Molecular biomarkers of residual disease after surgical debulking of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: Residual disease following primary cytoreduction is associated with adverse overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Accurate identification of patients at high risk of residual disease has been elusive, lacking external validity and prompting many to undergo unnecessary surgical exploration. Our goal was to identify and validate molecular markers associated with high rates of residual disease.We interrogated two publicly available datasets from chemonaïve primary high-grade serous ovarian tumors for genes overexpressed in patients with residual disease and significant at a 10% false discovery rate (FDR) in both datasets. We selected genes with wide dynamic range for validation in an independent cohort using quantitative RT-PCR to assay gene expression, followed by blinded prediction of a patient subset at high risk for residual disease. Predictive success was evaluated using a one-sided Fisher exact test.Forty-seven probe sets met the 10% FDR criterion in both datasets. These included FABP4 and ADH1B, which tracked tightly, showed dynamic ranges >16-fold and had high expression levels associated with increased incidence of residual disease. In the validation cohort (n = 139), FABP4 and ADH1B were again highly correlated. Using the top quartile of FABP4 PCR values as a prespecified threshold, we found 30 of 35 cases of residual disease in the predicted high-risk group (positive predictive value = 86%) and 54 of 104 among the remaining patients (P = 0.0002; OR, 5.5).High FABP4 and ADH1B expression is associated with significantly higher risk of residual disease in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Patients with high tumoral levels of these genes may be candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Project description:Primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for ovarian cancer. Residual disease after primary surgery is associated with poor patient outcome. Previously, we discovered ADH1B to be a molecular biomarker of residual disease. In the current study, we investigated the functional role of ADH1B in promoting ovarian cancer cell invasiveness and contributing to residual disease. We discovered that ADH1B overexpression leads to a more infiltrative cancer cell phenotype, promotes metastasis, increases the adhesion of cancer cells to mesothelial cells, and increases extracellular matrix degradation. Live cell imaging revealed that ADH1B-overexpressing cancer cells efficiently cleared the mesothelial cell layer compared to control cells. Moreover, gene array analysis revealed that ADH1B affects several pathways related to the migration and invasion of cancer cells. We also discovered that hypoxia increases ADH1B expression in ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that ADH1B plays an important role in the pathways that promote ovarian cancer cell infiltration and may increase the likelihood of residual disease following surgery.
Project description:The standard treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer is primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy. The extent of metastasis and invasive potential of lesions can influence the outcome of these primary surgeries. Here, we explored the underlying mechanisms that could increase metastatic potential in ovarian cancer. We discovered that FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein) can substantially increase the metastatic potential of cancer cells. We also found that miR-409-3p regulates FABP4 in ovarian cancer cells and that hypoxia decreases miR-409-3p levels. Treatment with DOPC nanoliposomes containing either miR-409-3p mimic or FABP4 siRNA inhibited tumor progression in mouse models. With RPPA and metabolite arrays, we found that FABP4 regulates pathways associated with metastasis and affects metabolic pathways in ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that FABP4 is functionally responsible for aggressive patterns of disease that likely contribute to poor prognosis in ovarian cancer.
Project description:To examine clinicopathologic variables associated with survival among women with low-grade (grade 1) serous ovarian carcinoma enrolled in a phase III study.This was an ancillary data analysis of Gynecologic Oncology Group protocol 182, a phase III study of women with stage III-IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel compared with triplet or sequential doublet regimens. Women with grade 1 serous carcinoma (a surrogate for low-grade serous disease) were included in the analysis.Among the 3,686 enrolled participants, 189 had grade 1 disease. The median age was 56.5 years and 87.3% had stage III disease. The median follow-up time was 47.1 months. Stratification according to residual disease after primary surgery was microscopic residual in 24.9%, 0.1-1.0 cm of residual in 51.3%, and more than 1.0 cm of residual in 23.8%. On multivariate analysis, only residual disease status (P=.006) was significantly associated with survival. Patients with microscopic residual had a significantly longer median progression-free (33.2 months) and overall survival (96.9 months) compared with those with residual 0.1-1.0 cm (14.7 months and 44.5 months, respectively) and more than 1.0 cm of residual disease (14.1 months and 42.0 months, respectively; progression-free and overall survival, P<.001). After adjustment for other variables, patients with low-grade serous carcinoma with measurable residual disease had a similar adjusted hazard ratio for death (2.12; P=.002) as their high-grade serous carcinoma counterparts with measurable disease (2.31; P<.001).Surgical cytoreduction to microscopic residual was associated with improved progression-free and overall survival in women with advanced-stage low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00011986.II.
