Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2.
ABSTRACT: Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, organic cations that are implicated in many cellular processes. The enzyme is regulated at the post-translational level by an unusual system that includes antizymes (AZs) and antizyme inhibitors (AZINs). Most studies on this complex regulatory mechanism have been focused on human and rodent cells, showing that AZINs (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are homologues of ODC but devoid of enzymatic activity. Little is known about Xenopus ODC and its paralogues, in spite of the relevance of Xenopus as a model organism for biomedical research. We have used the information existing in different genomic databases to compare the functional properties of the amphibian ODC1, AZIN1 and AZIN2/ODC2, by means of transient transfection experiments of HEK293T cells. Whereas the properties of xlODC1 and xlAZIN1 were similar to those reported for their mammalian orthologues, the former catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-ornithine preferentially to that of L-lysine, xlAZIN2/xlODC2 showed important differences with respect to human and mouse AZIN2. xlAZIN2 did not behave as an antizyme inhibitor, but it rather acts as an authentic decarboxylase forming cadaverine, due to its higher affinity to L-lysine than to L-ornithine as substrate; so, in accordance with this, it should be named as lysine decarboxylase (LDC) or lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LODC). In addition, AZ1 stimulated the degradation of xlAZIN2 by the proteasome, but the removal of the 21 amino acid C-terminal tail, with a sequence quite different to that of mouse or human ODC, made the protein resistant to degradation. Collectively, our results indicate that in Xenopus there is only one antizyme inhibitor (xlAZIN1) and two decarboxylases, xlODC1 and xlLDC, with clear preferences for L-ornithine and L-lysine, respectively.
Project description:Polyamines are organic polycations essential for cell growth and differentiation; their aberrant accumulation is often associated with diseases, including many types of cancer. To maintain polyamine homeostasis, the catalytic activity and protein abundance of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the committed enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis, are reciprocally controlled by the regulatory proteins antizyme isoform 1 (Az1) and antizyme inhibitor (AzIN). Az1 suppresses polyamine production by inhibiting the assembly of the functional ODC homodimer and, most uniquely, by targeting ODC for ubiquitin-independent proteolytic destruction by the 26S proteasome. In contrast, AzIN positively regulates polyamine levels by competing with ODC for Az1 binding. The structural basis of the Az1-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis has remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of human Az1 complexed with either ODC or AzIN. Structural analysis revealed that Az1 sterically blocks ODC homodimerization. Moreover, Az1 binding triggers ODC degradation by inducing the exposure of a cryptic proteasome-interacting surface of ODC, which illustrates how a substrate protein may be primed upon association with Az1 for ubiquitin-independent proteasome recognition. Dynamic and functional analyses further indicated that the Az1-induced binding and degradation of ODC by proteasome can be decoupled, with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail fragment of ODC being required only for degradation but not binding. Finally, the AzIN-Az1 structure suggests how AzIN may effectively compete with ODC for Az1 to restore polyamine production. Taken together, our findings offer structural insights into the Az-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis and proteasomal degradation.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. The two ODC antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1) and (AZIN2) are regulators of the catalytic activity of ODC. While AZIN1 is a regulator of cell proliferation, AZIN2 is involved in intracellular vesicle transport and secretion. There are no previous reports on the impact of AZIN2 expression in human cancer. We applied immunohistochemistry with antibodies to human AZIN2 on tissue micro- arrays of colorectal cancers (CRC) from 840 patients with a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0-25.8). The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 58.9% (95% Cl 55.0-62.8%). High AZIN2 expression was associated with mucinous histology (p = 0.002) and location in the right hemicolon (p = 0.021). We found no association with age, gender, stage, or histological tumor grade. High tumor expression of AZIN2 predicted an unfavorable prognosis (p<0.0001, log-rank test), compared to low AZIN2 expression. Cox multivariable analysis identified AZIN2 as an independent factor of an unfavorable prognosis in CRC. The strongest AZIN2 expression was seen in invasive tumor cells having morphological features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Induction of EMT in HT-29 CRC cells lead to upregulated expression of endogenous AZIN2. Given that AZIN2 is a regulator of vesicle transport and secretion, we overexpressed human AZIN2 cDNA in T84 CRC cells, and found strongly enhanced accumulation of CD63-positive exosomes in the culture medium. These findings indicate that AZIN2 expression is a signature of EMT-associated secretory phenotype that is linked to an adverse prognosis in CRC.
Project description:Cellular polyamines are regulated by a unique feedback mechanism involving ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme. The synthesis of mammalian antizyme requires a programmed translational frameshift event induced by polyamines. Antizyme represses ODC, a key enzyme for polyamine synthesis, through accelerating enzyme degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme also inhibits the cellular uptake of polyamines. In the present study we isolated two distinct zebrafish (Danio rerio) antizyme cDNA clones (AZS and AZL) from an embryonic library. Their sequences revealed that both clones required translational frameshifting for expression. Taking account of +1 frameshifting, AZS and AZL products were 214 and 218 residues long respectively and shared 51.8% amino acid identity. In rabbit reticulocyte lysates, both mRNA species were translated through spermidine-induced frameshifting. The presence of the two antizyme mRNA species in embryos, adult fish and a cultured cell line was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The ratio of AZS mRNA to AZL mRNA in the adult fish was 1.8-fold higher than in the embryos. Whole-mount hybridization in situ demonstrated that both mRNA species are expressed in every tissue in embryo, but predominantly in the central nervous system and the eyes. Bacterial expression products of both cDNA species inhibited ODC activity, but only the AZS product accelerated ODC degradation in vitro. These results show that both zebrafish antizymes are induced by polyamines but their mRNA species are expressed differently during development. The difference in activities on ODC degradation suggests their functional divergence.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates.
Project description:Polyamines are essential organic cations with multiple cellular functions. Their synthesis is controlled by a feedback regulation whose main target is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. In mammals, ODC has been shown to be inhibited and targeted for ubiquitin-independent degradation by ODC antizyme (AZ). The synthesis of mammalian AZ was reported to involve a polyamine-induced ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. High levels of polyamine therefore inhibit new synthesis of polyamines by inducing ODC degradation. We identified a previously unrecognized sequence in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding an orthologue of mammalian AZ. We show that synthesis of yeast AZ (Oaz1) involves polyamine-regulated frameshifting as well. Degradation of yeast ODC by the proteasome depends on Oaz1. Using this novel model system for polyamine regulation, we discovered another level of its control. Oaz1 itself is subject to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the proteasome. Degradation of Oaz1, however, is inhibited by polyamines. We propose a model, in which polyamines inhibit their ODC-mediated biosynthesis by two mechanisms, the control of Oaz1 synthesis and inhibition of its degradation.
Project description:The specific role of polyamines in the testis physiology is not fully understood. Antizymes (OAZs) and antizyme inhibitors (AZINs) are modulators of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and polyamine uptake. Although the three known OAZs are expressed in the testis, only OAZ3 is testis specific and has been proven to have an essential role in male fertility. Regarding the two existing AZINs, AZIN2 is the most abundantly expressed member in this gonad. Whereas previous studies suggested that AZIN2 might participate in mouse spermatogenesis, immunohistological analysis of human testicular sections revealed that AZIN2 is also detected in the steroidogenic Leydig cells but not in the germinal epithelium. In the present study, we found a close ontogenic similarity in the mRNA levels of OAZs and AZINs between mice and rats, but an opposite expression pattern of ODC activity. Further analysis of AZIN2 and OAZ3 in the testis of mice with different alterations in spermatogenesis and fertility, induced either genetically or pharmacologically, corroborated that both AZIN2 and OAZ3 are mainly expressed in the haploid germinal cells. Finally, by using transgenic mice with a truncated Azin2 gene fused to the bacterial lacZ gene, we studied the expression of Azin2 in testes, epididymides and spermatozoa. AZIN2 was detected in spermatids and spermatozoa, as well as in Leydig cells, and in epithelial epidydimal cells. Azin2 knock-out male mice were fertile; however, they showed marked decreases in testicular putrescine and plasma and testicular testosterone levels, and a dramatic reduction in the sperm motility. These results suggest an important role for AZIN2 in testicular cells by modulating polyamine concentrations, testosterone synthesis and sperm function. Overall, our data corroborate the relevance of polyamine regulation in testis functions, where both AZIN2 and OAZ3 play fundamental roles.
Project description:ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are essential for cellular growth and differentiation but enhanced ODC activity is associated with cell transformation. Post-translationally, ODC is negatively regulated through members of the antizyme family. Antizymes inhibit ODC activity, promote ODC degradation through the 26 S proteasome and regulate polyamine transport. Besides the ubiquitously expressed antizymes 1 and 2, there is the tissue-specific antizyme 3 and an yet uncharacterized antizyme 4. Antizyme 1 has been shown to be negatively regulated through the AZI (antizyme inhibitor) that binds antizyme 1 with higher affinity compared with ODC. In the present study, we show by yeast two- and three-hybrid protein-protein interaction studies that AZI interacts with all members of the antizyme family and is capable of disrupting the interaction between each antizyme and ODC. In a yeast-based ODC complementation assay, we show that human ODC is able to complement fully the function of the yeast homologue of ODC. Co-expression of antizymes resulted in ODC inhibition and cessation of yeast growth. The antizyme-induced growth inhibition could be reversed by addition of putrescine or by the co-expression of AZI. The protein interactions could be confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the human ODC-antizyme 2-AZI complexes. In summary, we conclude that human AZI is capable of acting as a general inhibitor for all members of the antizyme family and that the previously not yet characterized antizyme 4 is capable of binding ODC and inhibiting its enzymic activity similar to the other members of the antizyme family.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. It is a short-lived protein and negatively regulated by its products, polyamines. Its degradation is accelerated by the binding of antizyme, an ODC-inhibitory protein induced by polyamines. To evaluate the physiological importance of antizyme we examined the effect of forced expression of antizyme on cellular ODC and polyamine levels and cell growth. Antizyme almost completely abolished the induction of ODC by growth stimuli. This may have been caused by antizyme-induced rapid degradation of newly synthesized ODC, since the half-life of ODC complexes with antizyme was less than 5 min. Forced expression of antizyme caused reductions of cellular putrescine and spermidine levels, and inhibited cell growth, which was partially restored by the addition of putrescine. These observations suggested a critically important role of antizyme in polyamine metabolism.