Recurrent somatic mutation in DROSHA induces microRNA profile changes in Wilms tumour.
ABSTRACT: Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal kidney neoplasia for which very few driver genes have been identified. Here we identify DROSHA mutations in 12% of WT samples (26/222) using whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing of 10 microRNA (miRNA)-processing genes. A recurrent mutation (E1147K) affecting a metal-binding residue of the RNase IIIb domain is detected in 81% of the DROSHA-mutated tumours. In addition, we identify non-recurrent mutations in other genes of this pathway (DGCR8, DICER1, XPO5 and TARBP2). By assessing the miRNA expression pattern of the DROSHA-E1147K-mutated tumours and cell lines expressing this mutation, we determine that this variant leads to a predominant downregulation of a subset of miRNAs. We confirm that the downregulation occurs exclusively in mature miRNAs and not in primary miRNA transcripts, suggesting that the DROSHA E1147K mutation affects processing of primary miRNAs. Our data underscore the pivotal role of the miRNA biogenesis pathway in WT tumorigenesis, particularly the major miRNA-processing gene DROSHA.
Project description:Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been documented in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the impact of miRNAs and their machinery in DLBCL is not fully determined. Here, we assessed the role of miRNA expression and their processing genes in DLBCL development. Using microarray and RT-qPCR approaches, we quantified global miRNAs and core components of miRNA-processing genes expression in 75 DLBCLs (56 de novo and 19 transformed) and 10 lymph nodes (LN). Differential miRNA signatures were identified between DLBCLs and LNs, or between the de novo and transformed DLBCLs. We also identified subsets of miRNAs associated with germinal center B-cell phenotype, BCL6 and IRF4 expression, and clinical staging. In addition, we showed a significant over-expression of TARBP2 in de novo DLBCLs as compared with LNs, and decreased expression of DROSHA, DICER, TARBP2 and PACT in transformed as compared with de novo cases. Interestingly, cases with high TARBP2 and DROSHA expression had a poorer chemotherapy response. We further showed that TARBP2 can regulate miRNA-processing efficiency in DLBCLs, and its expression inhibition decreases cell growth and increases apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines. Our findings provide new insights for the understanding of miRNAs and its machinery in DLBCL.
Project description:The alteration of miRNA processing is a driver event in several tumors including thyroid cancer. In particular, somatic DICER1 mutations, reported in follicular-patterned lesions, are shared by benign as well as malignant tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of alterations in the miRNA processing genes on the miRNA profile. The study included 19 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 22 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FVPTCs). The mutational status in the hot spot regions of DICER1, DROSHA, TARBP2, DGCR8 and the most commonly affected genes in thyroid tumors was investigated on both tumor and paired normal tissues. The miRNA profile and the mRNA expression levels of DICER1, DROSHA, TARBP2, DGCR8 and XPO5 were also evaluated. Two DICER1 RNase IIIb domain mutations were found in FAs. These lesions presented a considerable loss of 5p miRNAs. Fifteen miRNAs were specifically deregulated in DICER1-mutant lesions compared to FAs and FVPTCs. These miRNAs regulate crucial pathways in cancer such as Hippo, p53 and TGF-beta signalling. DICER1 somatic mutations in the RNase IIIb domain are not specific for malignancy, but the miRNA imbalance that they cause is remarkable, especially with regard to the loss of 5p miRNAs. DICER1-mutant lesions have a characteristic miRNA deregulation, which is different from that of FVPTCs; nevertheless, this impairment is consistent with malignant transformation. Further studies providing the real risk of malignancy associated with DICER1 mutations and the evolution of DICER1-mutant lesions are needed to make them useful in the clinical practice.
Project description:Wilms tumour is the most common childhood kidney cancer. Here we report the whole-exome sequencing of 44 Wilms tumours, identifying missense mutations in the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzymes DROSHA and DICER1, and novel mutations in MYCN, SMARCA4 and ARID1A. Examination of tumour miRNA expression, in vitro processing assays and genomic editing in human cells demonstrates that DICER1 and DROSHA mutations influence miRNA processing through distinct mechanisms. DICER1 RNase IIIB mutations preferentially impair processing of miRNAs deriving from the 5'-arm of pre-miRNA hairpins, while DROSHA RNase IIIB mutations globally inhibit miRNA biogenesis through a dominant-negative mechanism. Both DROSHA and DICER1 mutations impair expression of tumour-suppressing miRNAs, including the let-7 family, important regulators of MYCN, LIN28 and other Wilms tumour oncogenes. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms through which mutations in miRNA biogenesis components reprogramme miRNA expression in human cancer and suggest that these defects define a distinct subclass of Wilms tumours.
