ABSTRACT: Lithium is an effective medication for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and that lithium has anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. This article summarizes the studies which examined the effects of lithium on pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Some of the summarized data suggest that lithium exerts anti-inflammatory effects (e.g., suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inhibition of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production, and enhancement of IL-2 and IL-10 synthesis). Nevertheless, there is a large body of data which indicates that under certain experimental conditions lithium also exhibits pro-inflammatory properties (e.g., induction of IL-4, IL-6 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis). The reviewed studies utilized various experimental model systems, and it is thus difficult to draw an unequivocal conclusion regarding the effect of lithium on specific inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Lithium (Li) is a chemical element used for treating and preventing bipolar disorder (BD) and exerts positive effects such as anti-inflammatory effects as well as undesirable side effects. These effects of Li can be influenced by interaction with some nutritional elements. Therefore, we investigated the potential effects of xanthine (caffeine and theobromine) and catechin molecules present in some food beverages broadly consumed worldwide, such as coffee and tea, on Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we concomitantly exposed RAW 264.7 macrophages to Li, isolated xanthine and catechin molecules, and a xanthine-catechin mixture (XC mixture). We evaluated the effects of these treatments on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, oxidative and antioxidant marker expression, cytokine levels, gene expression, and GSK-3β enzyme expression. Treatment with the XC mixture potentialized Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects by intensification of the following: GSK-3β inhibitory action, lowering effect on proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα), and increase in the levels of IL-10 that is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Despite the controversial nature of caffeine consumption by BD patients, these results suggested that consumption of caffeine, in low concentrations, mixed with other bioactive molecules along with Li may be safe.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death from trauma to central nervous system (CNS) tissues. For patients who survive the initial injury, TBI can lead to neurodegeneration as well as cognitive and motor deficits, and is even a risk factor for the future development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical studies of multiple neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders have shown that lithium, which is primarily used to treat bipolar disorder, has considerable neuroprotective effects. Indeed, emerging evidence now suggests that lithium can also mitigate neurological deficits incurred from TBI. Lithium exerts neuroprotective effects and stimulates neurogenesis via multiple signaling pathways; it inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), upregulates neurotrophins and growth factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)), modulates inflammatory molecules, upregulates neuroprotective factors (e.g., B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70)), and concomitantly downregulates pro-apoptotic factors. In various experimental TBI paradigms, lithium has been shown to reduce neuronal death, microglial activation, cyclooxygenase-2 induction, amyloid-β (Aβ), and hyperphosphorylated tau levels, to preserve blood-brain barrier integrity, to mitigate neurological deficits and psychiatric disturbance, and to improve learning and memory outcome. Given that lithium exerts multiple therapeutic effects across an array of CNS disorders, including promising results in preclinical models of TBI, additional clinical research is clearly warranted to determine its therapeutic attributes for combating TBI. Here, we review lithium's exciting potential in ameliorating physiological as well as cognitive deficits induced by TBI.
Project description:Synovial injury and healing are complex processes including catabolic effects by proinflammatory cytokines and anabolic processes by anti-inflammatory mediators. Here we examined the expression of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators in synovium of patients with diagnostic arthroscopy (control), joint trauma (JT), osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial samples from these patients were subjected to RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as immune cell markers. Interestingly, pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were expressed predominantly in granulocytes in patients with JT and in macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells in patients with OA and RA. Interestingly, parallel to the severity of inflammation, proinflammatory mediators IL-1?, TNF-?, and 5-LOX specific mRNA as well as immunoreactive (IR) cells were significantly more abundant in patients with RA and JT than in those with OA. However, anti-inflammatory mediators 15-LOX, FPR2, and IL-10 specific mRNA as well as IR cells were significantly more abundant in patients with OA than in those with JT and RA. These findings show that upregulation of proinflammatory mediators contributes to the predominantly catabolic inflammatory process in JT and RA synovium, whereas upregulation of anabolic anti-inflammatory mediators counteracts inflammation resulting in the inferior inflammatory process in OA synovium.
