The 3 epimer of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is present in the circulation of the majority of adults in a nationally representative sample and has endogenous origins.
ABSTRACT: Fundamental knowledge gaps in relation to the 3 epimer of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [3-epi-25(OH)D?] limit our understanding of its relevance for vitamin D nutrition and health. The aims of this study were to characterize the 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentrations in a nationally representative sample of adults and explore its determinants. We also used data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) of supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D?) conducted in winter in older adults to directly test the impact of changes in vitamin D status on serum 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D?] and 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentrations (via LC-tandem mass spectrometry) from our vitamin D? RCT in adults (aged ?50 y) and data on dietary, lifestyle, and biochemical characteristics of participants of the recent National Adult Nutrition Survey in Ireland (aged 18-84 y; n = 1122) were used in the present work. In the subsample of participants who had serum 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentrations greater than the limit of quantification (n = 1082; 96.4%), the mean, 10th, 50th (median), and 90th percentile concentrations were 2.50, 1.05, 2.18, and 4.30 nmol/L, respectively, whereas the maximum 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentration was 15.0 nmol/L. A regression model [explaining 29.9% of the variability in serum 3-epi-25(OH)D?] showed that age >50 y, vitamin D supplement use, dietary vitamin D, meat intake, season of blood sampling, and sun exposure habits were significant positive determinants, whereas increasing waist circumference and serum 25-hydroxyergocalciferol concentration were significant negative determinants. The RCT data showed that mean serum 25(OH)D? and 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentrations increased (49.3% and 42.1%, respectively) and decreased (-28.0% and -29.1%, respectively) significantly (P < 0.0001) with vitamin D? (20 ?g/d) and placebo supplementation, respectively, over 15 wk of winter. In conclusion, we provide data on serum 3-epi-25(OH)D? in a nationally representative sample of adults. Our combined observational and RCT data might suggest that both dietary supply and dermal synthesis of vitamin D? contribute to serum 3-epi-25(OH)D? concentration.
Project description:The implementation of mass spectrometry to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations has led to concerns regarding the measurement and reporting of the C3-epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [3-epi-25(OH)D(3)], for which there is a near-total lack of data regarding its clinical significance.We developed a chromatographic method to resolve (>90%) 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) from 25(OH)D(3) using a pentafluorophenyl propyl chromatographic column. Using LC-MS/MS, we determined the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D(3) and 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) in 626 patients aged 3 days to 94 years undergoing routine vitamin D testing.Comparison between DiaSorin RIA and the new LC-MS/MS method for total 25(OH)D had acceptable agreement. Our data indicate an increase in 25(OH)D(3) rather than a reduction in epimer concentration. An average of 3.3 ng/ml of 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) was detected in adolescents and adults. Inclusion of 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) in the total 25(OH)D(3) concentration resulted in 9% (<1 year) and 3% (1 to 94 years) potential misclassification of patients as vitamin D sufficient.The new LC-MS/MS method is capable of chromatographically separating 25(OH)D(3) and 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). It was used to confirm that the contribution of 3-epi-25OHD(3) to total 25OHD(3) concentrations decreases with age in infants and is detectable in adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitamin D is important to maternal, fetal, and infant health, but quality data on vitamin D status in low- and middle-income countries and response to cholecalciferol supplementation in pregnancy are sparse. OBJECTIVE:We characterized vitamin D status and vitamin D metabolite change across pregnancy and in response to cholecalciferol supplementation in rural Gambia. METHODS:This study was a secondary analysis of samples collected in a 4-arm trial of maternal nutritional supplementation [iron folic acid (FeFol); multiple micronutrients (MMN); protein energy (PE) as lipid-based supplement; PE + MMN]; MMN included 10 ?g/d cholecalciferol. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25(OH)2D3], and C3-epimer-25-hydroxycholecalciferol [3-epi-25(OH)D3] were measured by LC-MS/MS in 863 women [aged 30 ± 7 y (mean ± SD)] in early pregnancy (presupplementation) and late pregnancy, (gestational age 14 ± 3 and 30 ± 1 wk). Changes in 25(OH)D3 and vitamin D metabolite concentrations and associations with pregnancy stage and maternal age and anthropometry were tested. RESULTS:Early pregnancy 25(OH)D3 concentration was 70 ± 15 nmol/L and increased according to pregnancy stage (82 ± 18 and 87 ± 17 nmol/L in the FeFol and PE-arms) and to cholecalciferol supplementation (95 ± 19 and 90 ± 20 nmol/L in the MMN and PE + MMN-arms) (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between supplemented groups. Early pregnancy 25(OH)D3 was positively associated with maternal age and gestational age. Change in 25(OH)D3 was negatively associated with late pregnancy, but not early pregnancy, triceps skinfold thickness. The pattern of change of 24,25(OH)2D3 mirrored that of 25(OH)D3 and appeared to flatten as pregnancy progressed, whereas 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentration increased across pregnancy. CONCLUSION:This study provides important data on the vitamin D status of a large cohort of healthy pregnant women in rural Africa. Without supplementation, vitamin D status increased during pregnancy, demonstrating that pregnancy stage should be considered when assessing vitamin D status. Nutritionally relevant cholecalciferol supplementation further increased vitamin D status. These data are relevant to the development of fortification and supplementation policies in pregnant women in West Africa.
Project description:Low blood vitamin D concentration is a concern for people living in circumpolar regions, where sunlight is insufficient for vitamin D synthesis in winter months and the consumption of traditional dietary sources of vitamin D is decreasing.The objective was to characterize the effects of diet, genetic variation, and season on serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations in Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in rural southwest Alaska.This study was a cross-sectional design that assessed the associations of traditional diet (via a biomarker, the RBC ?(15)N value), age, gender, body mass index (BMI), community location, and genotype of select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily R, peptide 1 (CYP2R1), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and vitamin D binding protein (GC) with serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in 743 Yup'ik male and female participants, aged 14-93 y, recruited between September 2009 and December 2013.Yup'ik participants, on average, had adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 (31.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL). Variations in diet, BMI, age, gender, season of sample collection, and inland or coastal community geography were all significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. In models not adjusting for other covariates, age, diet, and seasonal effects explained 33.7%, 20.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, of variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Of the 8 SNPs interrogated in CYP2R1 and DHCR7, only rs11023374 in CYP2R1 was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3, explaining 1.5% of variability. The GC haplotype explained an additional 2.8% of variability. Together, age, diet, gender, season of sample collection, BMI, geography of the community, and genotype at rs11023374 explained 52.5% of the variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations.Lower consumption of the traditional diet was associated with lower serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3. Younger adults and youth in this community may be at increased risk of adverse outcomes associated with vitamin D insufficiency compared with older members of the community, especially during seasons of low sunlight exposure, because of lower consumption of dietary sources of vitamin D.
Project description:The study aimed to estimate vitamin D intake and plasma/serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, investigate determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations and compare two 25(OH)D assays. We conducted two nationwide cross-sectional studies in Sweden with 206 school children aged 10-12 years and 1797 adults aged 18-80 years (n 268 provided blood samples). A web-based dietary record was used to assess dietary intake. Plasma/serum 25(OH)D was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and immunoassay in adults and LC-MS/MS in children. Most participants reported a vitamin D intake below the average requirement (AR), 16 % of children and 33 % of adults met the AR (7?5 ?g). In adults, plasma 25(OH)D below 30 and 50 nmol/l were found in 1 and 18 % of participants during the summer period and in 9 and 40 % of participants during the winter period, respectively. In children, serum 25(OH)D below 30 and 50 nmol/l were found in 5 and 42 % of participants (samples collected March-May), respectively. Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with the summer season, vacations in sunny locations (adults), and dietary intake of vitamin D and use of vitamin D supplements, while lower concentrations were associated with a higher BMI and an origin outside of Europe. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were lower using the immunoassay than with the LC-MS assay, but associations with dietary factors and seasonal variability were similar. In conclusion, vitamin D intake was lower than the AR, especially in children. The 25(OH)D concentrations were low in many participants, but few participants had a concentration below 30 nmol/l.