Project description:Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) has been documented to have diagnostic, prognostic, as well as functional implications. Here, we evaluated the mRNA expression of DROSHA, DGCR8, DICER (DICER1), TARBP2, and PRKRA, the core components in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in a cohort of 73 adrenocortical tumors (including 43 adenomas and 30 carcinomas) and nine normal adrenal cortices using a RT-qPCR approach. Our results show a significant over-expression of TARBP2, DICER, and DROSHA in the carcinomas compared with adenomas or adrenal cortices (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, we confirmed the higher expression of TARBP2, DICER, and DROSHA at the protein level in carcinoma cases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mRNA expression of TARBP2, but not DICER or DROSHA, is a strong molecular predictor to discriminate between adenomas and carcinomas. Functionally, we showed that inhibition of TARBP2 expression in human NCI-H295R ACC cells resulted in a decreased cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. TARBP2 over-expression was not related to gene mutations; however, copy number gain of the TARBP2 gene was observed in 57% of the carcinomas analyzed. In addition, we identified that miR-195 and miR-497 could directly regulate TARBP2 and DICER expression in ACC cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the deregulation of miRNA-processing factors in adrenocortical tumors and to show the clinical and biological impact of TARBP2 over-expression in this tumor type.
Project description:Several in vitro studies have suggested that canonical microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis requires the DICER cofactors TARBP2 and PRKRA for processing of pre-miRNAs to mature miRNAs. To investigate the roles of TARBP2 and PRKRA in miRNA biogenesis in vivo, and to determine possible functional redundancy, we first compared the phenotypes of Tarbp2 and Prkra single and double mutants. In contrast to Dicer -/- embryos, which die by embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), single Tarbp2 -/- and Prkra -/- mice survive beyond E7.5 and either die perinatally or survive and exhibit cranial/facial abnormalities, respectively. In contrast, only a few Tarbp2 -/- ; Prkra -/- double mutants survived beyond E12.5, suggesting genetic redundancy between Tarbp2 and Prkra during embryonic development. Sequencing of miRNAs from single-mutant embryos at E15.5 revealed changes in abundance and isomiR type in Tarbp2 -/- , but not Prkra -/- , embryos, demonstrating that TARBP2, but not PRKRA, functions in miRNA biogenesis of a subclass of miRNAs, and suggesting that functional redundancy between TARBP2 and PRKRA does not involve miRNA biogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) is a reversible protein modifier. We recently found that SUMOylation of TARBP2 and DGCR8 is involved in the regulation of the miRNA pathway. KHSRP is a single stranded nucleic acid binding protein with roles in transcription and mRNA decay, and it is also a component of the Drosha-DGCR8 complex promoting the miRNA biogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>The in vivo SUMOylation assay using the Ni<sup>2+</sup>-NTA affinity pulldown or immunoprecipitation (IP) and the in vitro E.coli-based SUMOylation assay were used to analyze SUMOylation of KHSRP. Nuclear/Cytosol fractionation assay and immunofluorescent staining were used to observe the localization of KHSRP. High-throughput miRNA sequencing, quantantive RT-PCR and RNA immunoprecipitation assay (RIP) were employed to determine the effects of KHSRP SUMO1 modification on the miRNA biogenesis. The soft-agar colony formation, migration, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture assays were performed to detect the phenotypes of tumor cells in vitro, and the xenograft tumor model in mice was conducted to verify that SUMO1 modification of KHSRP regulated tumorigenesis in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>KHSRP is modified by SUMO1 at the major site K87, and this modification can be increased upon the microenvironmental hypoxia while reduced by the treatment with growth factors. SUMO1 modification of KHSRP inhibits its interaction with the pri-miRNA/Drosha-DGCR8 complex and probably increases its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Consequently, SUMO1 modification of KHSRP impairs the processing step of pre-miRNAs from pri-miRNAs which especially harbor short G-rich stretches in their terminal loops (TL), resulting in the downregulation of a subset of TL-G-Rich miRNAs such as let-7 family and consequential tumorigenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data demonstrate how the miRNA biogenesis pathway is connected to tumorigenesis and cancer progression through the reversible SUMO1 modification of KHSRP.