Genome sequence of Phaeobacter inhibens type strain (T5(T)), a secondary metabolite producing representative of the marine Roseobacter clade, and emendation of the species description of Phaeobacter inhibens.
ABSTRACT: Strain T5(T) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter inhibens Martens et al. 2006, a secondary metabolite producing bacterium affiliated to the Roseobacter clade. Strain T5(T) was isolated from a water sample taken at the German Wadden Sea, southern North Sea. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium with a special focus on the secondary metabolism and compare it with the genomes of the Phaeobacter inhibens strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10), selected because of the close phylogenetic relationship based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these three strains. The genome of strain T5(T) comprises 4,130,897 bp with 3.923 protein-coding genes and shows high similarities in genetic and genomic characteristics compared to P. inhibens DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Besides the chromosome, strain T5(T) possesses four plasmids, three of which show a high similarity to the plasmids of the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Analysis of the fourth plasmid suggested horizontal gene transfer. Most of the genes on this plasmid are not present in the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10) including a nitrous oxide reductase, which allows strain T5(T) a facultative anaerobic lifestyle. The G+C content was calculated from the genome sequence and differs significantly from the previously published value, thus warranting an emendation of the species description.
Project description:Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, a model organism for marine Roseobacter group, was studied for its response to its own antimicrobial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA). TDA biosynthesis is encoded on the largest extrachromosomal element of P. inhibens, the 262 kb plasmid, whose curation leads to an increased growth and biomass yield. In this study, the plasmid-cured strain was compared to the wild-type strain and to transposon mutants lacking single genes of the TDA biosynthesis. The data show that the growth inhibition of the wild-type strain can be mainly attributed to the TDA produced by P. inhibens itself. Oxygen uptake rates remained constant in all strains but the growth rate dropped in the wild-type which supports the recently proposed mode of TDA action. Metabolome analysis showed no metabolic alterations that could be attributed directly to TDA. Taken together, the growth of P. inhibens is limited by its own antibacterial compound due to a partial destruction of the proton gradient which leads to a higher energetic demand. The universal presence of TDA biosynthesis in genome-sequenced isolates of the genus Phaeobacter shows that there must be a high benefit of TDA for P. inhibens in its ecological niche despite the drawback on its metabolism.
Project description:Phaeobacter inhibens 2.10 is an effective biofilm former and colonizer of marine surfaces and has the ability to outcompete other microbiota. During biofilm dispersal P. inhibens 2.10 produces heritable phenotypic variants, including those that have a reduced ability to inhibit the co-occurring bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. However, the genetic changes that underpin the phenotypic variation and what the ecological consequences are for variants within the population are unclear. To answer these questions we sequenced the genomes of strain NCV12a1, a biofilm variant of P. inhibens 2.10 with reduced inhibitory activity and the P. inhibens 2.10 WT parental strain. Genome wide analysis revealed point mutations in genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) and indirectly in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. However, confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses found little differences in biofilm growth between P. inhibens 2.10 WT (parental) and NCV12a1. P. inhibens NCV12a1 was also not outcompeted in co-cultured biofilms with P. tunicata, despite its reduced inhibitory activity, rather these biofilms were thicker than those produced when the WT strain was co-cultured with P. tunicata. Notably, dispersal populations from biofilms of P. inhibens NCV12a1 had a higher proportion of WT-like morphotypes when co-cultured with P. tunicata. These observations may explain why the otherwise non-inhibiting variant persists in the presence of a natural competitor, adding to our understanding of the relative importance of genetic diversification in microbial biofilms.
Project description:Phaeobacter gallaeciensis CIP 105210(T) (= DSM 26640(T) = BS107(T)) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter gallaeciensis. The genus Phaeobacter belongs to the marine Roseobacter group (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria). Phaeobacter species are effective colonizers of marine surfaces, including frequent associations with eukaryotes. Strain BS107(T) was isolated from a rearing of the scallop Pecten maximus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, comprising eight circular replicons with a total of 4,448 genes. In addition to a high number of extrachromosomal replicons, the genome contains six genomic island and three putative prophage regions, as well as a hybrid between a plasmid and a circular phage. Phylogenomic analyses confirm previous results, which indicated that the originally reported P. gallaeciensis type-strain deposit DSM 17395 belongs to P. inhibens and that CIP 105210(T) (= DSM 26640(T)) is the sole genome-sequenced representative of P. gallaeciensis.