Project description:Purpose: Lithium salts, used for treatment of bipolar disorder, frequently induce nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), limiting therapeutic success. NDI is associated with loss of expression of the molecular water channel, aquaporin-2, in the renal collecting duct (CD). Here, we use the methods of systems biology in a well-established rat model of lithium-induced NDI to identify signaling pathways activated at the onset of polyuria. Methods: We carried out RNA-sequencing in cortical CDs microdissected from rats treated with lithium for 12-72 hours (vs. time controls). Administration of anti-inflammatory doses of dexamethasone to lithium-treated rats countered the loss of aquaporin-2 protein. Protein mass spectrometry in microdissected cortical CDs provided corroborative evidence, but also identified decreased abundance of several anti-oxidant proteins. Cortical thick ascending limbs of Henle were also microdissected for RNA-Seq at 72 hrs. We carried out RNA-Seq for 2-3 CCD sample per rat (1 lithium-treated rat versus 1 control at 12, 24, 36 hrs). Results and conclusion: Integration of new data with prior data about lithium effects at a molecular level leads to a signaling model in which lithium increases ERK activation leading to induction of NF-κB signaling and an inflammatory-like response that represses Aqp2 gene transcription. Overall design: We carried out RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry in cortical CDs microdissected from rats treated with lithium. We identified signaling pathways that initiate Lithium-induced NDI using systems biology approaches.
Project description:Lithium responsivity in patients with bipolar disorder has been genetically associated with Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), and lithium decreases PDE11A mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hippocampal neurons originating from lithium-responsive patients. PDE11 is an enzyme uniquely enriched in the hippocampus that breaks down cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Here we determined whether decreasing PDE11A expression is sufficient to increase lithium responsivity in mice. In dorsal hippocampus and ventral hippocampus (VHIPP), lithium-responsive C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice show decreased PDE11A4 protein expression relative to lithium-unresponsive BALB/cJ mice. In VHIPP, C57BL/6J mice also show differences in PDE11A4 compartmentalization relative to BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, neither PDE2A nor PDE10A expression differ among the strains. The compartment-specific differences in PDE11A4 protein expression are explained by a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at amino acid 499, which falls within the GAF-B homodimerization domain. Relative to the BALB/cJ 499T, the C57BL/6J 499A decreases PDE11A4 homodimerization, which removes PDE11A4 from the membrane. Consistent with the observation that lower PDE11A4 expression correlates with better lithium responsiveness, we found that Pde11a knockout mice (KO) given 0.4% lithium chow for 3+ weeks exhibit greater lithium responsivity relative to wild-type (WT) littermates in tail suspension, an antidepressant-predictive assay, and amphetamine hyperlocomotion, an anti-manic predictive assay. Reduced PDE11A4 expression may represent a lithium-sensitive pathophysiology, because both C57BL/6J and Pde11a KO mice show increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) relative to BALB/cJ and PDE11A WT mice, respectively. Our finding that PDE11A4 negatively regulates lithium responsivity in mice suggests that the PDE11A SNPs identified in patients may be functionally relevant.
Project description:We present the novel finding that V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) negatively regulates innate inflammation through the transcriptional and epigenetic re-programming of macrophages. Representative of VISTA re-programming is the ability of VISTA agonistic antibodies to augment LPS tolerance and reduce septic shock lethality in mice. This anti-inflammatory effect of anti-VISTA was mimicked in vitro demonstrating that anti-VISTA treatment caused a significant reduction in LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-6, CXCL2, and TNF; all hallmark pro-inflammatory mediators of endotoxin shock. Even under conditions that typically "break" LPS tolerance, VISTA agonists sustained a macrophage anti-inflammatory profile. Analysis of the proteomic and transcriptional changes imposed by anti-VISTA show that macrophage re-programming was mediated by a composite profile of mediators involved in both macrophage tolerance induction (IRG1, miR221, A20, IL-10) as well as transcription factors central to driving an anti-inflammatory profile (e.g., IRF5, IRF8, NFKB1). These findings underscore a novel and new activity of VISTA as a negative checkpoint regulator that induces both tolerance and anti-inflammatory programs in macrophages and controls the magnitude of innate inflammation in vivo.
Project description:Lithium is a mood stabilizing agent commonly used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of lithium against paraquat toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat (PQ) 0.5 mM concentration after lithium pretreatment to test lithium's capability in preventing cell toxicity. Cell death was evaluated by LDH, WST-8, and tryphan blue assays. Apoptosis was analyzed using DNA fragmentation, Annexin V immunostaining, Sub G1 cell cycle analysis, and caspase-3 activity assays. BCL2, BAX, and NRF2 protein expression were evaluated by Western-blotting and the BDNF protein level was determined with ELISA. mRNA levels of BCL2, BAX, BDNF, and NRF2 target genes (HO-1, GCS, NQO1), as well as miR-34a expression were analyzed by qPCR assay. Functional experiments were done via transfection with NRF2 siRNA and miR-34a mimic. Lithium treatment prevented paraquat induced cell death and apoptosis. Lithium treated cells showed increased anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 and decreased pro-apoptotic protein BAX expression. Lithium exerted a neurotrophic effect by increasing BDNF protein expression. It also diminished reactive oxygen species production and activated the redox sensitive transcription factor NRF2 and increased its target genes expression. Knockdown of NRF2 abolished neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium. Furthermore, lithium significantly decreased both basal and PQ-induced expression of miR-34a. Transfection of miR-34a specific mimic reversed neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium against PQ-toxicity. Our results revealed two novel mechanisms of lithium neuroprotection, namely NRF2 activation and miR-34a suppression.
