Genetic, clinical and radiographic signs in knee osteoarthritis susceptibility.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to be a multifactorial and polygenic disease and diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. Correlation between radiographic data and clinical status has been reported. However, very few studies, especially in Caucasian people, describe the association between the Kellgren and Lawrence OA grading scale (KL) and genetic alterations to better understand OA etiopathogenesis and susceptibility. In order to update the knee OA grading, in this study we assessed the associations between KL grade, clinical features such as American Knee Society Score (AKSS), age, and polymorphisms in the principal osteoarthritis susceptibility (OS) genes in Sicilian individuals. METHODS: In 66 Sicilian individuals affected by primary knee OA, the clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed using 2 sub-scores of AKSS (knee score (KS) and function score (FS)) and KL. The patients were also classified according to age. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP) Short Genetic Variations databases were used to select gene regions containing the following polymorphisms to analyze: FRZB rs288326 and rs7775, MATN3 rs77245812, ASPN D14 repeats, PTHR2 rs76758470, GDF5 rs143383 and DVWA rs11718863. Patient genotypes were obtained using Sanger DNA sequencing analysis. RESULTS: In our cohort of patients a statistical association between the variables analyzed was reported in all associations tested (KL versus KS, FS and age). We observed that a mild to severe OA radiographic grade is related to severe clinical conditions and loss of articular function and that the severity of symptoms increases with age. Concerning the genotyping analysis, our results revealed a significant statistical association between KL grading and GDF5 rs143383 and DVWA rs11718863 genetic alterations. The latter was also associated with a more severe radiographic grade, displaying its predictive role as OA marker progression. Statistically significant association between clinical, radiographic and genetic signs observed, suggests extending the actual grading of knee OA based mainly on X-ray features. CONCLUSIONS: This work represents a multidisciplinary and translational medicine approach to study OA where clinical, radiological, and OS5 and OS6 SNPs evaluation could contribute to better define grading and progression of OA and to the development of new therapies.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joints disorder influenced by genetic predisposition. We reported that rs11718863 DVWA SNP was represented in Sicilian with a more severe Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) radiographic grade, displaying its predictive role as OA marker progression. Here, we describe the DVWA SNPs: rs11718863, rs7639618, rs7651842, rs7639807 and rs17040821 probably able to induce protein functional changes.Sixty-one Sicilian patients with knee OA and 100 healthy subjects were enrolled. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed using AKSS scores and KL. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) analyses were performed in order to verify whether the SNPs segregate as haplotype. All DVWA SNPs'MinorAllele Frequencies (MAF) were greater than in the European. The rs7639618 SNP showed a statistical association with KL. Our analyses show that a LD exists among rs11718863 and rs7639618, as well as between rs7651842, rs7639807 and rs17040821 SNPs. We also observed that three out of the 161 individuals investigated were simultaneously homozygous carriers of the rs7651842, rs7639807 and rs17040821 MAF alleles.In summary, the purpose of this preliminary research was to highlight possible associations between DVWA SNPs and OA clinical and radiographic data. This work represents a multidisciplinary medicine approach to study OA where clinical, radiological and genetic evaluation could contribute to better define OA grading.
Project description:Aim:This study aimed to determine the genetic association between Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) gene (rs143383 T/C) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a group of Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods:The study included 47 patients with primary knee OA and 40 apparently healthy control subjects. The disease was assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Radiological assessment was done by Kellgren-Laurence (K/L) grading system. The genetic association of the SNP with primary knee OA was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism - polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Results:The mean total WOMAC index was significantly higher in patients with TT genotype as compared to patients with CC and CT genotypes (P<0.001). Similarly, the HAQ score was significantly higher among patients with TT genotype when compared to patients with CT and CC genotypes (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant association between different GDF5 genotypes and K/L radiological grading of knee OA among the studied patients (P=0.029). No statistically significant association was detected on comparing the frequency distribution of GDF5 alleles and genotypes frequencies of the SNP in patients and healthy controls. Conclusion:There is a possible genetic association between GDF5 (rs143383) SNP and severity of primary knee OA, which might facilitate the detection of patients with high risk for disease progression. The present study did not detect an association between the SNP and development of primary knee OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant genetic component. The authors have assessed the role of three variants reported to influence risk of knee OA with p<5×10-8 in determining patellofemoral and tibiofemoral Kellgren Lawrence (K/L) grade in knee OA cases. METHODS:3474 knee OA cases with sky-line and weight-bearing antero-posterior x-rays of the knee were selected based on the presentation of K/L grade ?2 at either the tibiofemoral or patellofemoral compartments for one or both knees. Patients belonging to three UK cohorts, were genotyped for rs143383, rs4730250 and rs11842874 mapping to the GDF5, COG5 and MCF2L genes, respectively. The association between tibiofemoral K/L grade and patellofemoral K/L grade was assessed after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. RESULTS:No significant association was found between the rs4730250 and radiographic severity. The rs11842874 mapping to MCF2L was found to be nominally significantly associated with patellofemoral K/L grade as a quantitative trait (p=0.027) but not as a binary trait. The GDF5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs143383 was associated with tibiofemoral K/L grade (?=0.05 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.08) p=0.0011). CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that within individuals affected by radiographic knee OA, OAGDF5 has a modest but significant effect on radiographic severity after adjustment for the major risk factors.
