Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 level is not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients may deposit more preferentially in glomeruli than heavily-O-glycosylated IgA1, the relationship between the glomerular IgA deposition level and the O-glycan profiles of serum IgA1 remains obscure. METHODS: Serum total under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels were quantified in 32 IgAN patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with Helix aspersa (HAA) lectin. Serum under-O-glycosylated polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) was selectively measured by an original method using mouse Fc?/? receptor (mFc?/?R) transfectant and flow cytometry (pIgA1 trap). The percentage area of IgA deposition in the whole glomeruli (Area-IgA) was quantified by image analysis on the immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Correlations were assessed between the Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap. The relationships between clinical parameters and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap were analyzed by data mining approach. RESULTS: While the under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls when measured (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in under-O-glycosylated pIgA1. There was neither a correlation observed between the data from HAA-ELISA and pIgA1 trap (r2=0.09) in the IgAN patients (r2=0.005) nor was there a linear correlation between Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or the pIgA1 trap (r2=0.005, 0.03, respectively). Contour plots of clinical parameters versus data from HAA-ELISA and the pIgA1 trap revealed that patients with a high score in each clinical parameter concentrated in specific areas, showing that patients with specific O-glycan profiles of IgA1 have similar clinical parameters. A decision tree analysis suggested that dominant immune complexes in glomeruli were consisted of: 1) IgA1-IgG and complements, 2) pIgA1 and complements, and 3) monomeric IgA1-IgA or aggregated monomeric IgA1. CONCLUSIONS: Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels are not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of glomerular immune complexes in IgAN patients.
Project description:The pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may be associated with the mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. To identify mediators affected by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs), we generated enzymatically modified desialylated and degalactosylated (deSial/deGal) IgA1. The state of deglycosylated IgA1 was confirmed by lectin binding to Helix aspersa (HAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). In the cytokine array analysis, 52 proteins were upregulated and 34 were downregulated in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. Among them, the secretion of adiponectin was suppressed in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. HMCs expressed mRNAs for adiponectin and its type 1 receptor, but not the type 2 receptor. Moreover, we revealed a downregulation of adiponectin expression in the glomeruli of renal biopsy specimens from patients with IgAN compared to those with lupus nephritis. We also demonstrated that aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was deposited in the mesangium of patients with IgAN by dual staining of HAA and IgA. Moreover, the urinary HAA/SNA ratio of lectin binding was significantly higher in IgAN compared to other kidney diseases. Since adiponectin has anti-inflammatory effects, including the inhibition of adhesion molecules and cytokines, these data suggest that the local suppression of this adipokine by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 could be involved in the regulation of glomerular inflammation and sclerosis in IgAN.
Project description:Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA).Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens.Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA.This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease.
Project description:This study was aimed at investigating the clinical significance of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) levels measured by a novel lectin-independent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an anti-Gd-IgA1 monoclonal antibody (KM55) as a disease-specific biomarker for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in children. Thirty-three children with IgAN, 40 with non-IgA glomerular diseases, and 38 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were quantified by ELISA using KM55. Results were statistically compared with clinical features and pathological findings of IgAN. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly elevated in children with IgAN compared with children with non-IgA glomerular diseases and HCs. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels in children with IgAN were positively correlated with serum total IgA levels. However, the serum Gd-IgA1/total IgA ratio (Gd-IgA1/IgA) was also significantly elevated in children with IgAN. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels in children with IgAN increased in an age-dependent manner. The cutoff value of serum Gd-IgA1 levels for differentiating IgAN from non-IgA glomerular diseases was 3236 in children < 12?years and 5284 in children ? 12?years, respectively. In contrast, serum Gd-IgA1/IgA was age-independent. The cutoff value of serum Gd-IgA1/IgA for differentiating IgAN from non-IgA glomerular diseases was 0.2401. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were negatively correlated with eGFR and positively correlated with mesangial IgA deposition. In contrast, serum Gd-IgA1/IgA levels were not correlated with any clinical parameters of IgAN. In conclusion, serum Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly elevated in children with IgAN. However, those levels were age-dependent; therefore, serum Gd-IgA1 levels classified by age and/or serum Gd-IgA1/IgA might have diagnostic values in children with IgAN.