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy are measured to diagnose states of insufficiency or deficiency. The aim of this study is to apply accurate assays of vitamin D forms [single- hydroxylated [25(OH)D?, 25(OH)D?], double-hydroxylated [1?,25(OH)?D?, 1a25(OH)?D?], epimers [3-epi-25(OH)D?, 3-epi-25(OH)D?] in mothers (serum) and neonates (umbilical cord) to i) explore maternal and neonatal vitamin D biodynamics and ii) to identify maternal predictors of neonatal vitamin D concentrations. METHODS: All vitamin D forms were quantified in 60 mother- neonate paired samples by a novel liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Maternal characteristics [age, ultraviolet B exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone] were recorded. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations. RESULTS: Mothers had similar concentrations of 25(OH)D? and 25(OH)D? forms compared to neonates (17.9 ± 13.2 vs. 15.9 ± 13.6 ng/mL, p=0.289) with a ratio of 1:3. The epimer concentrations, which contribute approximately 25% to the total vitamin D levels, were similar in mothers and neonates (4.8 ± 7.8 vs. 4.5 ± 4.7 ng/mL, p=0.556). No correlation was observed in mothers between the levels of the circulating form (25OHD?) and its active form. Neonatal 25(OH)D? was best predicted by maternal characteristics, whereas 25(OH)D? was strongly associated to maternal vitamin D forms (R²=0.253 vs. 0.076 and R2=0.109 vs. 0.478, respectively). Maternal characteristics explained 12.2% of the neonatal 25(OH)D, maternal 25(OH)D concentrations explained 32.1%, while epimers contributed an additional 11.9%. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a novel highly specific vitamin D assay, the present study is the first to quantify 3-epi-25(OH)D concentrations in mother-newborn pairs. This accurate assay highlights a considerable proportion of vitamin D exists as epimers and a lack of correlation between the circulating and active forms. These results highlight the need for accurate measurements to appraise vitamin D status. Maternal characteristics and circulating forms of vitamin D, along with their epimers explain 56% of neonate vitamin D concentrations. The roles of active and epimer forms in the maternal-neonatal vitamin D relationship warrant further investigation.
Project description:Little is known about the vitamin D3 epimer [3-epi-25(OH)D3], particularly in adults. We describe characteristics of the D3 epimer within the community-based ARIC cohort.The vitamin D3 epimer, 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were measured using LC-MS/MS in stored serum collected in 1990-1992 from 9,887 white and 3,221 black ARIC study participants, aged 46-70years. Cross-sectional characteristics were explored.Concentrations of the epimer were quantifiable (?1.41ng/ml) in 33.4% of whites and 15.0% of blacks and made up on average 3.23% and 2.25% of total D3 [epimer+25(OH)D3] concentrations, respectively. Epimer levels were positively correlated with 25(OH)D3 in both whites (r=0.54) and blacks (r=0.36) and were unrelated to 25(OH)D2 concentrations. Overall, epimer levels were associated with participant characteristics in a manner similar to that typically observed for 25(OH)D3. Including the epimer in the calculation of total 25(OH)D resulted in approximately 2% of participants being reclassified from being clinically 25(OH)D deficient to having suboptimal levels.Low concentrations of the D3 epimer were present in adult serum and overall the epimer concentration is moderately correlated with the 25(OH)D3 concentration. The reclassification of participant's clinical 25(OH)D status upon inclusion of the epimer was minimal.
Project description:In-vitro studies suggest that vitamin D reduces inflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?B) activity. Yet, no trials have examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on NF?B activity in-vivo in humans. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial (RCT) examining effects of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers and NF?B activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Sixty-five overweight/obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]???50 nmol/L) adults were randomized to a single 100,000 IU bolus followed by 4,000 IU daily cholecalciferol or matching placebo for 16 weeks. We measured BMI, % body fat, serum 25(OH)D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), several interleukins, and NF?B activity in PBMCs. Fifty-four participants completed the study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased with vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo (p?<?0.001). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in any inflammatory markers or NF?B activity (all p?>?0.05). Results remained non-significant after adjustment for age, sex, and % body fat, and after further adjustment for sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake. Although in-vitro studies report anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D, our RCT data show no effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers or NF?B activity in-vivo in humans.
