Phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel and CG1940/CG8711 followed by radical prostatectomy in patients with high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy in American men. PC, which exhibits a slow growth rate and multiple potential target epitopes, is an ideal candidate for immunotherapy. GVAX for prostate cancer is a cellular immunotherapy, composed of PC-3 cells (CG1940) and LNCaP cells (CG8711). Each of the components is a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line that has been genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Hypothesizing that GVAX for prostate cancer could be effective in a neoadjuvant setting in patients with locally advanced disease, we initiated a phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX. For the trial, the clinical effects of GVAX were assessed in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Patients received docetaxel administered at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. GVAX was administered 2-3 days after chemotherapy preoperatively for four courses of immunotherapy. The first dose of GVAX was a prime immunotherapy of 5×10(8) cells. The subsequent boost immunotherapies consisted of 3×10(8) cells. After RP, patients received an additional six courses of immunotherapy. Pathologic complete response, toxicity, and clinical response were assessed. The primary endpoint of the trial was a pathologic state of pT0, which is defined as no evidence of cancer in the prostate.Six patients completed neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX therapy. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. Median change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following neoadjuvant therapy was 1.47 ng/ml. One patient did not undergo RP due to the discovery of positive lymph nodes during exploration. Of the five patients completing RP, four had a downstaging of their Gleason score. Undetectable PSA was achieved in three patients at 2 months after RP and in two patients at 3 years after RP.Neoadjuvant docetaxel/GVAX is safe and well tolerated in patients with high-risk locally advanced PC. No evidence of increased intraoperative hemorrhage or increased length of hospital stay postoperatively was noted. These results justify further study of neoadjuvant immunotherapy.
Project description:Considerable progress has been made in prostate cancer immunotherapy over the last year, and two agents have completed phase III testing. This review will discuss the most promising immune-directed strategies in development for prostate cancer, outlining interventions that mitigate tumor-induced tolerance and highlighting several combination immunotherapy approaches.A pivotal phase III study using Sipuleucel-T, an autologous prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)-loaded dendritic cell immunotherapy, in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) demonstrated a survival advantage over placebo. By contrast, two phase III studies of GVAX, an allogeneic tumor cell vaccine, in a similar patient population failed to show a survival benefit of GVAX or GVAX/docetaxel over standard docetaxel/prednisone. Other strategies currently in clinical development include the ProstVac poxviral vaccine, a PAP-encoding DNA vaccine, and immune checkpoint inhibitory approaches.Although Sipuleucel-T may receive FDA approval for patients with metastatic CRPC, challenges remain in identifying immunotherapy strategies that overcome immune tolerance, especially when disease burden is substantial. An emerging paradigm focuses on using immunotherapy together with checkpoint antagonists or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with early-stage disease. Such approaches are likely to yield optimal results, but must carefully be explored in well designed phase II studies before moving forward.
Project description:Previous vaccination studies in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) showed improved survival without prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS). This might be explained by enhanced efficacy of subsequent therapies because of heightened immune status. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of chemotherapy in CRPC patients after immunotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed 28 patients who were treated with ipilimumab and GVAX, an allogeneic vaccine, and 21 patients who were randomized to GVAX or no vaccination. To study whether immune status was related to the efficacy of chemotherapy, frequencies of myeloid and lymphocyte subsets were determined. Of 28 patients treated with GVAX and ipilimumab, 23 patients received docetaxel and 13 patients mitoxantrone. Median PFS after docetaxel was 6.4 mo (range 0.8-11.2), while median PFS after mitoxantrone was markedly longer than expected (4.8 mo; range 1.4-13.7). High CD8+ICOS+ Tcell/Treg and pDC/mMDSC ratios were associated with relatively long PFS after mitoxantrone, suggesting a correlation between activated immune status and benefit of mitoxantrone. Analysis of 21 patients, randomized to GVAX or not, revealed a median PFS after docetaxel of 9.9 mo for vaccinated patients and 7.1 mo for unvaccinated patients. Interestingly, PFS after mitoxantrone (n = 14) was significantly longer in vaccinated patients as compared to controls (5.9 vs. 1.6 mo, p = 0.0048). In conclusion, mitoxantrone seems more effective in CRPC patients after immunotherapy, which may be related to the immune-stimulating effect of mitoxantrone in patients with heightened antitumor immunity. As this was a retrospective study with limited sample size, prospective studies are warranted to definitively show proof of principle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening more frequently detects early stage prostate cancer (PC). However, adverse pathologic features (APFs) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in low-risk PC occur. Previous related studies had utilized outdated staging criteria or small sample cohorts. In this study, we analyzed predictors of APFs after RP in low-risk PC using classification under the current criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 546 low-risk PC patients who had undergone RP. Low-risk PC was defined as PC with clinical T1-T2a, Gleason score???6, and PSA levels <?10 ng/mL. Clinical and pathological parameters were analyzed to predict APFs. APFs were defined as extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), or positive surgical margins (PSM). We analyzed our data using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, as well as receiver operator characteristics to predict APFs. RESULTS:Among 546 patients, ECE, SVI, and PSM were present in 199 (36.4%), 8 (1.5%), and 179 cases (32.8%), respectively. PSM had a significant correlation with preoperative high PSA levels and number of positive cores obtained. ECE/SVI was also significantly correlated with PSA levels and number of positive cores. As a result, presence of APFs after RP was associated with high PSA levels and large number of positive cores. PSA?>?4.5 ng/mL and number of positive cores >?2 in low-risk PC were significantly associated with APFs, and suggested as cut-off values for predicting APFs. CONCLUSIONS:PSA?>?4.5 ng/mL and number of positive cores >?2 in low-risk PC were associated with presence of APFs and patients with such records should be considered carefully to provide active surveillance.