Project description:Low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma (LGSOC) has clinical features different from high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) accounting for the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer. Because of its rarity, previous studies have only focused on the high-grade disease without considering the differences between the two subtypes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the clinical prognostic factors known for HGSOC on survival in patients with LGSOC. Based on the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, progression-free survival (PFS) was markedly decreased in advanced disease compared with early disease. For stage I, patients with stage IC had poorer survival than those with stage IA and IB regardless of the number of cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. For advanced disease, no gross residual disease after primary cytoreductive surgery was significantly associated with longer PFS when compared with gross residual disease. In multivariate analysis for PFS and overall survival (OS), age, preoperative CA-125, time interval from surgery to chemotherapy, and the number of cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with prognosis. Complete cytoreduction was the only independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR 2.45, p?=?0.045). Our study revealed that the known prognostic factors in HGSOC did not show any effect on the survival in LGSOC except for FIGO stage and complete cytoreduction.
Project description:We compared survival outcomes of advanced serous type epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with normal-sized ovaries and enlarged-ovarian tumors by propensity score matching analysis.The medical records of EOC patients treated at Samsung Medical Center between 2002 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. We investigated EOC patients with high grade serous type histology and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV who underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy to identify patients with normal-sized ovaries. Propensity score matching was performed to compare patients with normal-sized ovaries to patients with enlarged-ovarian tumors (ratio, 1:3) according to age, FIGO stage, initial cancer antigen (CA)-125 level, and residual disease status after PDS.Of the 419 EOC patients, 48 patients had normal-sized ovary. Patients with enlarged-ovarian tumor were younger (54.0±10.3 vs. 58.4±9.2 years, p=0.005) than those with normal-sized ovary, and there was a statistically significant difference in residual disease status between the 2 groups. In total cohort with a median follow-up period of 43 months (range, 3-164 months), inferior overall survival (OS) was shown in the normal-sized ovary group (median OS, 71.2 vs. 41.4 months; p=0.003). After propensity score matching, the group with normal-sized ovary showed inferior OS compared to the group with enlarged-ovarian tumor (median OS, 72.1 vs. 41.4 months; p=0.031). In multivariate analysis for OS, normal-sized ovary remained a significant factor.Normal-sized ovary was associated with poor OS compared with the common presentation of enlarged ovaries in EOC, independent of CA-125 level or residual disease.
Project description:To elucidate molecular pathways contributing to metastatic cancer progression and poor clinical outcome in serous ovarian cancer.Poor survival signatures from three different serous ovarian cancer datasets were compared and a common set of genes was identified. The predictive value of this gene signature was validated in independent datasets. The expression of the signature genes was evaluated in primary, metastatic, and/or recurrent cancers using quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. Alterations in gene expression by TGF-?1 and functional consequences of loss of COL11A1 were evaluated using pharmacologic and knockdown approaches, respectively.We identified and validated a 10-gene signature (AEBP1, COL11A1, COL5A1, COL6A2, LOX, POSTN, SNAI2, THBS2, TIMP3, and VCAN) that is associated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. The signature genes encode extracellular matrix proteins involved in collagen remodeling. Expression of the signature genes is regulated by TGF-?1 signaling and is enriched in metastases in comparison with primary ovarian tumors. We demonstrate that levels of COL11A1, one of the signature genes, continuously increase during ovarian cancer disease progression, with the highest expression in recurrent metastases. Knockdown of COL11A1 decreases in vitro cell migration, invasion, and tumor progression in mice.Our findings suggest that collagen-remodeling genes regulated by TGF-?1 signaling promote metastasis and contribute to poor OS in patients with serous ovarian cancer. Our 10-gene signature has both predictive value and biologic relevance and thus may be useful as a therapeutic target.