Project description:Lithium is considered by many as the gold standard medication in the management of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the clinical response to lithium is heterogeneous, and the molecular basis for this difference in response is unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine how the peripheral blood gene expression profiles of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) changed over time following intitiation of treatment with lithium, and whether differences in those profiles over time were related to the clinical response.Illumina Sentrix Beadchip (Human-6v2) microarrays containing?>?48,000 transcript probes were used to measure levels of expression of gene-expression in peripheral blood from 20 depressed subjects with BD prior to and every two weeks during 8?weeks of open-label treatment with lithium.Changes in gene-expression were compared between treatment responders (defined as a decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of 50% or more) and non-responders. Pathway analysis was conducted using GeneGO Metacore software.127 genes showed a differential response in responders vs. non-responders. Pathway analysis showed that regulation of apoptosis was the most significantly affected pathway among these genes. Closer examination of the time-course of changes among BCL2 related genes showed that in lithium-responders, one month after starting treatment with lithium, several anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl2 and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) were up-regulated, while pro-apoptotic genes, including BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1) and BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD), were down-regulated. In contrast, in lithium non-responders, BCL2 and IRS2 were down-regulated, while BAK1 and BAD up-regulated at the one-month time-point.These results suggest that differential changes in the balance of pro- and anti- apoptotic gene-expression following treatment with lithium may explain some of the heterogeneity in clinical response in BD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:People with bipolar disorder typically require long-term pharmacological treatment to prevent episodes of depression or mania. However, evidence-based guidelines are often not followed by prescribers and, in some countries, prescribing of lithium is in decline. Polypharmacy is also common in bipolar disorder.AimsTo employ a data linkage approach to describe and evaluate prescribing patterns in bipolar disorder in Scotland between 2009 and 2016. METHOD:By linking prescribing data to the electronic Scottish Morbidity Records, we identified a cohort of 23 135 patients with bipolar disorder who were prescribed psychotropic medication between 2009 and 2016. We examined trends in proportions of patients prescribed each of six drug categories. Random effects logistic models examined change in prescribing over years of interest. RESULTS:The most common form of treatment was antidepressant monotherapy (24.96%), with only 5.90% of patients receiving lithium monotherapy. Prescribing of antipsychotics and anti-epileptics increased from 2009 to 2016 (antipsychotics: odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.15-1.18; anti-epileptics: odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.32-1.36), whereas prescribing of lithium decreased (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.82-0.85). Prescribing of valproate decreased from 2009-2016 in women, but increased in men (women: odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97; men: odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18). CONCLUSIONS:Antidepressant monotherapy was the most common form of treatment for bipolar disorder in Scotland and prescribing of lithium has declined between 2009 and 2016. The findings are concerning and represent a gap between treatment guidelines and clinical practice.Declaration of interestNone.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cannabidiol (CBD) containing products are available in a plethora of flavors in oral, sublingual, and inhalable forms. Immunotoxicological effects of CBD containing liquids were assessed by hypothesizing that CBD regulates oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. METHODS:Epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and NHBE), macrophages (U937), and lung fibroblast cells (HFL-1) were treated with varying CBD concentrations or exposed to CBD aerosols. Generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators were measured. Furthermore, monocytes and epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS in combination with CBD or dexamethasone to understand the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD. RESULTS:CBD showed differential effects on IL-8 and MCP-1, and acellular and cellular ROS levels. CBD significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-?B activity, IL-8, and MCP-1 release from macrophages. Cytokine array data depicted a differential cytokine response due to CBD. Inflammatory mediators, IL-8, serpin E1, CXCL1, IL-6, MIF, IFN-?, MCP-1, RANTES, and TNF-? were induced, whereas MCP-1/CCL2, CCL5, eotaxin, and IL-2 were reduced. CBD and dexamethasone treatments reduced the IL-8 level induced by LPS when the cells were treated individually, but showed antagonistic effects when used in combination via MCPIP (monocytic chemotactic protein-induced protein). CONCLUSION:CBD differentially regulated basal pro-inflammatory response and attenuated both LPS-induced cytokine release and NF-?B activity in monocytes, similar to dexamethasone. Thus, CBD has a differential inflammatory response and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in pro-inflammatory conditions but acts as an antagonist with steroids, overriding the anti-inflammatory potential of steroids when used in combination.