Project description:Aberrancies in IgA1 glycosylation have been linked to the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a kidney disease characterized by deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the glomerular mesangium. IgA1 from IgAN patients is characterized by the presence of galactose (Gal)-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region that can act as epitopes for anti-glycan IgG or IgA1 antibodies. The resulting circulating immune complexes are trapped in the glomerular mesangium of the kidney where they trigger localized inflammatory responses by activating mesangial cells. Certain lectins recognize the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-containing O-glycans on Gal-deficient IgA1 and can be potentially used as diagnostic tools. To improve our understanding of GalNAc recognition by these lectins, we have conducted binding studies to assess the interaction of Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) with Gal-deficient IgA1. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed that both HAA and HPA bind to a Gal-deficient synthetic hinge region glycopeptide (HR-GalNAc) as well as various aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 myeloma proteins. Despite having six binding sites, both HAA and HPA bind IgA1 in a functionally bivalent manner, with the apparent affinity for IgA1 related to the number of exposed GalNAc groups in the IgA1 hinge. Finally, HAA and HPA were shown to discriminate very effectively between the IgA1 secreted by cell lines derived from peripheral blood cells of patients with IgAN and that from cells of healthy controls. These studies provide insight into lectin recognition of the Gal-deficient IgA1 hinge region and lay the groundwork for the development of reliable diagnostic tools for IgAN.
Project description:Patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have elevated circulating levels of IgA1 with some O-glycans consisting of galactose (Gal)-deficient N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) with or without N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc). We have analyzed O-glycosylation heterogeneity of naturally asialo-IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein that mimics Gal-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) of patients with IgAN, except that IgA1 O-glycans of IgAN patients are frequently sialylated. Specifically, serum IgA1 of healthy controls has more ?2,3-sialylated O-glycans (NeuAc attached to Gal) than ?2,6-sialylated O-glycans (NeuAc attached to GalNAc). As IgA1-producing cells from IgAN patients have an increased activity of ?2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6GalNAc), we hypothesize that such activity may promote premature sialylation of GalNAc and, thus, production of Gd-IgA1, as sialylation of GalNAc prevents subsequent Gal attachment. Distribution of NeuAc in IgA1 O-glycans may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. To better understand biological functions of NeuAc in IgA1, we established protocols for enzymatic sialylation leading to ?2,3- or ?2,6-sialylation of IgA1 O-glycans. Sialylation of Gal-deficient asialo-IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein by an ST6GalNAc enzyme generated sialylated IgA1 that mimics the Gal-deficient IgA1 glycoforms in patients with IgAN, characterized by ?2,6-sialylated Gal-deficient GalNAc. In contrast, sialylation of the same myeloma protein by an ?2,3-sialyltransferase yielded IgA1 typical for healthy controls, characterized by ?2,3-sialylated Gal. The GalNAc-specific lectin from Helix aspersa (HAA) is used to measure levels of Gd-IgA1. We assessed HAA binding to IgA1 sialylated at Gal or GalNAc. As expected, ?2,6-sialylation of IgA1 markedly decreased reactivity with HAA. Notably, ?2,3-sialylation also decreased reactivity with HAA. Neuraminidase treatment recovered the original HAA reactivity in both instances. These results suggest that binding of a GalNAc-specific lectin is modulated by sialylation of GalNAc as well as Gal in the clustered IgA1 O-glycans. Thus, enzymatic sialylation offers a useful model to test the role of NeuAc in reactivities of the clustered O-glycans with lectins.
