Discovery of Anilinopyrimidines as Dual Inhibitors of c-Met and VEGFR-2: Synthesis, SAR, and Cellular Activity.
ABSTRACT: Both c-Met and VEGFR-2 are important targets for cancer therapies. Here we report a series of potent dual c-Met and VEGFR-2 inhibitors bearing an anilinopyrimidine scaffold. Two novel synthetic protocols were employed for rapid analoguing of the designed molecules for structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration. Some analogues displayed nanomolar potency against c-Met and VEGFR-2 at enzymatic level. Privileged compounds 3a, 3b, 3g, 3h, and 18a exhibited potent antiproliferative effect against c-Met addictive cell lines with IC50 values ranged from 0.33 to 1.7 ?M. In addition, a cocrystal structure of c-Met in complex with 3h has been determined, which reveals the binding mode of c-Met to its inhibitor and helps to interpret the SAR of the analogues.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are pivotal kinases in cell cycle transition and gene transcription. A series of N2,N4-diphenylpyrimidine-2,4-diamines were previously identified as potent CDK2/CDK9 inhibitors. To explore the SAR of this structural prototype, twenty-four novel N2,N4-disubstituted pyrimidine-2,4-diamines were designed and synthesized. Among them, twenty-one compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities against both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK9/cyclin T1 systems, and the most potent CDK2 and CDK9 inhibitors, 3g and 3c, showed IC50 values of 83 nM and 65 nM respectively. Most of these compounds displayed significant inhibition against the tested tumor cell lines in the SRB assay, and in particular, remained active against the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231. Flow cytometer analysis of compounds 2a, 2d and 3b in MDA-MB-231 cells indicated that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Docking studies on compound 3g were performed, which provided conducive clues for further molecular optimization.
Project description:Quinoline antimalarials target hemozoin formation causing a cytotoxic accumulation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX). Well-developed SAR models exist for ?-hematin inhibition, parasite activity, and cellular mechanisms for this compound class, but no comparably detailed investigations exist for other hemozoin inhibiting chemotypes. Here, benzamide analogues based on previous HTS hits have been purchased or synthesized. Only derivatives containing an electron deficient aromatic ring and capable of adopting flat conformations, optimal for ?-? interactions with Fe(III)PPIX, inhibited ?-hematin formation. The two most potent analogues showed nanomolar parasite activity, with little CQ cross-resistance, low cytotoxicity, and high in vitro microsomal stability. Selected analogues inhibited hemozoin formation in Plasmodium falciparum causing high levels of free heme. In contrast to quinolines, introduction of amine side chains did not lead to benzamide accumulation in the parasite. These data reveal complex relationships between heme binding, free heme levels, cellular accumulation, and in vitro activity of potential novel antimalarials.
Project description:The SAR of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde inhibitors of the trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), a critical enzyme for the respiration of bloodstream forms of trypanosomes, was investigated. Replacing the aldehyde group with a methyl ester resulted in a 10-fold increase in TAO inhibition and activity against <i>T. brucei</i>. Remarkably, two analogues containing the 2-hydroxy-6-methyl scaffold (<b>9e</b> and <b>16e</b>) displayed single digit nanomolar TAO inhibition, which constitute the most potent 4-alkoxybenzoic acid derivatives described to date. <b>9e</b> was 50-times more potent against TAO and 10-times more active against <i>T. brucei</i> compared to its benzaldehyde analogue <b>1</b>. The farnesyl derivative <b>16e</b> was as potent a TAO inhibitor as ascofuranone with IC<sub>50</sub> = 3.1 nM. Similar to ascofuranone derivatives, the 2-hydroxy and 6-methyl groups seemed essential for low nanomolar TAO inhibition of acid derivatives, suggesting analogous binding interactions with the TAO active site.
Project description:A novel series of 2-pyrazoline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory, A? anti-aggregating and neuroprotective activities. Among these, 3d, 3e, 3g, and 3h were established as the most potent and selective BChE inhibitors (IC50 = 0.5-3.9 ?M), while 3f presented dual inhibitory activity against BChE and AChE (IC50 = 6.0 and 6.5 ?M, respectively). Kinetic analyses revealed that 3g is a partial noncompetitive inhibitor of BChE (Ki = 2.22 ?M), while 3f exerts competitive inhibition on AChE (Ki = 0.63 ?M). The active compounds were subsequently screened for further assessments. 3f, 3g and 3h reduced A?1-42 aggregation levels significantly (72.6, 83.4 and 63.4%, respectively). In addition, 3f demonstrated outstanding neuroprotective effects against A?1-42-induced and H2O2-induced cell toxicity (95.6 and 93.6%, respectively). Molecular docking studies were performed with 3g and 3f to investigate binding interactions inside the active sites of BChE and AChE. Compounds 3g and 3f might have the multifunctional potential for use against Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:A series of 2-hydroxy-3-chrysino dithiocarbamate derivatives (3a-k) were designed, synthesized, and characterized for their structure determination by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS (ESI) spectral data. They were screened for their in vitro biological activities against a panel of selected bacterial and fungal strains. These antimicrobial studies indicate that some of the analogues manifested significant activity compared to standard drugs. Among the synthetic analogues (3a-k), compounds 3d, 3f, and 3j exhibited very good antibacterial activity and compounds 3d, 3f, and 3h showed very good antifungal activity compared to the standard drugs penicillin and itrazole, respectively. The compounds 3e, 3g, and 3h showed moderate antibacterial activity and the compounds 3j and 3k showed moderate antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies were performed and the experimental antimicrobial screening results were also correlated with the binding energy values obtained by molecular docking. The synthesized chrysin analogues (3a-k) have obeyed Lipinski's "rule of five" and have drug-likeness.