Project description:Sub-optimal vitamin D status is common worldwide and the condition may be associated with increased risk for various chronic diseases. In particular, low vitamin D status is highly prevalent in indigenous communities in Canada, although limited data are available on the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in this population. The relationship between traditional food consumption and vitamin D status has not been well documented.To investigate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the role of traditional food consumption and activities.A cross-sectional analysis was conducted within the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (2003-2005). A total of 445 participants (>12 years of age) were assessed for serum 25(OH)D status, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, including traditional and non-traditional dietary practices and activities. Diet patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to analyse the determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations.Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 22.1 nmol/L (16.9, 29.9 nmol/L) in men and 20.5 nmol/L (16.0, 27.3 nmol/L) in women. Multivariate determinants of higher serum 25(OH)D included higher consumption of traditional and healthier market foods, higher wild fish consumption, male gender, spring/summer season of blood collection and more frequent physical activity. Significant negative determinants included hours of TV/day, higher BMI and higher consumption of unhealthy market foods.Traditional food consumption contributed independently to higher 25(OH)D concentrations in a First Nations community with a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status.
Project description:Vitamin D-deficiency has been linked to inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies to date have focused on the impact of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), an inactive form of vitamin D, on RA disease activity and progression. However, anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D are likely to be mediated at sites of RA disease, namely the inflamed joint, and may involve other vitamin D metabolites notably the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). In the current study serum and synovial fluid samples from n?=?20 patients with persistent RA and n?=?7 patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) were analysed for multiple vitamin D metabolites. Serum data for RA and ReA patients were compared to healthy controls (HC). There was no significant difference between RA or ReA patients relative to HC for 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 or 25(OH)D2. However, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was significantly lower in RA and ReA patients compared to HC (p?<?0.05). All vitamin D metabolites, apart from 25(OH)D2, were lower in SF compared to serum, and SF 1,25(OH)2D3 was unquantifiable in 13/20 RA and 4/7 ReA samples. SF 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and DBP correlated inversely with swollen joint score, and serum 25(OH)D2 and SF DBP correlated directly with C-reactive protein levels. These data indicate that serum 25(OH)D3 provides only limited insight into the role of vitamin D in RA. Alternative serum metabolites such as 3-epi-25(OH)2D3, and SF metabolites, notably lack of SF 1,25(OH)2D3, may be more closely linked to RA disease severity and progress.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is common among older adults and has been linked to muscle weakness. Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a strategy to improve muscle function in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcifediol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) on whole genome gene expression in skeletal muscle of vitamin D deficient frail older adults. A double-blind placebo controlled trial was conducted in vitamin D deficient frail older adults (aged above 65), characterized by blood 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations between 20 and 50 nmol/L. Subjects were randomized across the placebo group (n=12) and the calcifediol group (n=10, 10 µg per day). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after six months of calcifediol or placebo supplementation and subjected to whole genome gene expression profiling using Affymetrix HuGene 2.1ST arrays. Expression of the vitamin D receptor gene was virtually undetectable in human skeletal muscle biopsies. Calcifediol supplementation led to a significant increase in blood 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels compared to the placebo group. No difference between treatment groups was observed on strength outcomes. The whole transcriptome effects of calcifediol and placebo were very weak. Correcting for multiple testing using false discovery rate did not yield any differentially expressed genes using any sensible cut-offs. P-values were uniformly distributed across all genes, suggesting that low p-values are likely to be false positives. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and principle component analysis was unable to separate treatment groups. Calcifediol supplementation did not affect the skeletal muscle transcriptome in frail older adults. Our findings indicate that vitamin D supplementation has no effects on skeletal muscle gene expression, suggesting that skeletal muscle may not be a direct target of vitamin D in older adults. Overall design: Microarray analysis was performed on skeletal muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) from vitamin D deficient frail older adults before and after supplementation with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.