Preliminary validity and reliability of a Thai Berlin questionnaire in stroke patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for stroke. The Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) has been shown to be a valid tool to screen for OSA. The literature has limited data on using the BQ in stroke patients; particularly in Thailand and other developing countries. Here, we aimed to develop a Thai-language Berlin Questionnaire (Thai BQ) and to preliminarily assess construct validity, test-retest reliability and the agreement of the Thai BQ with the Thai Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Thai ESS), another screening tool for OSA. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to July, 2011. One hundred first-ever stroke patients, including acute and chronic cases, and their caregivers were enrolled. The Thai BQ was developed using the forward-backward translation method. Evaluation of construct validity was done by factor analysis. Internal consistency of the Thai BQ and the Thai ESS were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test-retest reliability and the agreement of the Thai BQ and the Thai ESS were evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified 4 main factors: Factor 1-Snoring behaviour; Factor 2-Sleepiness during driving; Factor 3-Daytime fatigue; and Factor 4-Hypertension or obesity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.69-0.83) and Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.86 (95% CI?=?0.74-0.98) in the Thai BQ. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.59 (95% CI?=?0.45-0.70) and the Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.81 (95% CI?=?0.60-1.00) in the Thai ESS. The agreement between the Thai ESS and the Thai BQ was fair. CONCLUSIONS: The Thai BQ is a valid and reliable tool to screen for OSA in stroke patients. As factor analysis revealed 4 factors in contrast to the 3 factors in the original BQ, further modification of the Thai BQ is required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gender affects the clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The classic OSA symptoms, such as sleepiness, snoring, and apnea, are not so frequent in women. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate possible gender differences in questionnaires used for OSA prediction, such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), STOP, STOP Bang (SB), Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and Fatigue Scale (FS). METHODS:350 males were matched with 350 women referred to a sleep clinic, according to OSA severity. All responded to the questionnaires and underwent a sleep study. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients were separately analyzed. RESULTS:ESS did not differ between genders. SB was higher in males, whereas STOP, BQ, AIS, and FS were higher in females. BQ presented the highest sensitivity in both genders, whereas STOP exhibited the highest specificity in males and ESS in females. AIS and FS were more sensitive and SB more specific in females, whereas BQ was more specific in males. For severe OSA, the predictive values of SB and BQ were almost similar for both genders; however AIS and FS were higher in women. CVD patients presented higher scores, independent of gender, except for AIS, which was higher in females. CONCLUSION:Gender-specific evaluation of questionnaires is necessary to prevent OSA under-diagnosis.
Project description:Purpose:This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) among stroke survivors. Methods:The study was undertaken in four hospitals. We analysed datasets obtained from 109 stroke survivors on inpatient wards and in outpatient clinics, who were rated by nurses to determine the CDS reliability coefficients. The Cronbach's ? and Cohen's kappa coefficients were applied. Concurrent validity was conducted for the data on care dependency, which werecollected from 49 of these 109 participants on inpatient wards by nurses using the CDS and the Barthel Index. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis was conducted to measure the association between the CDS and the Barthel Index results. Results:An analysis of the results of the CDS tested on the inpatient ward and in the outpatient clinic revealed a high level of internal consistency. The reliability analysis yielded the same Cronbach's ? coefficient of 0.98 for both the inpatient and outpatient data. A significant, moderate correlation was observed between the CDS and Barthel Index results. Conclusion:The CDS can be recommended for use as a tool for the assessment and evaluation of stroke survivors who are receiving acute or long-term care.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Sleep problems are often undetected in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Our objective was to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in adults with DS through self-reported and objective sleep measures. METHODS:We performed a community-based cross-sectional study of 54 adults with DS not referred for sleep disorders. Two polysomnography (PSG) sleep studies were performed. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the risk for the sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) was identified using the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). Participants' sleep/wake pattern was assessed from sleep diaries and by wrist actigraphy. PSQI, ESS, and PSG measures were compared with 35 sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched patients in the control groups. RESULTS:In PSG measures, adults with DS showed lower sleep efficiency (69 ± 17.7 versus 81.6 ± 11; P < .001), less rapid eye movement sleep (9.4 ± 5.8 versus 19.4 ± 5.1; P < .001), a higher prevalence of OSA (78% versus 14%; P < .001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (23.5 ± 24.5 versus 3.8 ± 10.5; P < .001) than patients in the control group. In the DS group, the questionnaires (mean PSQI 3.7 ± 2.9; mean ESS 6.3 ± 4.5 and mean BQ 1 ± 0) did not reflect the sleep disturbances detected on the PSG. Actigraphy data recorded daytime sleep that was not self-reported (118.2 ± 104.2 minutes). CONCLUSIONS:Adults with DS show severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of OSA, undetected by self-reported sleep measures. Actigraphy, PSG, and validated simplified devices for screening OSA should be routinely recommended for this population because treatment of sleep disorders can contribute to healthy aging.