Project description:Objective:To study the clinical, pathological and surgical features of primary epithelial ovarian cancer treated at our institution. Methods:fifty-nine patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer were included. Clinical data collected included patient's age, presenting symptoms, laboratory and tumor markers results as well as preoperative imaging reports. Pathological and surgical findings included were: spread of the disease, histologic type, stage of the disease, type of surgical procedure and amount of residual disease. Results:Mean age of the patients was 54.5 years. Lower abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by abdominal distension. The commonest histopathological type was high grade serous carcinoma (72.9%). In our study, majority of patients were diagnosed with stage III disease, accounting for 69.5% of the total number of patients. Complete cytoreduction with no gross residual disease was achieved in 77.3% of patients with stage 3-4 disease. Conclusion:clinical and pathological features of primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma in our populations are similar to what is reported worldwide. We have also documented that our surgical approach to the management of ovarian cancer is comparable to the international consensus.
Project description:PURPOSE:To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas. METHODS:A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer's method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. RESULTS:Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82). CONCLUSION:A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>We aimed to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of the nucleotide excision repair-related gene GTF2H5, which is localized at the 6q24.2-26 deletion previously reported by our group to predict longer survival of high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.<h4>Methods</h4>In order to test if protein levels of GTF2H5 are associated with patients' outcome, we performed GTF2H5 immunohistochemical staining in 139 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas included in tissue microarrays. Upon stratification of cases into high- and low-GTF2H5 staining categories (> and ? median staining, respectively) Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test were used to estimate patients' survival and assess statistical differences. We also evaluated the association of GTF2H5 with survival at the transcriptional level by using the on-line Kaplan-Meier plotter tool, which includes gene expression and survival data of 855 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients from 13 different datasets. Finally, we determined whether stable short hairpin RNA-mediated GTF2H5 downregulation modulates cisplatin sensitivity in the SKOV3 and COV504 cell lines by using cytotoxicity assays.<h4>Results</h4>Low expression of GTF2H5 was associated with longer 5-year survival of patients at the protein (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.93; p=0.024) and transcriptional level (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; p=0.023) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. We confirmed the association with 5-year overall survival (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.78; p=0.0007) and also found an association with progression-free survival (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96; p=0.026) in a homogenous group of 388 high-stage (stages III-IV using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system), optimally debulked high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. GTF2H5-silencing induced a decrease of the half maximal inhibitory concentration upon cisplatin treatment in GTF2H5-silenced ovarian cancer cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Low levels of GTF2H5 are associated with enhanced prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients and may contribute to cisplatin sensitization.
Project description:The Japanese Serous Ovarian Cancer Study Group Advanced-stage ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies. To improve prognosis of patients with ovarian cancers, a predictive biomarkers leading to personalized treatments are required. In this large-scale cross-platform study of six microarray datasets consisting of 1054 ovarian cancer patients, we developed a novel risk classification system based on a 126-gene expression signature for predicting overall survival by applying elastic net7 and 10-fold cross validation to a Japanese dataset A (n = 260). We further validated its predictive ability with the five other datasets using multivariate analysis. Also, through gene ontology and pathway analyses of 1109 high-risk ovarian cancer specific transcripts, we identified a significant reduction of expression of immune-response related genes, especially on the antigen presentation pathway. Furthermore, an immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the number of CD8 T lymphocytes infiltrating into tumor tissue was significantly decreased in high-risk ovarian cancers. These predictive biomarkers based on the 126-gene expression signature will identify high-risk ovarian cancer patients who need novel immune-activating therapeutic approaches, leading to improved outcomes for such patients. Two hundred sixty patients who were diagnosed as advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer were analyzed in this study. Microaray data from 10 patients who were diagnosed as advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer were analyzed to investigate coefficient of correlation in each probes between Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and Affymetrix HG-U133Plus2.0.