was 79.44 ± 20.19 (range: 41.90-134.50) ml/min/1.73m2.Existing creatinine-based GFR estimating equations overestimate GFR in Indians. An appropriately powered study is needed to develop either a correction factor or a new equation for accurate assessment of kidney function in the Indian population.
Project description:Fluid resuscitation in the critically ill often results in a positive fluid balance, potentially diluting the serum creatinine concentration and delaying diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI).Dilution during AKI was quantified by combining creatinine and volume kinetics to account for fluid type, and rates of fluid infusion and urine output. The model was refined using simulated patients receiving crystalloids or colloids under four glomerular filtration rate (GFR) change scenarios and then applied to a cohort of critically ill patients following cardiac arrest.The creatinine concentration decreased during six hours of fluid infusion at 1 litre-per-hour in simulated patients, irrespective of fluid type or extent of change in GFR (from 0% to 67% reduction). This delayed diagnosis of AKI by 2 to 9 hours. Crystalloids reduced creatinine concentration by 11 to 19% whereas colloids reduced concentration by 36 to 43%. The greatest reduction was at the end of the infusion period. Fluid dilution alone could not explain the rapid reduction of plasma creatinine concentration observed in 39 of 49 patients after cardiac arrest. Additional loss of creatinine production could account for those changes. AKI was suggested in six patients demonstrating little change in creatinine, since a 52 ± 13% reduction in GFR was required after accounting for fluid dilution and reduced creatinine production. Increased injury biomarkers within a few hours of cardiac arrest, including urinary cystatin C and plasma and urinary Neutrophil-Gelatinase-Associated-Lipocalin (biomarker-positive, creatinine-negative patients) also indicated AKI in these patients.Creatinine and volume kinetics combined to quantify GFR loss, even in the absence of an increase in creatinine. The model improved disease severity estimation, and demonstrated that diagnostic delays due to dilution are minimally affected by fluid type. Creatinine sampling should be delayed at least one hour following a large fluid bolus to avoid dilution. Unchanged plasma creatinine post cardiac arrest signifies renal injury and loss of function.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001012066.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prior papers have been inconsistent regarding how much creatinine clearance (CrCl) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A recent cross-sectional study suggested that measurement error alone could entirely account for the longstanding observation that CrCl/GFR ratio is larger when GFR is lower among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); but there have been no validation of this in other cohorts. METHODS:To fill these gaps in knowledge regarding the relation between CrCl and GFR, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD) and African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK); and cross-sectional analysis of a clinical dataset from the Mayo Clinic of four different patient populations (CKD patients, kidney transplant recipients, post kidney donation subgroup and potential kidney donors). In the cross-sectional analyses (MDRD, AASK and Mayo Clinic cohort), we examined the relation between the CrCl/iothalamate GFR (iGFR) ratio at different categories of iGFR or different levels of CrCl. In the MDRD and AASK longitudinal analyses, we studied how the CrCl/iGFR ratio changed with those who had improvement in iGFR (CrCl) over time versus those who had worsening of iGFR (CrCl) over time. RESULTS:Observed CrCl/iGFR ratios were generally on the lower end of the range reported in the literature for CKD (median 1.24 in MDRD, 1.13 in AASK and 1.25 in Mayo Clinic cohort). Among CKD patients in whom CrCl and iGFR were measured using different timed urine collections, CrCl/iGFR ratio were higher with lower iGFR categories but lower with lower CrCl categories. However, among CKD patients in whom CrCl and iGFR were measured using the same timed urine collections (which reduces dis-concordant measurement error), CrCl/iGFR ratio were higher with both lower iGFR categories and lower CrCl categories. CONCLUSIONS:These data refute the recent suggestion that measurement error alone could entirely account for the longstanding observation that CrCl/GFR ratio increases as GFR decreases in CKD patients. They also highlight the lack of certainty in our knowledge with regard to how much CrCl actually overestimates GFR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that a large weight loss reduces muscle mass and pCr causing increase in eGFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area. METHODS:Prospective, intervention study including 19 patients. All attended a baseline visit before gastric bypass surgery followed by a visit six months post-surgery. mGFR was assessed during four hours plasma 51Cr-EDTA clearance. GFR was estimated by four equations (MDRD, CKD-EPI-pCr, CKD-EPI-cysC and CKD-EPI-pCr-cysC). DXA-scans were performed at baseline and six months post-surgery to measure changes in lean limb mass, as a surrogate for muscle mass. RESULTS:Patients were (mean?