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire to measure perceived symptoms associated with antihypertensive drugs (PERSYVE). METHODS: THE PERSYVE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION INCLUDED FOUR STAGES: 1) item development (bibliographic review and questionnaire elaboration); 2) face and content validation; 3) field testing (pre-test); and 4) test-retest validation, assessment of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reproducibility over time (intraclass correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: PERSYVE IS DIVIDED INTO SIX SECTIONS ACCORDING TO RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE LITERATURE REVIEW: (1) drug adherence, (2) perceived symptoms and how they affect quality of life (five-point Likert scale), (3) communication with health professionals, (4) perception of symptoms as adverse reactions, (5) influence on therapy compliance, and (6) adoption of non-pharmacological methods for blood pressure control. Content and face validation of the questionnaire led to some vocabulary changes and the introduction of section 2.1. Field-testing (n=26) revealed high comprehensibility of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha, calculated for section 2 (five-point Likert scale) was 0.850. PERSYVE was reproducible (n=167): kappa values presented fair to substantial reproducibility and, in section 2, ICC values resulted in good to excellent reproducibility. CONCLUSION: Results showed that PERSYVE is a well-structured, objective, patient-friendly, valid and reliable questionnaire. PERSYVE can be a very useful instrument in hypertensive patients' monitoring and in the screening of adverse effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor frequently present in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Additionally, moderate and severe OSA are highly prevalent in patients with cardiac disease, as they increase the riskfor cardiovascular events by 80%. The gold standard diagnostic method for OSA is overnight polysomnography (PSG), which remains unaffordable for the overall population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is anuseful tool for assessing the risk of OSA in patients with MetS. METHODS:97 patients, previously untreated and recently diagnosed with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III, ATP-III) underwent a PSG. OSA was characterized by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BQ was administered before PSG and we evaluated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy. RESULTS:Of the 97 patients with MetS, 81 patients had OSA, with 47 (48.5%) presenting moderate and severe OSA. For all MetS with OSA (AHI?5 events/hour), the BQ showed good sensitivity (0.65, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.76) and fair specificity (0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.65) with a positive predictive value of 0.84, a negative predictive value of 0.18 and an 84% accuracy. Similarly, for moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI?15 events/hour) we found good sensitivity (0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.85) and fair specificity (0.40, 95% CI 0.27-0.55). Interestingly, for severe OSA (AHI?30 events/hour), there was a very good sensitivity (0.91, 95% CI 0.72-0.99) and moderate specificity (0.42, 95% CI 0.31-0.54). CONCLUSION:The BQ is a valid tool for screening the risk of OSA in MetS patients in general, and it is particularly useful in predicting severe OSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the complex etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the exposome is a major contributor. Though many environmental exposures have been identified, quality of evidence varies greatly and overall evidence for the exposome is inconclusive. A universal, precise, and reproducible measurement tool is needed to study the exposome in IBD. METHODS:We built the web-based Groningen IBD Environmental Questionnaire (GIEQ), an extensive and structured questionnaire measuring potentially involved environmental exposures, consisting of 848 items, subdivided into 15 categories. For validation, 76 IBD patients completed the GIEQ twice (2-month interval). Cohen's kappa and correlation coefficients were used to compare both fills. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha tests. Proportional bias was examined using Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS:In general, we obtained a mean kappa coefficient of 0.78 (standard deviation 0.17) for categorical questions and a mean intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88 (0.15) for numeric questions. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 1.0 with a mean of 0.79 (0.14). Bland-Altman plots showed proportional bias only for current physical activity score. CONCLUSIONS:The GIEQ is a reliable measurement tool to study the exposome in IBD, enabling consistent measurement of an extended number of environmental factors and their interactions. Use of the GIEQ across IBD cohorts will lead to more standardized, generalizable, and comparable results. Also, the GIEQ can be used for calculation of an exposome risk score, applicable for secondary prevention by identifying high-risk patients as well as to analyze interactions between the exposome and other aspects of IBD etiology.
Project description:This study evaluated additional psychometric properties of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) which included, test-retest reliability, construct validity, internal consistency of in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. As for determining construct validity, the Thai EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) was also administered in order to examine convergent and divergent validity.Fifty patients completed both questionnaires. The DASH-TH showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient?=?0.811) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha?=?0.911). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor solution while the confirmatory factor analysis denoted that the hypothesized model adequately fit the data with a comparative fit index of 0.967 and a Tucker-Lewis index of 0.964. The related subscales between the DASH-TH and the Thai EQ-5D-5L were significantly correlated, indicating the DASH-TH's convergent and discriminant validity. The DASH-TH demonstrated good reliability, internal consistency construct validity, and multidimensionality, in assessing the upper extremity function in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.
