Fragmentation of electrospray-produced deprotonated ions of oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing an alkylated or oxidized thymidine.
ABSTRACT: Alkylation and oxidation constitute major routes of DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous genotoxic agents. Understanding the biological consequences of DNA lesions often necessitates the availability of oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) substrates harboring these lesions, and sensitive and robust methods for validating the identities of these ODNs. Tandem mass spectrometry is well suited for meeting these latter analytical needs. In the present study, we evaluated how the incorporation of an ethyl group to different positions (i.e., O(2), N3, and O(4)) of thymine and the oxidation of its 5-methyl carbon impact collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) pathways of electrospray-produced deprotonated ions of ODNs harboring these thymine modifications. Unlike an unmodified thymine, which often manifests poor cleavage of the C3'-O3' bond, the incorporation of an alkyl group to the O(2) position and, to a much lesser extent, the O(4) position, but not the N3 position of thymine, led to facile cleavage of the C3'-O3' bond on the 3' side of the modified thymine. Similar efficient chain cleavage was observed when thymine was oxidized to 5-formyluracil or 5-carboxyluracil, but not 5-hydroxymethyluracil. Additionally, with the support of computational modeling, we revealed that proton affinity and acidity of the modified nucleobases govern the fragmentation of ODNs containing the alkylated and oxidized thymidine derivatives, respectively. These results provided important insights into the effects of thymine modifications on ODN fragmentation.
Project description:Cis-syn thymine dimers are the major photoproducts of DNA and are the principal cause of mutations induced by sunlight. To better understand the nature of base pairing with cis-syn thymine dimers, we have synthesized a decamer oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing a cis-syn thymine dimer labeled at the N3 of both T's with 15N by two efficient routes from [3-15N]-thymidine phosphoramidite. In the postsynthetic irradiation route, an ODN containing an adjacent pair of [3-15N]-labeled T's was irradiated and the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN isolated by HPLC. In the mixed building block route, a mixture of cis-syn and trans-syn dimer-containing ODNs was synthesized from a mixture of [3-15N]-labeled thymine dimer phosphoramidites after which the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN was isolated by HPLC. The N3-nitrogen and imino proton signals of an (15)N-labeled thymine dimer-containing decamer duplex were assigned by 2D 1H-15N heterocorrelated HSQC NMR spectroscopy, and the 15N-1H coupling constant was found to be 1.8 Hz greater for the 5'-T than for the 3'-T. The larger coupling constant is indicative of weaker H-bonding that is consistent with the more distorted nature of the 5'-base pair found in solution state NMR and crystallographic structures.
Project description:Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) mass spectrometry was developed to investigate the distributions of intrastrand crosslinks formed between cisplatin and two oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), d(A1T2G3G4G5T6A7C8C9C10A11T12) (G3-D) and its analog d(A1T2G3G4G5T6T7C8C9C10A11T12) (G3-H), which have been reported to adopt different secondary structures in solution. Based on the formation of site-specific fragment ions upon IRMPD, two isobaric crosslink products were differentiated for each ODN. The preferential formation of G3G4 and G4G5 crosslinks was determined as a function of reaction conditions, including incubation temperature and presence of metal ions. G3-D consistently exhibited a greater preference for formation of the G4G5 crosslink compared with the G3-H ODN. The ratio of G3G4:G4G5 crosslinks increased for both G3-D and G3-H at higher incubation temperatures or when metal salts were added. Comparison of the IRMPD fragmentation patterns of the unmodified ODNs and the intramolecular platinated crosslinks indicated that backbone cleavage was significantly suppressed near the crosslink.
Project description:Nucleosides containing ester groups that are sensitive to nucleophiles were incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) through solid phase chemical synthesis. The sensitive esters are located on a purine nucleobase. They are the esters of ethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and phenyl groups, and a thioester. These esters cannot survive the deprotection and cleavage conditions used in known ODN synthesis technologies, which involve strong nucleophiles such as ammonium hydroxide and potassium methoxide (potassium carbonate in anhydrous methanol). To incorporate these sensitive groups into ODNs, the Dmoc phosphoramidites and linker were used for solid phase synthesis, which allowed ODN deprotection and cleavage to be carried out under non-nucleophilic oxidative conditions. Sixteen ODN sequences containing these groups were synthesized and characterized with MALDI MS. In addition, the synthesis and characterization of three ODNs containing a nucleophile sensitive 6-chloropurine using the same strategy are described.
Project description:Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have biological activity in treating various forms of cancer. The antisense effects of two types of 20mer ODNs, phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (S-ODNs) and S-ODNs with 12 2'-O-methyl groups (Me-S-ODNs), targeted to sites 109 and 277 of bcl-2 mRNA, were compared. Both types were at least as effective as G3139 (Genta, Inc.) in reducing the level of Bcl-2 protein in T24 cells following a 4 h transfection at a dose of 0.1 micro M. Circular dichroism spectra showed that both types formed A-form duplexes with the complementary RNA, and the melting temperatures were in the order of Me-S-ODN.RNA > normal DNA.RNA > S-ODN.RNA. In comparison with the S-ODN, the Me-S-ODN had reduced toxic growth inhibitory effects, was less prone to bind the DNA-binding domain A of human replication protein A, and was as resistant to serum nucleases. Neither type of oligomer induced apoptosis, according to a PARP-cleavage assay. Hybrids formed with Me-S-ODN sequences were less sensitive to RNase H degradation than those formed with S-ODN sequences. Despite this latter disadvantage, the addition of 2'-O-methyl groups to a phosphorothioate-modified ODN is advantageous because of increased stability of binding and reduced non-specific effects.