±?SD) 40.0?±?9.3 years, 14 (74%) were female and 5 (26%) had type 2 diabetes, baseline weight was 128?±?19 kg, body mass index 41?±?6 kg/m2 and absolute mGFR 122?±?24 ml/min. Six months post-surgery weight loss was 27 (95% CI: 23; 30) kg, mGFR decreased by 9 (-17; -2) from 122?±?24 to 113?±?21 ml/min (p?=?0.024), but corrected for current body surface area (BSA) mGFR was unchanged by 2 (-5; 9) ml/min/1.73 m2 (p?=?0.52). CKD-EPI-pCr increased by 12 (6; 17) and MDRD by 13 (8; 18) (p?<?0.001 for both), while CKD-EPI-cysC was unchanged by 2 (-8; 4) ml/min/1.73 m2 (p?=?0.51). Lean limb mass was reduced by 3.5 (-4.4;-2.6; p?<?0.001) kg and change in lean limb mass correlated with change in plasma creatinine (R 2?=?0.28, p?=?0.032). CONCLUSIONS:Major weight reductions are associated with a reduction in absolute mGFR, which may reflect resolution of glomerular hyperfiltration, while mGFR adjusted for body surface area was unchanged. Estimates of GFR based on creatinine overestimate renal function likely due to changes in muscle mass, whereas cystatin C based estimates are unaffected. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02138565 . Date of registration: March 24, 2014.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on kidney function in resistance-trained individuals ingesting a high-protein diet.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly allocated to receive either creatine (20 g/d for 5 d followed by 5 g/d throughout the trial) or placebo for 12 weeks. All of the participants were engaged in resistance training and consumed a high-protein diet (i.e., ? 1.2 g/Kg/d). Subjects were assessed at baseline (Pre) and after 12 weeks (Post). Glomerular filtration rate was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Additionally, blood samples and a 24-h urine collection were obtained for other kidney function assessments.No significant differences were observed for 51Cr-EDTA clearance throughout the trial (Creatine: Pre 101.42?±?13.11, Post 108.78?±?14.41 mL/min/1.73m2; Placebo: Pre 103.29?±?17.64, Post 106.68?±?16.05 mL/min/1.73m2; group x time interaction: F?=?0.21, p?=?0.64). Creatinine clearance, serum and urinary urea, electrolytes, proteinuria, and albuminuria remained virtually unchanged.A 12-week creatine supplementation protocol did not affect kidney function in resistance-trained healthy individuals consuming a high-protein diet; thus reinforcing the safety of this dietary supplement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01817673.
Project description:Vitamin D receptor activators reduce albuminuria, and may improve survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies suggest that these pleiotropic effects of vitamin D may be mediated by suppression of renin. However, randomized trials in humans have yet to establish this relationship.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study, the effect of oral paricalcitol (2 ?g/day) was investigated in 26 patients with non-diabetic, albuminuric stage III-IV CKD. After treatment, plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured. GFR was determined by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Assessment of renal NO dependency was performed by infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Albumin excretion rate (AER) was analyzed in 24-h urine and during 51Cr-EDTA clearance.Paricalcitol did not alter plasma levels of renin, AngII, Aldo, or urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. A modest reduction of borderline significance was observed in AER, and paricalcitol abrogated the albuminuric response to L-NMMA.In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial paricalcitol only marginally decreased AER and did not alter circulating levels of renin, AngII or Aldo. The abrogation of the rise in albumin excretion by paricalcitol during NOS blockade may indicate that favourable modulation of renal NO dependency could be involved in mediating reno-protection and survival benefits in CKD.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01136564.