Project description:Aberrant glycosylated IgA1 molecules, mainly galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), are important causal factors in IgA nephropathy; however, the underlying mechanism for the production of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 is unknown. A recent genome-wide association study identified a novel IgAN susceptibility gene, TNFSF13, which encoded a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) that promotes lymphocyte proliferation and IgA class switching. We aimed to explore the mechanism of APRIL's involvement in IgAN. We enrolled 166 patients with IgAN and 77 healthy controls and detected the plasma APRIL levels by the ELISA method, identified the mRNA expression of APRIL and its receptors by relative quantitative PCR, and confirmed by in vitro experiment. We identified increased plasma APRIL levels in IgAN, which was further proved by upregulated mRNA expression in B-lymphocytes from 27 IgAN patients. Analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with IgAN showed that higher plasma APRIL level was associated with more severe clinical presentations (high proteinuria and low eGFR). The plasma APRIL level was positively correlated with Gd-IgA1 levels. Furthermore, exogenous APRIL could induce more production of Gd-IgA1 in cultured lymphocytes from patients with IgAN, compared with that from healthy controls. And, the relative higher expression of receptors of APRIL, that is, BCMA and TACI, in B-lymphocytes from IgAN patients were observed. Our findings implied that in patients with IgAN, increased APRIL is accompanied elevated expression of its receptors in B-lymphocytes, which induces overproduction of Gd-IgA1, ultimately contributing to the pathogenesis of IgAN.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Recent studies noted that Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) share the feature of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1)-oriented pathogenesis, although there are distinct clinical differences. We aimed to clarify the clinicopathologic differences between these 2 diseases. METHODS:We cross-sectionally analyzed adult patients with HSPN (n = 24) or IgAN (n = 56) who underwent renal biopsy (RB) between 2008 and 2018 at Showa University Hospital. Serum Gd-IgA1 (s-Gd-IgA1) levels at the time of RB were compared among study groups using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-human Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody (KM55). We also immunohistochemically stained paraffin-embedded sections for glomerular Gd-IgA1 (g-Gd-IgA1)-deposition using KM55. Serum inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA. RESULTS:Glomerular endothelial injury with subendothelial IgA deposition was significant in patients with HSPN. Serum IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with HSPN than IgAN. Levels of s-Gd-IgA1 were comparable among patients with HSPN and IgAN, and a similar degree of g-Gd-IgA1-deposition was detected in both diseases. Furthermore, g-Gd-IgA1-deposition was evident in patients with histopathologically advanced HSPN or IgAN. In HSPN, significant positive correlations between s-Gd-IgA1 levels and crescent formation or IL-6 elevation were confirmed, and g-Gd-IgA1 intensity showed a significant positive correlation with MCP-1 and a tendency to positively correlate with IL-8. Meanwhile, patients with IgAN showed no correlation between inflammatory cytokines and both-Gd-IgA1. Moreover, most g-Gd-IgA1-positive areas were not double stained with CD31 in HSPN. CONCLUSIONS:Although assessing both-Gd-IgA1 alone was insufficient to distinguish between HSPN and IgAN, patients with HSPN showed considerable glomerular capillaritis with subendothelial IgA deposition and significant elevation of serum inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, such glomerular subendothelial IgA deposition might not contain Gd-IgA1, and factors associated with Gd-IgA1 were inconsistent among these 2 diseases. Thus, developmental mechanisms for IgAN might not apply to HSPN completely, and these 2 diseases still have different aspects.