Project description:GDF5 encodes an extracellular signalling molecule that is essential for normal skeletal development. The rs144383 C to T SNP located in the 5'UTR of this gene is functional and has a pleiotropic effect on the musculoskeletal system, being a risk factor for knee-osteoarthritis (OA), congenital hip dysplasia, lumbar disc degeneration and Achilles tendon pathology. rs143383 exerts a joint-wide effect on GDF5 expression, with expression of the OA-associated T allele being significantly reduced relative to the C allele, termed allelic expression imbalance. We have previously reported that the GDF5 locus is subject to DNA methylation and that allelic imbalance of rs143383 is mediated by SP1, SP3 and DEAF1 transcriptional repressors. In this study, we have assayed GDF5 methylation in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, and investigated the effect of methylation on the allelic imbalance of rs143383. We observed demethylation of the GDF5 5'UTR in OA knee cartilage relative to both OA (p = 0.009) and non-OA (p = 0.001) hip cartilage, with the most significant demethylation observed at the highly conserved +37 CpG site located 4 bp upstream of rs143383. Methylation modulates the level and direction of allelic imbalance of rs143383, with methylation of the +37 CpG dinucleotide within the SP1/SP3 binding site having an allele-specific effect on SP1 and SP3 binding. Furthermore, methylation attenuated the repressive effects of SP1, SP3 and DEAF1 on GDF5 promoter activity. This data suggest that the differential methylation of the +37 CpG site between osteoarthritic hip and knee cartilage may be responsible for the knee-specific effect of rs143383 on OA susceptibility.
Project description:This study examined the contribution of the osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility genes ASPN, GDF5, DIO2, and the 7q22 region to the development of radiographic knee OA in patients with a mean age of 40.6 ± 7.9 years (standard deviation) and who suffered from nonacute knee complaints a decade earlier. Dose-response associations of four single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in the susceptibility genes were determined by comparing 36 patients who showed the development of OA on radiographs (Kellgren and Lawrence score ?1) with 88 patients having normal cartilage with no development of OA on radiographs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including the variables such as age, gender, body mass index, and reported knee trauma was performed. A dose-response association of DIO2 SNP rs225014: odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5 (P = 0.019) and GDF5 SNP rs143383: OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8 (P = 0.031) was observed with knee OA development. The ASPN and 7q22 SNPs were not associated with OA development.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change of three knee osteoarthritis (OA) grading scales. The Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) joint space narrowing (JSN) grading scales are well-established. The third scale, the compartmental grading scale for OA (CG) is a novel scale which grades JSN, femoral osteophytes, tibial erosion and subluxation to create a total score.One sample of 72 posteroanterior (PA) fixed-flexion radiographs displaying mild to moderate knee OA was selected from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) to study validity. A second sample of 75 radiograph pairs, which showed an increase in OA severity over 30 months, was selected to study sensitivity to change. The three radiographic grading scales were applied to each radiograph in both samples. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to correlate the radiographic grades and the change in grades over 30 months with a Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS)-based composite score which included five articular features of knee OA.Correlations between the KL, OARSI JSN and CG grading scales and the magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based score were 0.836, 0.840 and 0.773 (P < 0.0001) respectively while correlations between change in the radiographic grading scales and change in the MRI-based score were 0.501, 0.525 and 0.492 (P < 0.0001).All three radiographic grading scales showed high validity and are suitable to assess knee OA severity. They showed moderate sensitivity to change; therefore caution should be taken when using ordinal radiographic grading scales to monitor knee OA over time.