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Recently, a miRNA expression profile of human tumors has been characterized by an overall miRNA downregulation. Explanations for this observation include a failure of miRNA post-transcriptional regulation, transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and miRNA transcriptional repression by oncogenic factors. Another possibility is that the enzymes and cofactors involved in miRNA processing pathways may themselves be targets of genetic disruption, further enhancing cellular transformation. However, no loss-of-function genetic alterations in the genes encoding these proteins have been reported. Here we have identified truncating mutations in TARBP2 (TAR RNA-binding protein 2), encoding an integral component of a DICER1-containing complex, in sporadic and hereditary carcinomas with microsatellite instability. The presence of TARBP2 frameshift mutations causes diminished TRBP protein expression and a defect in the processing of miRNAs. The reintroduction of TRBP in the deficient cells restores the efficient production of miRNAs and inhibits tumor growth. Most important, the TRBP impairment is associated with a destabilization of the DICER1 protein. These results provide, for a subset of human tumors, an explanation for the observed defects in the expression of mature miRNAs.
Project description:Laryngeal cancer (LC) is one of the most prevalent types of head and neck cancer. An increasing interest has been focused on the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in LC development. The study group consisted of 135 larynx cancer patients and 170 cancer-free individuals. Nine polymorphisms of pre-miRNA processing genes, DROSHA (rs6877842), DGCR8 (rs3757, rs417309, and rs1640299), RAN (rs14035), XPO5 (rs11077), DICER1 (rs13078 and rs3742330) and TARBP2 (rs784567), were performed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. It was found that the frequency of the GT and the TT polymorphic variants of XPO5 gene were higher in LC patients than in controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.000183, resp.). In turn, the frequency of the CT genotype of RAN gene was higher in controls than in LC patients (p < 0.0001). The TT and the AG of DICER1 gene (p = 0.034697 for rs13078 and p = 0.0004 for rs3742330) as well as the AG and the GG genotypes of TARBP2 gene (p = 0.008335 and p < 0.0001, resp.) were associated with higher risk of LC occurrence. Our data suggested that polymorphisms of miRNA processing genes might be useful as predictive factors for the LC development.
Project description:Maturation of canonical microRNA (miRNA) is initiated by DROSHA that cleaves the primary transcript (pri-miRNA). Over 1,800 miRNA loci are annotated in humans, but it remains largely unknown if and at which sites the pri-miRNAs are cleaved by DROSHA. Here we performed in vitro processing on a full set of human pri-miRNAs (miRBase v21) followed by sequencing. This comprehensive profiling enabled us to classify miRNAs based on DROSHA-dependence and map their cleavage sites with respective processing efficiency measures. Only 758 pri-miRNAs are confidently processed by DROSHA, while the majority may be non-canonical or false entries. Analyses of the DROSHA-dependent pri-miRNAs show key cis-elements for processing. We observe widespread alternative processing as well as unproductive cleavage events such as “nick” or “inverse” processing. SRSF3 is a broad-acting auxiliary factor modulating alternative processing and suppressing unproductive processing. The profiling data and methods developed in this study will allow systematic analyses of miRNA regulation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and participate in a variety of biological processes. The biogenesis of miRNAs is tightly controlled at multiple steps, such as transcription of miRNA genes, processing by Drosha and Dicer, and transportation of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5 (XPO5). Given the critical role of nuclear export of pre-miRNAs in miRNA biogenesis, any alterations of XPO5, resulting from either genetic mutation, epigenetic change, abnormal expression level or posttranslational modification, could affect miRNA expression and thus have profound effects on tumorigenesis. Importantly, XPO5 phosphorylation by ERK kinase and its cis/trans isomerization by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 impair XPO5's nucleo-to-cytoplasmic transport ability of pre-miRNAs, leading to downregulation of mature miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we focus on how XPO5 transports pre-miRNAs in the cells and summarize the dysregulation of XPO5 in human tumors.