Project description:Since genome analysis did not allow unambiguous reconstruction of transport, catabolism, and substrate-specific regulation for several important carbohydrates in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, proteomic and metabolomic analyses of N-acetylglucosamine-, mannitol-, sucrose-, glucose-, and xylose-grown cells were carried out to close this knowledge gap. These carbohydrates can pass through the outer membrane via porins identified in the outer membrane fraction. For transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, carbohydrate-specific ABC transport systems were identified. Their coding genes mostly colocalize with the respective "catabolic" and "regulatory" genes. The degradation of N-acetylglucosamine proceeds via N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate and glucosamine-6-phosphate directly to fructose-6-phosphate; two of the three enzymes involved were newly predicted and identified. Mannitol is catabolized via fructose, sucrose via fructose and glucose, glucose via glucose-6-phosphate, and xylose via xylulose-5-phosphate. Of the 30 proteins predicted to be involved in uptake, regulation, and degradation, 28 were identified by proteomics and 19 were assigned to their respective functions for the first time. The peripheral degradation pathways feed into the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, which is connected to the lower branch of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway. The enzyme constituents of these pathways displayed higher abundances in P. inhibens DSM 17395 cells grown with any of the five carbohydrates tested than in succinate-grown cells. Conversely, gluconeogenesis is turned on during succinate utilization. While tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle proteins remained mainly unchanged, the abundance profiles of their metabolites reflected the differing growth rates achieved with the different substrates tested. Homologs of the 74 genes involved in the reconstructed catabolic pathways and central metabolism are present in various Roseobacter clade members.
Project description:For a detailed investigation of the degradation of lysine in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, stable isotope experiments with uniformly 13C labeled L-lysine were carried out with lysine adapted cells and the metabolites were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC/MS. A non-targeted stable isotope analysis was used which compares labeled and not labeled samples to determine the Mass Isotopomer Distribution not only for known metabolites but for all labeled compounds in our GC/MS analysis. We show that P. inhibens uses at least two parallel pathways for the first degradation steps of lysine. Further investigations identified L-pipecolate as an L-lysine degradation intermediate in P. inhibens. The analysis of HPLC/MS data as well as the labeling data of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates show that L-lysine is not only catabolized directly to acetyl-CoA but also via the ethylmalonyl-CoA-pathway, leading to entry points into the TCA cycle via acetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and malate. Altogether the presented data give a detailed insight into the catabolization of L-lysine following the fate of 13C labeled carbon via several ways into the TCA cycle.
Project description:Growth energetics and metabolic efficiency contribute to the lifestyle and habitat imprint of microorganisms. Roseobacters constitute one of the most abundant and successful marine bacterioplankton groups. Here, we reflect on the energetics and metabolic efficiency of Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, a versatile heterotrophic roseobacter. Fourteen different substrates (five sugars and nine amino acids) and their degradation pathways were assessed for energetic efficiencies based on catabolic ATP yields, calculated from net formed ATP and reducing equivalents. The latter were converted into ATP by employing the most divergent coupling ratios (i.e., ions per ATP) currently known for F1Fo ATP synthases in heterotrophic bacteria. The catabolic ATP yields of the pathways studied in P. inhibens differed ?3-fold. The actual free energy costs for ATP synthesis were estimated at 81.6 kJ per mol ATP (3.3 ions per ATP) or 104.2 kJ per mol ATP (4.3 ions per ATP), yielding an average thermodynamic efficiency of ?37.7% or ?29.5%, respectively. Growth performance (rates, yields) and carbon assimilation efficiency were determined for P. inhibens growing in process-controlled bioreactors with 10 different single substrates (Glc, Man, N-acetylglucosamine [Nag], Phe, Trp, His, Lys, Thr, Val, or Leu) and with 2 defined substrate mixtures. The efficiencies of carbon assimilation into biomass ranged from ?28% to 61%, with His/Trp and Thr/Leu yielding the lowest and highest levels. These efficiencies correlated with catabolic and ATP yields only to some extent. Substrate-specific metabolic demands and/or functions, as well as the compositions of the substrate mixtures, apparently affected the energetic costs of growth. These include energetic burdens associated with, e.g., slow growth, stress, and/or the production of tropodithietic acid.IMPORTANCE Heterotrophic members of the bacterioplankton serve the marine ecosystem by transforming organic matter, an activity that is governed by the bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) obtained under given environmental conditions. In marine ecology, the concept of BGE refers to the carbon assimilation efficiency within natural communities. The marine bacterium studied here, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, is a copiotrophic representative of the globally abundant Roseobacter group, and the 15 catabolic pathways investigated are widespread among these marine heterotrophs. Combining pathway-specific catabolic ATP yields with in-depth quantitative physiological data could (i) provide a new baseline for the study of growth energetics and efficiency in further Roseobacter group members and other copiotrophic marine bacteria in productive coastal ecosystems and (ii) contribute to a better understanding of the factors controlling BGE (including the additional energetic burden arising from widespread secondary-metabolite formation) based on laboratory studies with pure cultures.