Project description:Introduction:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis commonly diagnosed in older adults. It presents clinically with patient complaints of pain and impaired function, which are thought to result from cartilage degeneration and other skeletal changes. These changes can by examined radiographically and quantified using the semiquantitative grading scale known as the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Currently, no standard training exists for KL grading, which may explain the unsatisfactory reliability of this tool in OA research. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a training tutorial for KL grading of knee OA to educate assessors on possible areas of inconsistency in grading. Methods:The tutorial was developed in an e-learning authoring tool, Articulate Presenter. The content focuses on the poor reliability of KL grading, normal anatomy of a knee radiograph, and multiple examples of bony changes within the knee and their relation to different grades of the KL scale. The tutorial was presented to a group of health sciences graduate students at the University of Colorado Denver. Results:Students were able to complete the training and an associated assessment in under an hour and reported improved confidence with assessing radiographic knee OA. Furthermore, they demonstrated favorable inter- and intrarater reliability scores in applying KL grading. Discussion:To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to standardize training in KL grading for knee OA and to examine the effects of this training on reliability.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:GDF5 and FRZB have been proposed as genetic loci conferring susceptibility to osteoarthritis (OA); however, the results of several studies investigating the association of OA with the rs143383 polymorphism of the GDF5 gene or the rs7775 and rs288326 polymorphisms of the FRZB gene have been conflicting or inconclusive. To examine these associations, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of individual-level data. METHODS:Fourteen teams contributed data on polymorphisms and knee, hip, and hand OA. For rs143383, the total number of cases and controls, respectively, was 5,789 and 7,850 for hip OA, 5,085 and 8,135 for knee OA, and 4,040 and 4,792 for hand OA. For rs7775, the respective sample sizes were 4,352 and 10,843 for hip OA, 3,545 and 6,085 for knee OA, and 4,010 and 5,151 for hand OA, and for rs288326, they were 4,346 and 8,034 for hip OA, 3,595 and 6,106 for knee OA, and 3,982 and 5,152 for hand OA. For each individual study, sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each OA phenotype that had been investigated. The ORs for each phenotype were synthesized using both fixed-effects and random-effects models for allele-based effects, and also for haplotype effects for FRZB. RESULTS:A significant random-effects summary OR for knee OA was demonstrated for rs143383 (1.15 [95% confidence interval 1.09-1.22]) (P=9.4x10(-7)), with no significant between-study heterogeneity. Estimates of effect sizes for hip and hand OA were similar, but a large between-study heterogeneity was observed, and statistical significance was borderline (for OA of the hip [P=0.016]) or absent (for OA of the hand [P=0.19]). Analyses for FRZB polymorphisms and haplotypes did not reveal any statistically significant signals, except for a borderline association of rs288326 with hip OA (P=0.019). CONCLUSION:Evidence of an association between the GDF5 rs143383 polymorphism and OA is substantially strong, but the genetic effects are consistent across different populations only for knee OA. Findings of this collaborative analysis do not support the notion that FRZB rs7775 or rs288326 has any sizable genetic effect on OA phenotypes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs143383 (T to C) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of GDF5 has recently been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility, with lower expression of the risk-associated T allele observed in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo studies were performed on cartilage tissue from OA patients. The present study was undertaken to expand the analysis of the effect of this SNP on GDF5 allelic expression to more joint tissue types, to investigate for cis and trans factors that interact with the SNP, and to examine novel cis-acting GDF5 regulatory polymorphisms. METHODS:Tissue samples were collected from OA patients undergoing joint replacement of the hip or knee. Nucleic acid was extracted, and, using rs143383 and an assay that discriminates and quantifies allelic expression, the relative amount of GDF5 expression from the T and C alleles was measured. Additional common variants in the GDF5 transcript sequence were interrogated as potential regulatory elements using allelic expression and luciferase reporter assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to search for trans factors binding to rs143383. RESULTS:We observed a consistent allelic expression imbalance of GDF5 in all tissues tested, implying that the functional effect mediated by rs143383 on GDF5 expression is joint-wide. We identified a second polymorphism, located in the 3'-UTR of GDF5, that influenced allelic expression of the gene independent of rs143383. Finally, we observed differential binding of deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (DEAF-1) to the 2 alleles of rs143383. CONCLUSION:These findings show that the OA susceptibility mediated by polymorphism in GDF5 is not restricted to cartilage, emphasizing the need to consider the disease as involving the whole joint. The existence of an additional cis-acting regulatory polymorphism highlights the complexity of the regulation of expression of this important OA susceptibility locus. DEAF-1 is a trans-acting factor that merits further investigation as a potential tool for modulating GDF5 expression.
Project description:Objective:To assess the association of GDF-5 rs143383 polymorphism with radiographic defined knee osteoarthritis (OA), a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Methods:A total of 17 relevant case-control studies with 7424 cases and 11,310 controls was collected from several electronic databases up to June 2018. Results:The pooled results showed that GDF-5 rs143383 polymorphism was significantly associated with radiographic defined knee OA in overall and stratified analysis by ethnicity, source of controls and genotyping techniques. Conclusions:The GDF-5 rs143383 polymorphism might be used as a relevant risk estimate for radiographic defined Knee OA.