Project description:Background:It has been suggested that mesangial IgA deposits are dimeric or polymeric in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, evidence concerning the molecular form of serum IgA in IgAN is controversial. And there is no direct evidence that the serum levels of joining chain- (J chain-) containing IgA (J-IgA) are elevated in IgAN. In this study, we aimed to measure serum J-IgA and glomerular J chain deposition with anti-J chain monoclonal antibody in IgAN. Methods:BALB/c mice were immunized with human J chain-GST recombinant peptide to obtain anti-J chain monoclonal antibody. The levels of serum total IgA and J-IgA were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 115 patients with IgAN and 117 healthy volunteers. J chain deposition in kidney specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining. Results:Serum levels of total IgA1 were elevated in IgAN patients compared to healthy subjects. However, serum levels of IgA, J-IgA, and J chain-containing IgA1 (J-IgA1), the J-IgA to total IgA ratio, and the J-IgA1 to total IgA1 ratio were not significantly different between IgAN patients and healthy subjects. Western blot analysis and gel filtration analysis using purified IgA1 also showed that the proportion of J chain-containing polymeric IgA1 was lower in IgAN patients compared to healthy subjects. No correlation was found between serum J-IgA or J-IgA1 and clinical features in IgAN. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that glomerular J chain was positive in 12 IgAN patients (57.1%). The values of the J-IgA to IgA ratio and J-IgA1 to IgA ratio were significantly higher in IgAN patients with glomerular J chain deposition than those without. However, the serum levels of J-IgA and J-IgA1 and the J-IgA1 to IgA1 ratio were not significantly higher in two subgroups. Conclusions:Although serum levels of total IgA1 were elevated in IgAN, the serum levels of J-IgA1 were not elevated. And serum J-IgA, serum J-IgA1, and J chain deposition were not correlated with disease severity in IgAN.
Project description:Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN), the leading cause of primary glomerulonephritis, is characterized by IgA1-containing immunodeposits in the glomeruli. IgAN is a chronic disease, with up to 40% of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease, with no disease-specific treatment. Multiple studies of the origin of the glomerular immunodeposits have linked elevated circulating levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (galactose-deficient in some O-glycans; Gd-IgA1) with formation of nephritogenic Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes. Gd-IgA1 is recognized as an autoantigen in susceptible individuals by anti-glycan autoantibodies, resulting in immune complexes that may ultimately deposit in the kidney and induce glomerular injury. Genetic studies have revealed that an elevated level of Gd-IgA1 in the circulation of IgAN patients is a hereditable trait. Moreover, recent genome-wide association studies have identified several immunity-related loci that associated with IgAN. Production of Gd-IgA1 by IgA1-secreting cells of IgAN patients has been attributed to abnormal expression and activity of several key glycosyltransferases. Substantial evidence is emerging that abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells is related to the production of Gd-IgA1. As Gd-IgA1 is the key autoantigen in IgAN, understanding the genetic, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells will provide insight into possible targets for future disease-specific therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:IgA nephropathy(IgAN) is a common glomerular disease with a higher risk of progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) in certain ethnic populations. Since galactose deficient IgA1(Gd-IgA1) is a critical molecule in its pathogenesis, it has generated interest as a biomarker for this disease. METHODS:We measured serum Gd-IgA1 levels using a non- lectin based enzyme linked immunoassay(ELISA) in 136 immunosuppression naïve patients with primary IgAN and 110 controls(60-non IgA glomerular diseases, 50-healthy volunteers). RESULTS:Median serum Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly higher in IgAN patients [13135.6(2723.3,59603.8)ng/ml] compared to those with non IgA glomerular disease [4954.8(892.9,18256.2) ng/ml] and healthy controls [6299.5(1993.2,19256) ng/ml] and this was observed even after log transformation and adjustment for age and gender(p<0.0001). Considering a cut-off value of serum Gd-IGA1?7982.1ng/ml, the sensitivity for diagnosing IgAN compared to healthy controls was 74.3% and specificity was 72.0% with a positive predictive value of 87.8% and negative predictive value of 50.7%. The serum Gd-IgA1 level did not co-relate with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine protein creatinine ratio and the M, E, S, T and C scores on renal biopsy. The renal survival (absence of >30% decrease in eGFR, ESRD or death) was lower in patients with higher serum Gd-IgA1 levels(?7982ng/ml) than those who had lower levels but it was not statistically significant(p = 0.486). CONCLUSION:Serum Gd-IgA1 level is higher in IgAN patients compared to non-IgA glomerular diseases and healthy controls and has a good positive predictive value for diagnosis. However, it does not correlate with clinical and histological characteristics of disease severity and does not predict disease progression.