Project description:Solid-phase synthesis of electrophilic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) was achieved using dimethyl-Dmoc (dM-Dmoc) as amino protecting group. Due to the high steric hindrance of the 2-(propan-2-ylidene)-1,3-dithiane side product from deprotection, the use of excess nucleophilic scavengers such as aniline to prevent Michael addition of the side product to the deprotected ODN during ODN cleavage and deprotection was no longer needed. The improved technology was demonstrated by the synthesis and characterization of five ODNs including three modified ones. The modified ODNs contained the electrophilic groups ethyl ester, α-chloroamide, and thioester. Using the technology, the sensitive groups can be installed at any location within the ODN sequences without using any sequence- or functionality-specific conditions and procedures.
Project description:The synthesis of oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing 5-(N-aminohexyl)carbamoyl-2'-O-methyluridine (D) is described, and thermal stability and resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the ODNs are compared with ODNs containing 5-(N-aminohexyl)carbamoyl-2'-deoxyuridine (H). The ODNs containing D and the complementary RNA demonstrated a duplex thermal stabilization of 0.4-3.9 degrees C per modification depending on the position and the number, while the ODNs containing H with the RNA showed slightly less effective thermal stabilization. Further more, the ODNs containing D were found to be more resistant to nucleolytic hydrolysis, not only by snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVPD; a 3'-exonuclease) but also by DNase I (an endonuclease). The half-life of the 17mer containing five molecules of D against nucleolytic hydrolysis by SVPD was 240 times greater than the unmodified 17mer ODN, which is 1.8 times greater than the ODN containing 5Hs in the same sequence. Against DNase I, the same ODN containing 5Ds was 24 times greater stable than the unmodified 17mer and 15 times more stable than the ODN containing 5Hs. We also examined whether the duplexes formed by the ODNs containing D and the complementary RNAs could be a substrate of Escherichia coli RNase H. It was revealed that a minimum of five contiguous unmodified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides between Ds was required to constitute a substrate of E.coli RNase H. Thus, the ODN with Ds and at least five contiguous unmodified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides between Ds was found to be a candidate for a novel antisense molecule.
Project description:In this work, addition of OH(-) to one-electron oxidized thymidine (dThd) and thymine nucleotides in basic aqueous glasses is investigated. At pHs ca. 9-10 where the thymine base is largely deprotonated at N3, one-electron oxidation of the thymine base by Cl(2)(•-) at ca. 155 K results in formation of a neutral thyminyl radical, T(-H)·. Assignment to T(-H)· is confirmed by employing (15)N substituted 5'-TMP. At pH ? ca. 11.5, formation of the 5-hydroxythymin-6-yl radical, T(5OH)·, is identified as a metastable intermediate produced by OH(-) addition to T(-H)· at C5 at ca. 155 K. Upon further annealing to ca. 170 K, T(5OH)· readily converts to the 6-hydroxythymin-5-yl radical, T(6OH)·. One-electron oxidation of N3-methyl-thymidine (N3-Me-dThd) by Cl(2)(•-) at ca. 155 K produces the cation radical (N3-Me-dThd(•+)) for which we find a pH dependent competition between deprotonation from the methyl group at C5 and addition of OH(-) to C5. At pH 7, the 5-methyl deprotonated species is found; however, at pH ca. 9, N3-Me-dThd(•+) produces T(5OH)· that on annealing up to 180 K forms T(6OH)·. Through use of deuterium substitution at C5' and on the thymine base, that is, specifically employing [5',5"-D,D]-5'-dThd, [5',5"-D,D]-5'-TMP, [CD(3)]-dThd and [CD(3),6D]-dThd, we find unequivocal evidence for T(5OH)· formation and its conversion to T(6OH)·. The addition of OH(-) to the C5 position in T(-H)· and N3-Me-dThd(•+) is governed by spin and charge localization. DFT calculations predict that the conversion of the "reducing" T(5OH)· to the "oxidizing" T(6OH)· occurs by a unimolecular OH group transfer from C5 to C6 in the thymine base. The T(5OH)· to T(6OH)· conversion is found to occur more readily for deprotonated dThd and its nucleotides than for N3-Me-dThd. In agreement, calculations predict that the deprotonated thymine base has a lower energy barrier (ca. 6 kcal/mol) for OH transfer than its corresponding N3-protonated thymine base (14 kcal/mol).