Project description:Microbial interactions shape ecosystem diversity and chemistry through production and exchange of organic compounds, but the impact of regulatory mechanisms on production and release of these exometabolites is largely unknown. We studied the extent and nature of impact of two signaling molecules, tropodithietic acid (TDA) and the quorum sensing molecule acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) on the exometabolome of the model bacterium <i>Phaeobacter inhibens</i> DSM 17395, a member of the ubiquitous marine <i>Roseobacter</i> group. Exometabolomes of the wild type, a TDA and a QS (AHL-regulator) negative mutant were analyzed <i>via</i> Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Based on a total of 996 reproducibly detected molecular masses, exometabolomes of the TDA and QS negative mutant were ∼70% dissimilar to each other, and ∼90 and ∼60% dissimilar, respectively, to that of the wild type. Moreover, at any sampled growth phase, 40-60% of masses detected in any individual exometabolome were unique to that strain, while only 10-12% constituted a shared "core exometabolome." Putative annotation revealed exometabolites of ecological relevance such as vitamins, amino acids, auxins, siderophore components and signaling compounds with different occurrence patterns in the exometabolomes of the three strains. Thus, this study demonstrates that signaling molecules, such as AHL and TDA, extensively impact the composition of bacterial exometabolomes with potential consequences for species interactions in microbial communities.
Project description:Bacteriophages have immense potential as antibiotic therapies and in genetic engineering. Understanding the mechanisms that bacteriophages implement to infect their hosts will allow researchers to manipulate these systems and adapt them to specific bacterial targets. In this study, we isolated a bacteriophage capable of infecting the marine alphaproteobacterium Phaeobacter inhibens and determined its mechanism of infection. Phaeobacter virus MD18, a novel species of bacteriophage isolated in Woods Hole, MA, exhibits potent lytic ability against P. inhibens and appears to be of the Siphoviridae morphotype. The genomic sequence of MD18 displayed significant similarity to another siphophage, the recently discovered Roseobacter phage DSS3P8, but genomic and phylogenetic analyses, assessing host range and a search of available metagenomes are all consistent with the conclusion that Phaeobacter phage MD18 is a novel lytic phage. We incubated MD18 with a library of barcoded P. inhibens transposon insertion mutants and identified 22 genes that appear to be required for phage predation of this host. Network analysis of these genes using genomic position, Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment, and protein associations revealed that these genes are enriched for roles in assembly of a type IV pilus (T4P) and regulators of cellular morphology. Our results suggest that T4P serve as receptors for a novel marine virus that targets P. inhibens. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophages are useful nonantibiotic therapeutics for bacterial infections as well as threats to industries utilizing bacterial agents. This study identified Phaeobacter virus MD18, a phage antagonist of Phaeobacter inhibens, a bacterium with promising use as a probiotic for aquatic farming industries. Genomic analysis suggested that Phaeobacter phage MD18 has evolved to enhance its replication in P. inhibens by adopting favorable tRNA genes as well as through genomic sequence adaptation to resemble host codon usage. Lastly, a high-throughput analysis of P. inhibens transposon insertion mutants identified genes that modulate host susceptibility to phage MD18 and implicated the type IV pilus as the likely receptor recognized for adsorption. This study marks the first characterization of the relationship between P. inhibens and an environmentally sampled phage, which informs our understanding of natural threats to the bacterium and may promote the development of novel phage technologies for genetic manipulation of this host.
Project description:Reduced nitrogen species are key nutrients for biological productivity in the oceans. Ammonium is often present in low and growth-limiting concentrations, albeit peaks occur during collapse of algal blooms or via input from deep sea upwelling and riverine inflow. Autotrophic phytoplankton exploit ammonium peaks by storing nitrogen intracellularly. In contrast, the strategy of heterotrophic bacterioplankton to acquire ammonium is less well understood. This study revealed the marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, a Roseobacter group member, to have already depleted the external ammonium when only ?? of the ultimately attained biomass is formed. This was paralleled by a three-fold increase in cellular nitrogen levels and rapid buildup of various nitrogen-containing intracellular metabolites (and enzymes for their biosynthesis) and biopolymers (DNA, RNA and proteins). Moreover, nitrogen-rich cells secreted potential RTX proteins and the antibiotic tropodithietic acid, perhaps to competitively secure pulses of external ammonium and to protect themselves from predation. This complex response may ensure growing cells and their descendants exclusive provision with internal nitrogen stocks. This nutritional strategy appears prevalent also in other roseobacters from distant geographical provenances and could provide a new perspective on the distribution of reduced nitrogen in marine environments, i.e. temporary accumulation in bacterioplankton cells.