Project description:Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with liver metastases have an extremely poor prognosis. Herein, we report a rare patient who achieved a complete response by docetaxel chemotherapy for this aggressive disease. A 67-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with local prostate cancer [initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 10.3 ng/mL, a highest Gleason score of eight] received radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by salvage radiotherapy for PSA recurrence without distant metastases. After four years, androgen deprivation therapy was commenced for both local recurrence and elevated PSA. After a further four years, despite good control of PSA (1.2 ng/mL), other clinical findings including radiographic images revealed CRPC with multiple liver metastases. Ten cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy achieved a complete response for more than five years. In conclusion, even if a patient has CRPC with liver metastases, early diagnostic imaging irrespective of the PSA level may provide a better response to early docetaxel chemotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer have an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. In this phase II trial, we evaluate neoadjuvant enzalutamide and leuprolide (EL) with or without abiraterone and prednisone (ELAP) before radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Eligible patients had a biopsy Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7 or greater, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) greater than 20 ng/mL, or T3 disease (by prostate magnetic resonance imaging). Lymph nodes were required to be smaller than 20 mm. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to ELAP or EL for 24 weeks followed by RP. All specimens underwent central pathology review. The primary end point was pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease (residual tumor ? 5 mm). Secondary end points were PSA, surgical staging, positive margins, and safety. Biomarkers associated with pathologic outcomes were explored. RESULTS:Seventy-five patients were enrolled at four centers. Most patients had high-risk disease by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria (n = 65; 87%). The pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease rate was 30% (n = 15 of 50) in ELAP-treated patients and 16% (n = four of 25) in EL-treated patients (two-sided P = .263). Rates of ypT3 disease, positive margins, and positive lymph nodes were similar between arms. Treatment was well-tolerated. Residual tumors in the two arms showed comparable levels of ERG, PTEN, androgen receptor PSA, and glucocorticoid receptor expression. Tumor ERG positivity and PTEN loss were associated with more extensive residual tumors at RP. CONCLUSION:Neoadjuvant hormone therapy followed by RP in locally advanced prostate cancer resulted in favorable pathologic responses in some patients, with a trend toward improved pathologic outcomes with ELAP. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the impact of therapy on recurrence rates. The potential association of ERG and PTEN alterations with worse outcomes warrants additional investigation.