Project description:TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG-containing DNA commonly found in bacteria. Synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG-motifs (CpG ODNs) recapitulate the activation of TLR9 by microbial DNA, whereas inversion of the CG dinucleotide within the CpG motif to GC (GpC ODNs) renders such ODNs inactive. This difference cannot be attributed to binding of ODNs to the full-length TLR9 ectodomain, as both CpG and GpC ODNs bind comparably. Activation of murine TLR9 requires cleavage into an active C-terminal fragment, which binds CpG robustly. We therefore compared the ability of CpG and GpC ODNs to bind to full-length and C-terminal TLR9, and their impact on the cleavage of TLR9. We found that CpG binds better to C-terminal TLR9 when compared with GpC, despite comparably low binding of both ODNs to full-length TLR9. Neither CpG nor GpC ODNs affected TLR9 cleavage in murine RAW 264.7 cells stably expressing TLR9-Myc. Inhibitory ODNs (IN-ODNs) block TLR9 signaling, but how they do so remains unclear. We show here that inhibitory ODNs do not impede TLR9 cleavage but bind to C-terminal TLR9 preferentially, and thereby compete for CpG ODN binding both in RAW cells and in TLR9-deficient cells transduced with TLR9-Myc. Ligand binding to C-terminal fragment thus determines the outcome of activation through TLR9.
Project description:We have developed new ferrocenyl-modified oligonucleotide (ODN) probes for electrochemical DNA sensors. A monofunctional ferrocene containing phosphoramidite group has been prepared, and a new bisfunctional ferrocene containing phosphoramidite and dimethoxytrityl (DMT) groups has been developed. These ferrocenyl-phosphoramidites have been directly employed in an automated solid-phase DNA synthesizer using phosphoramidite chemistry. The advantages of this method are that it allows a non-specialist in nucleotide chemistry to access labeled ODNs and that it has demonstrated good results. ODNs modified at the 3' and/or 5' extremities have been prepared, with the incorporation of the ferrocenyl group into the chain. The 5' position appears to be more important due to its particular behavior. The thermal stability and electrochemical properties of these new ODN ferrocenes were analyzed before and after hybridization with different ODNs. The feasibility of using these new ferrocenyl-labeled ODNs in DNA sensors has been demonstrated.
Project description:The aim of this study was to test whether oligonucleotide-targeted gene repair can correct the point mutation in genomic DNA of PDE6b(rd1) (rd1) mouse retinas in vivo.Oligonucleotides (ODNs) of 25 nucleotide length and complementary to genomic sequence subsuming the rd1 point mutation in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of rod photoreceptor cGMP-phosphodiesterase (beta-PDE), were synthesized with a wild type nucleotide base at the rd1 point mutation position. Control ODNs contained the same nucleotide bases as the wild type ODNs but with varying degrees of sequence mismatch. We previously developed a repeatable and relatively non-invasive technique to enhance ODN delivery to photoreceptor nuclei using transpalpebral iontophoresis prior to intravitreal ODN injection. Three such treatments were performed on C3H/henJ (rd1) mouse pups before postnatal day (PN) 9. Treatment outcomes were evaluated at PN28 or PN33, when retinal degeneration was nearly complete in the untreated rd1 mice. The effect of treatment on photoreceptor survival was evaluated by counting the number of nuclei of photoreceptor cells and by assessing rhodopsin immunohistochemistry on flat-mount retinas and sections. Gene repair in the retina was quantified by allele-specific real time PCR and by detection of beta-PDE-immunoreactive photoreceptors. Confirmatory experiments were conducted using independent rd1 colonies in separate laboratories. These experiments had an additional negative control ODN that contained the rd1 mutant nucleotide base at the rd1 point mutation site such that the sole difference between treatment with wild type and control ODN was the single base at the rd1 point mutation site.Iontophoresis enhanced the penetration of intravitreally injected ODNs in all retinal layers. Using this delivery technique, significant survival of photoreceptors was observed in retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODNs but not control ODNs as demonstrated by cell counting and rhodopsin immunoreactivity at PN28. Beta-PDE immunoreactivity was present in retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODN but not from those treated with control ODNs. Gene correction demonstrated by allele-specific real time PCR and by counts of beta-PDE-immunoreactive cells was estimated at 0.2%. Independent confirmatory experiments showed that retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODN contained many more rhodopsin immunoreactive cells compared to retinas treated with control (rd1 sequence) ODN, even when harvested at PN33.Short ODNs can be delivered with repeatable efficiency to mouse photoreceptor cells in vivo using a combination of intravitreal injection and iontophoresis. Delivery of therapeutic ODNs to rd1 mouse eyes resulted in genomic DNA conversion from mutant to wild type sequence, low but observable beta-PDE immunoreactivity, and preservation of rhodopsin immunopositive cells in the outer nuclear layer, suggesting that ODN-directed gene repair occurred and preserved rod photoreceptor cells. Effects were not seen in eyes treated with buffer or with ODNs having the rd1 mutant sequence, a definitive control for this therapeutic approach. Importantly, critical experiments were confirmed in two laboratories by several different researchers using independent mouse colonies and ODN preparations from separate sources. These findings suggest that targeted gene repair can be achieved in the retina following enhanced ODN delivery.