Project description:The bidirectional relationship of asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been confirmed in recent years. However, in the clinical practice, majority of asthma patients did not pay adequate attention to their sleep apnea condition. Berlin questionnaire (BQ) and STOP-Bang questionnaire (SBQ) are two most common OSA screening questionnaires to screen high-risk patients for OSA. This study aimed at evaluating the predictive performance of BQ and SBQ for OSA in asthma patients.Asthma outpatients of Zhongshan Hospital were enrolled into the study. All patients were asked to fill in the BQ and SBQ and clinical characteristics and asthma characteristics were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify risk factors of OSA in asthma patients. With the gold standard of laboratory-based overnight polysomnography (PSG), the predictive performance of SBQ and BQ was evaluated and compared. The probability of OSA severity was predicted by various SBQ scores in asthma patients.A total of 123 asthma patients (average age 47.56±12.12 years; 57.72% males) were enrolled and underwent PSG diagnosis overnight at Sleep Center. Logistic regression analyses showed that rhinitis (adjusted OR =4.30; 95% CI: 1.50-12.37, P=0.007) and dyslipidemia (adjusted OR =2.75; 95% CI: 1.16-6.51, P=0.021) were associated with OSA in asthma patients after adjusting for known OSA risk factors. No asthma functional characteristic differences were found to be associated with OSA severity in the study. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥15) in the asthmatic population sample was 36.59% (45/123). Questionnaires predictive results showed that compared with BQ, SBQ has higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.4% vs. 60%), lower specificity (79.5% vs. 91%) lower positive predictive value (PPV): (70.4% vs. 79.4%) and higher negative predictive value (NPV) (90% vs. 80%) to detect moderate-to-severe OSA at the cut-off as AHI of 15/h. OSA probability results showed that with the increasing of the questionnaire scores, the moderate and severe OSA probability of SBQ rose significantly.SBQ is a preferable sleep questionnaire better than BQ for detecting moderate and severe OSA in asthma patients which should be validated in larger population sample.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Daytime sleepiness is highly prevalent across the globe. The Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is the most widely used tool for screening daytime sleepiness. The psychometric properties of the ESS have not been comprehensively examined in African populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A cross-sectional design with simple random sampling was used in the present study. The study recruited 600 students from Mizan-Tepi University, Ethiopia, of which 329 (age?= 18-28?years and body mass index?= 21.19?±?3.17?kg/m2) completed the study. ESS, a semi-structured socio-demographics questionnaire and a clinical interview to diagnose insomnia according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were employed. RESULTS:All except one item of the ESS showed a floor effect, while only one item score showed ceiling effect. However, no ceiling/floor effect was observed in the ESS total score. The Cronbach's alpha (0.75) and composite reliability (0.75), indicated good internal consistency, while a moderate item-total score correlation (r =?0.55-0.67) implied favorable internal homogeneity. The known-group validity was established by significantly higher scores for all the ESS item scores and the ESS total scores among those with symptoms of insomnia than among non-symptomatic students. Fit indices along with the consideration of inter-factor correlation coefficient, measures of item retention favored the unidimensional structure of the ESS. CONCLUSION:The ESS has excellent psychometric validity for screening daytime sleepiness in Ethiopian university students.
Project description:A large part of the worldwide population suffers from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder impairing the restorative function of sleep and constituting a risk factor for several cardiovascular pathologies. The standard diagnostic metric to define OSA is the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), typically obtained by manually annotating polysomnographic recordings. However, this clinical procedure cannot be employed for screening and for long-term monitoring of OSA due to its obtrusiveness and cost. Here, we propose an automatic unobtrusive AHI estimation method fully based on wrist-worn reflective photoplethysmography (rPPG), employing a deep learning model exploiting cardiorespiratory and sleep information extracted from the rPPG signal trained with 250 recordings. We tested our method with an independent set of 188 heterogeneously disordered clinical recordings and we found it estimates the AHI with a good agreement to the gold standard polysomnography reference (correlation = 0.61, estimation error = 3±10 events/h). The estimated AHI was shown to reliably assess OSA severity (weighted Cohen's kappa = 0.51) and screen for OSA (ROC-AUC = 0.84/0.86/0.85 for mild/moderate/severe OSA). These findings suggest that wrist-worn rPPG measurements that can be implemented in wearables such as smartwatches, have the potential to complement standard OSA diagnostic techniques by allowing unobtrusive sleep and respiratory monitoring.