Project description:Based on the natural isoprenyl phenyl ether from a mangrove-derived fungus, 32 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against influenza H1N1 neuraminidase. Compound 15 (3-(allyloxy)-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 26.96 ?M for A/GuangdongSB/01/2009 (H1N1), 27.73 ?M for A/Guangdong/03/2009 (H1N1), and 25.13 ?M for A/Guangdong/ 05/2009 (H1N1), respectively, which is stronger than the benzoic acid derivatives (~mM level). These are a new kind of non-nitrogenous aromatic ether Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. Their structures are simple and the synthesis routes are not complex. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that the aryl aldehyde and unsubstituted hydroxyl were important to NA inhibitory activities. Molecular docking studies were carried out to explain the SAR of the compounds, and provided valuable information for further structure modification.
Project description:A series of 15 (E)-N'-benzylidenebenzohydrazide analogues were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against eleven pathogenic and food-borne microbes, namely, S. aureus (G(+)), L. monocytogenes (G(+)), B. subtilis (G(+)), K. pneumonia (G¯), C. sakazakii (G¯), C. freundii (G¯), S. enterica (G¯), S. enteritidis (G¯), E. coli (G¯), Y. pestis (G¯), and P. aeruginosa (G¯). Most of the compounds exhibited selective activity against some Gram-negative bacterial strains. Of the compounds tested (3a-o), 3b and 3g were most active against C. freundii (MIC = ~19 µg mL(-1)). Whereas, compounds 3d, 3i, 3k and 3n exhibited MIC values ranging from 37.5 to 75 ?g mL(-1) against C. freundii, and compounds 3e, 3l and 3n had MIC values of ~75 ?g mL(-1) against K. pneumonia. Quantitative structure-antibacterial activity relationships were studied using physicochemical parameters and a good correlation was found between calculated octanol-water partition coefficients (clogP; a lipophilic parameter) and antibacterial activities. In silico screening was also performed by docking high (3b and 3g) and low (3n) activity compounds on the active site of E. coli FabH receptor, which is an important therapeutic target. The findings of these in silico screening studies provide a theoretical basis for the design and synthesis of novel benzylidenebenzohydrazide analogues that inhibit bacterial FabH.
Project description:A series of piperidine-based derivatives were identified as novel and potent inhibitors of the influenza virus through structural modification of a compound that was selected from a high-throughput screen. Various analogues were synthesized and confirmed as inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that the ether linkage between the quinoline and piperidine is critical for the inhibitory activity. The optimized compound tert-butyl 4-(quinolin-4-yloxy)piperidine-1-carboxylate 11e had an excellent inhibitory activity against influenza virus infection from a variety of influenza virus strains, with EC50 values as low as 0.05 ?M. The selectivity index value (SI = MLD50/EC50) of 11e is over 160000 based on cytotoxicity, measured by MTT assays of three cell lines. We carried out a time-of-addition experiment to delineate the mechanism of inhibition. The result indicates that 11e interferes with the early to middle stage of influenza virus replication.
Project description:The synthesis of potent amide-containing phthalazinone H1 histamine receptor antagonists is described. Three analogues 3e, 3g, and 9g were equipotent with azelastine and were longer-acting in vitro. Amide 3g had low oral bioavailability, low brain-penetration, high metabolic clearance, and long duration of action in vivo, and it was suitable for once-daily dosing intranasally, with a predicted dose for humans of approximately 0.5 mg per day.
Project description:We recently identified a class of pyridyl aniline thiazoles (PAT) that displayed selective cytotoxicity for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were used to develop a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model that related VHL-selective potency to the three-dimensional arrangement of chemical features of the chemotype. We now report the further molecular alignment-guided exploration of the chemotype to discover potent and selective PAT analogues. The contribution of the central thiazole ring was explored using a series of five- and six-membered ring heterocyclic replacements to vary the electronic and steric interactions in the central unit. We also explored a positive steric CoMFA contour adjacent to the pyridyl ring using Pd-catalysed cross-coupling Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira and nucleophilic displacement reactions to prepare of a series of aryl-, alkynyl-, alkoxy- and alkylamino-substituted pyridines, respectively. In vitro potency and selectivity were determined using paired RCC cell lines: the VHL-null cell line RCC4 and the VHL-positive cell line RCC4-VHL. Active analogues selectively induced autophagy in RCC4 cells. We have used the new SAR data to further develop the CoMFA model, and compared this to a 2D-QSAR method. Our progress towards realising the therapeutic potential of this chemotype as a targeted cytotoxic therapy for the treatment of RCC by exploiting the absence of the VHL tumour suppressor gene is reported.