Project description:Despite state of the art local therapy, a significant portion of men with high-risk prostate cancer develop progressive disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy prior to radical prostatectomy (RP) is an approach that can potentially maximize survival outcomes in patients with localized disease. This approach is under investigation with a wide array of agents and provides an opportunity to assess pathologic and biologic activity of novel treatments. The aim of this review is to explore the past and present role of neoadjuvant therapy prior to definitive therapy with RP in patients with high-risk localized or locally advanced disease. The results of neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), including use of newer agents such as abiraterone, are promising. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel, with or without ADT has also demonstrated efficacy in men with high-risk disease. Other novel agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), clusterin, and the immune system are currently under investigation and have led to variable results in early clinical trials. Despite optimistic data, approval of neoadjuvant therapy prior to RP in patients with high-risk prostate cancer will depend on positive results from well designed phase III trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The PORPUS-P is a short questionnaire for measuring prostate-specific quality of life (QoL), which was designed in Canada for use in prostate cancer (PC) patients. We aimed to generate a German version and compare PORPUS-P scores of German reference men from the general population, and German and Canadian patients with newly diagnosed PC who were scheduled to receive radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 988 reference men, 121 German and 66 Canadian PC patients scheduled for RT, and 371 German and 68 Canadian PC patients scheduled for RP. All men completed the PORPUS-P (German postal questionnaire, Canada personal interview). Data were gathered from PC patients before the start of therapy. RESULTS: Canadian patients were better educated than the German patients, and fewer were retired. Patients scheduled to receive RT were older and more were retired. German RT patients had lower D'Amico risk scores and pre-treatment Gleason scores than RP patients, and Canadian RT patients had higher pre-treatment PSA than RP patients. Urinary and sexual dysfunction were seen in PC patients (especially RT patients), but were also common in the German reference men. Crude mean PORPUS-P scores differed statistically significant between German RT and RP and Canadian RP and RT patients, with RT patients having higher QoL scores. The differences in age-adjusted mean PORPUS-P scores between reference men and RP patients were not clinically significant, while RT patients had (clinically) significantly lower scores than the reference men. CONCLUSION: The German translation of the PORPUS-P appears to be a short and feasible tool for assessing prostate-specific QoL. Although we found a similar response pattern, Canadian and German PC patients scheduled to receive RT or RP rated their pre-treatment quality of life on different levels, which reveals the need for national reference data. Problems in several QoL domains exist before treatment, and differ between PC patients scheduled for RT and RP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with high-risk prostate cancer have an increased likelihood of experiencing a relapse following radical prostatectomy (RP). We previously conducted three neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) trials prior to RP in unfavorable intermediate and high-risk disease. METHODS:In this analysis, we report on the post-RP outcomes of a subset of patients enrolled on these studies. We conducted a pooled analysis of patients with available follow-up data treated on three neoadjuvant trials at three institutions. All patients received intense ADT prior to RP. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR was defined as a PSA???0.2?ng/mL or treatment with radiation or androgen-deprivation therapy for a rising PSA?<?0.2?ng/mL. RESULTS:Overall, 72 patients were included of whom the majority had a Gleason score???8 (n?=?46, 63.9%). Following neoadjuvant therapy, 55.7% of patients (n?=?39/70) had pT3 disease, 40% (n?=?28) had seminal vesicle invasion, 12.9% (n?=?9) had positive margins, and 11.4% (n?=?8) had lymph node involvement. Overall, 11 (15.7%) had tumor measuring???0.5?cm, which included four patients (5.7%) with a pathologic complete response and seven (10.0%) with residual tumor measuring 0.1-0.5?cm. Compared to pretreatment clinical staging, 10 patients (14.3%) had pathologic T downstaging at RP. The median follow-up was 3.4 years. Overall, the 3-year BCR-free rate was 70% (95% CI 57%, 90%). Of the 15 patients with either residual tumor???0.5?cm or pathologic T downstaging, no patient experienced a recurrence. CONCLUSION:In this exploratory pooled clinical trials analysis, we highlight that neoadjuvant therapy prior to RP in unfavorable intermediate and high-risk patients may potentially have a positive impact on recurrence rates. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant hormone therapy on pathologic and long-term outcomes.
Project description:The aims of this study were to report the clinical outcomes in a cohort of men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and mitoxantrone 10 years after treatment, identify pretreatment clinical parameters that may be predictors of recurrence, and describe tumor-infiltrating leukocytes present in radical prostatectomy specimens. We conducted a phase I/II study of neoadjuvant docetaxel and mitoxantrone before radical prostatectomy in high-risk localized prostate cancer to determine the feasibility of this combination and predictors of prostate cancer recurrence after cytotoxic chemotherapy. After 10 years of follow-up, 34 (63%) of 54 participants experience a recurrence. In univariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (P=0.01), pathological stage (P=0.03), lymph node status (P<0.0001), seminal vesicle invasion (P=0.003), and tissue vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression (P=0.016) were significantly associated with recurrence. In multivariate analysis, only lymph node status, PSA density, and VEGF expression were significant predictors of disease recurrence. We used a tissue microarray for the first 50 participants to characterize the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and evaluate them for association with recurrence. We measured CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3, CD20, CD15, CD68, and CD163 by immunohistochemistry in both tumor and normal prostate specimens, but did not find an association between immunophenotype and recurrence. There was a significantly different density of CD68 and CD163 cells between normal and tumor tissue. Lymph node status, PSA density, and tissue VEGF expression predict recurrence after chemotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting.