The stoichiometry and biophysical properties of the Kv4 potassium channel complex with K+ channel-interacting protein (KChIP) subunits are variable, depending on the relative expression level.
ABSTRACT: Kv4 is a voltage-gated K(+) channel, which underlies somatodendritic subthreshold A-type current (ISA) and cardiac transient outward K(+) (Ito) current. Various ion channel properties of Kv4 are known to be modulated by its auxiliary subunits, such as K(+) channel-interacting protein (KChIP) or dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein. KChIP is a cytoplasmic protein and increases the current amplitude, decelerates the inactivation, and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of Kv4. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that Kv4 and KChIP form an octameric complex with four Kv4 subunits and four KChIP subunits. However, it remains unknown whether the Kv4·KChIP complex can have a different stoichiometry other than 4:4. In this study, we expressed Kv4.2 and KChIP4 with various ratios in Xenopus oocytes and observed that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 gradually changed with the increase in co-expressed KChIP4. The tandem repeat constructs of Kv4.2 and KChIP4 revealed that the 4:4 (Kv4.2/KChIP4) channel shows faster recovery than the 4:2 channel, suggesting that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 change, depending on the number of bound KChIP4s. Subunit counting by single-molecule imaging revealed that the bound number of KChIP4 in each Kv4.2·KChIP4 complex was dependent on the expression level of KChIP4. Taken together, we conclude that the stoichiometry of Kv4·KChIP complex is variable, and the biophysical properties of Kv4 change depending on the number of bound KChIP subunits.
Project description:The K+ channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) are a family of cytosolic proteins that interact with Kv4 channels, leading to higher current density, modulation of channel inactivation and faster recovery from inactivation. Using immunohistochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic level combined with quantitative analysis, we investigated the cellular and subcellular localisation of KChIP3 and KChIP4 to compare their distribution patterns with those for Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in the cerebellar cortex. Immunohistochemistry at the light microscopic level demonstrated that KChIP3, KChIP4, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 proteins were widely expressed in the cerebellum, with mostly overlapping patterns. Immunoelectron microscopic techniques showed that KChIP3, KChIP4, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 shared virtually the same somato-dendritic domains of Purkinje cells and granule cells. Application of quantitative approaches showed that KChIP3 and KChIP4 were mainly membrane-associated, but also present at cytoplasmic sites close to the plasma membrane, in dendritic spines and shafts of Purkinje cells (PCs) and dendrites of granule cells (GCs). Similarly, immunoparticles for Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 were observed along the plasma membrane and at intracellular sites in the same neuron populations. In addition to the preferential postsynaptic distribution, KChIPs and Kv4 were also distributed presynaptically in parallel fibres and mossy fibres. Immunoparticles for KChIP3, KChIP4 and Kv4.3 were detected in parallel fibres, and KChIP3, KChIP4, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 were found in parallel fibres, indicating that composition of KChIP and Kv4 seems to be input-dependent. Together, our findings unravelled previously uncharacterised KChIP and Kv4 subcellular localisation patterns in neurons, revealed that KChIP have additional Kv4-unrelated functions in the cerebellum and support the formation of macromolecular complexes between KChIP3 and KChIP4 with heterotetrameric Kv4.2/Kv4.3 channels.
Project description:Kv4 is a member of the voltage-gated K(+) channel family and forms a complex with various accessory subunits. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein (DPP) is one of the auxiliary subunits for the Kv4 channel. Although DPP has been well characterized and is known to increase the current amplitude and accelerate the inactivation and recovery from inactivation of Kv4 current, it remains to be determined how many DPPs bind to one Kv4 channel. To examine whether the expression level of DPP changes the biophysical properties of Kv4, we expressed Kv4.2 and DPP10 in different ratios in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed the currents under two-electrode voltage clamp. The current amplitude and the speed of recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2 changed depending on the co-expression level of DPP10. This raised the possibility that the stoichiometry of the Kv4.2-DPP10 complex is variable and affects the biophysical properties of Kv4.2. We next determined the stoichiometry of DPP10 alone by subunit counting using single-molecule imaging. Approximately 70% of the DPP10 formed dimers in the plasma membrane, and the rest existed as monomers in the absence of Kv4.2. We next determined the stoichiometry of the Kv4.2-DPP10 complex; Kv4.2-mCherry and mEGFP-DPP10 were co-expressed in different ratios and the stoichiometries of Kv4.2-DPP10 complexes were evaluated by the subunit counting method. The stoichiometry of the Kv4.2-DPP10 complex was variable depending on the relative expression level of each subunit, with a preference for 4:2 stoichiometry. This preference may come from the bulky dimeric structure of the extracellular domain of DPP10.
Project description:K channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) enhance functional expression of Kv4 channels by binding to an N-terminal regulatory region located in the first 40 amino acids of Kv4.2 that we call the functional expression regulating N-terminal (FERN) domain. Mutating two residues in the FERN domain to alanines, W8A and F11A, disrupts KChIP binding and regulation of Kv4.2 without eliminating the FERN domain's control of basal expression level or regulation by DPP6. When Kv4.2(W8A,F11A) is co-expressed with wild type Kv4.2 and KChIP3 subunits, a dominant negative effect is seen where the current expression is reduced to levels normally seen without KChIP addition. The dominant negative effect correlates with heteromultimeric channels remaining on intracellular membranes despite KChIP binding to non-mutant Kv4.2 subunits. In contrast, the deletion mutant Kv4.2(?1-40), eliminating both KChIP binding and the FERN domain, has no dominant negative effect even though the maximal conductance level is 5x lower than seen with KChIP3. The 5x increased expression seen with KChIP integration into the channel is fully apparent even when a reduced number of KChIP subunits are incorporated as long as all FERN domains are bound. Our results support the hypothesis that KChIPs enhances Kv4.2 functional expression by a 1 : 1 suppression of the N-terminal FERN domain and by producing additional positive regulatory effects on functional channel expression.
Project description:Members of the K(+) channel-interacting protein (KChIP) family bind the distal N termini of members of the Shal subfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channel (Kv4) pore-forming (?) subunits to generate rapidly activating, rapidly inactivating neuronal A-type (I(A)) and cardiac transient outward (I(to)) currents. In heterologous cells, KChIP co-expression increases cell surface expression of Kv4 ? subunits and Kv4 current densities, findings interpreted to suggest that Kv4·KChIP complex formation enhances forward trafficking of channels (from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi complex) to the surface membrane. The results of experiments here, however, demonstrate that KChIP2 increases cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression (?40-fold) by an order of magnitude more than the increase in total protein (?2-fold) or in current densities (?3-fold), suggesting that mechanisms at the cell surface regulate the functional expression of Kv4.2 channels. Additional experiments demonstrated that KChIP2 decreases the turnover rate of cell surface Kv4.2 protein by inhibiting endocytosis and/or promoting recycling. Unexpectedly, the experiments here also revealed that Kv4.2·KChIP2 complex formation stabilizes not only (total and cell surface) Kv4.2 but also KChIP2 protein expression. This reciprocal protein stabilization and Kv4·KChIP2 complex formation are lost with deletion of the distal (10 amino acids) Kv4.2 N terminus. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that KChIP2 differentially regulates total and cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression and Kv4 current densities.
Project description:Rapidly activating and inactivating somatodendritic voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) currents, I(A), play critical roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Considerable evidence suggests that native neuronal I(A) channels function in macromolecular protein complexes comprising pore-forming (?) subunits of the Kv4 subfamily together with cytosolic, K(+) channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and transmembrane, dipeptidyl peptidase 6 and 10 (DPP6/10) accessory subunits, as well as other accessory and regulatory proteins. Several recent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the KChIP subunits in the generation of native Kv4.2-encoded channels and that Kv4.2-KChIP complex formation results in mutual (Kv4.2-KChIP) protein stabilization. The results of the experiments here, however, demonstrate that expression of DPP6 in the mouse cortex is unaffected by the targeted deletion of Kv4.2 and/or Kv4.3. Further experiments revealed that heterologously expressed DPP6 and DPP10 localize to the cell surface in the absence of Kv4.2, and that co-expression with Kv4.2 does not affect total or cell surface DPP6 or DPP10 protein levels. In the presence of DPP6 or DPP10, however, cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression is selectively increased. Further addition of KChIP3 in the presence of DPP10 markedly increases total and cell surface Kv4.2 protein levels, compared with cells expressing only Kv4.2 and DPP10. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that the expression and localization of the DPP accessory subunits are independent of Kv4 ? subunits and further that the DPP6/10 and KChIP accessory subunits independently stabilize the surface expression of Kv4.2.
Project description:Auxiliary Kv channel-interacting proteins 1-4 (KChIPs1-4) coassemble with pore-forming Kv4 ?-subunits to form channel complexes underlying somatodendritic subthreshold A-type current that regulates neuronal excitability. It has been hypothesized that different KChIPs can competitively bind to Kv4 ?-subunit to form variable channel complexes that can exhibit distinct biophysical properties for modulation of neural function. In this study, we use single-molecule subunit counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in combinations with electrophysiology and biochemistry to investigate whether different isoforms of auxiliary KChIPs, KChIP4a, and KChIP4bl, can compete for binding of Kv4.3 to coassemble heteromultimeric channel complexes for modulation of channel function. To count the number of photobleaching steps solely from cell membrane, we take advantage of a membrane tethered k-ras-CAAX peptide that anchors cytosolic KChIP4 proteins to the surface for reduction of background noise. Single-molecule subunit counting reveals that the number of KChIP4 isoforms in Kv4.3-KChIP4 complexes can vary depending on the KChIP4 expression level. Increasing the amount of KChIP4bl gradually reduces bleaching steps of KChIP4a isoform proteins, and vice versa. Further analysis of channel gating kinetics from different Kv4-KChIP4 subunit compositions confirms that both KChIP4a and KChIP4bl can modulate the channel complex function upon coassembly. Taken together, our findings show that auxiliary KChIPs can heteroassemble with Kv4 in a competitive manner to form heteromultimeric Kv4-KChIP4 channel complexes that are biophysically distinct and regulated under physiological or pathological conditions.
Project description:Post-translational conjugation of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) peptides to lysine (K) residues on target proteins alters their interactions. SUMOylation of a target protein can either promote its interaction with other proteins that possess SUMO binding domains, or it can prevent target protein interactions that normally occur in the absence of SUMOylation. One subclass of voltage-gated potassium channels that mediates an A-type current, IA, exists as a ternary complex comprising Kv4 pore-forming subunits, Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIP) and transmembrane dipeptidyl peptidase like proteins (DPPL). SUMOylation could potentially regulate intra- and/or intermolecular interactions within the complex. This study began to test this hypothesis and showed that Kv4.2 channels were SUMOylated in the rat brain and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing a GFP-tagged mouse Kv4.2 channel (Kv4.2g). Prediction software identified two putative SUMOylation sites in the Kv4.2 C-terminus at K437 and K579. These sites were conserved across mouse, rat, and human Kv4.2 channels and across mouse Kv4 isoforms. Increasing Kv4.2g SUMOylation at each site by ~30% produced a significant ~22%-50% decrease in IA Gmax, and a ~70%-95% increase in channel surface expression. Site-directed mutagenesis of Kv4.2g showed that K437 SUMOylation regulated channel surface expression, while K579 SUMOylation controlled IA Gmax. The K579R mutation mimicked and occluded the SUMOylation-mediated decrease in IA Gmax, suggesting that SUMOylation at K579 blocked an intra- or inter-protein interaction involving K579. The K437R mutation did not obviously alter channel surface expression or biophysical properties, but it did block the SUMOylation-mediated increase in channel surface expression. Interestingly, enhancing K437 SUMOylation in the K579R mutant roughly doubled channel surface expression, but produced no change in IA Gmax, suggesting that the newly inserted channels were electrically silent. This is the first report that Kv4.2 channels are SUMOylated and that SUMOylation can independently regulate Kv4.2 surface expression and IA Gmax in opposing directions. The next step will be to determine if/how SUMOylation affects Kv4 interactions within the ternary complex.
Project description:Kv4 potassium channels produce rapidly inactivating currents that regulate excitability of muscles and nerves. To reconstitute the neuronal A-type current I(SA), Kv4 subunits assemble with DPP6, a single transmembrane domain accessory subunit. DPP6 alters function-accelerating activation, inactivation, and recovery from inactivation-and increases surface expression. We sought here to determine the stoichiometry of Kv4 and DPP6 in complexes using functional and biochemical methods. First, wild type channels formed from subunit monomers were compared with channels carrying subunits linked in tandem to enforce 4:4 and 4:2 assemblies (Kv4.2-DPP6 and Kv4.2-Kv4.2-DPP6). Next, channels were overexpressed and purified so that the molar ratio of subunits in complexes could be assessed by direct amino acid analysis. Both biophysical and biochemical methods indicate that I(SA) channels carry four subunits each of Kv4.2 and DPP6.
Project description:Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) are auxiliary subunits of the heteromultimeric channel complexes that underlie neuronal I(SA), the subthreshold transient K(+) current that dynamically regulates membrane excitability, action potential firing properties, and long term potentiation. KChIPs form cytoplasmic associations with the principal pore-forming Kv4 subunits and typically mediate enhanced surface expression and accelerated recovery from depolarization-induced inactivation. An exception is KChIP4a, which dramatically suppresses Kv4 inactivation while promoting neither surface expression nor recovery. These unusual properties are attributed to the effects of a K channel inactivation suppressor domain (KISD) encoded within the variable N terminus of KChIP4a. Here, we have functionally and biochemically characterized two brain KChIP isoforms, KChIP2x and KChIP3x (also known as KChIP3b) and show that they also contain a functional KISD. Like KChIP4a and in contrast with non-KISD-containing KChIPs, both KChIP2x and KChIP3x strongly suppress inactivation and slow activation and inhibit the typical increases in surface expression of Kv4.2 channels. We then examined the properties of the KISD to determine potential mechanisms for its action. Subcellular fractionation shows that KChIP4a, KChIP2x, and KChIP3x are highly associated with the membrane fraction. Fluorescent confocal imaging of enhanced green fluorescent proteins (eGFP) N-terminally fused with KISD in HEK293T cells indicates that KISDs of KChIP4a, KChIP2x, and KChIP3x all autonomously target eGFP to intracellular membranes. Cell surface biotinylation experiments on KChIP4a indicate that the N terminus is exposed extracellularly, consistent with a transmembrane KISD. In summary, KChIP4a, KChIP2x, and KChIP3x comprise a novel class of KChIP isoforms characterized by an unusual transmembrane domain at their N termini that modulates Kv4 channel gating and trafficking.
Project description:Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) belong to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family of Ca2+-binding EF-hand proteins. KChIPs constitute a group of specific auxiliary ?-subunits for Kv4 channels, the molecular substrate of transient potassium currents in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Moreover, KChIPs can interact with presenilins to control ER calcium signaling and apoptosis, and with DNA to control gene transcription. Ca2+ binding via their EF-hands, with the consequence of conformationl changes, is well documented for KChIPs. Moreover, the Ca2+ dependence of the presenilin/KChIP complex may be related to Alzheimer's disease and the Ca2+ dependence of the DNA/KChIP complex to pain sensing. However, only in few cases could the Ca2+ binding to KChIPs be directly linked to the control of excitability in nerve and muscle cells known to express Kv4/KChIP channel complexes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the Ca2+ binding properties of KChIPs and the Ca2+ dependencies of macromolecular complexes containing KChIPs, including those with presenilins, DNA and especially Kv4 channels. The respective physiological or pathophysiolgical roles of Ca2+ binding to KChIPs are discussed.