Hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children below five years of age in Romania.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Rotavirus (RV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), affecting 95% of children below five years of age. METHODS:In this prospective, multi-center study, children below five years of age who were hospitalized or those who visited the emergency room (ER) due to AGE or who developed AGE at least 48 hours after hospitalization (nosocomial infection) and had a RV-positive stool sample were included (n=1,222). RV-positive samples were genotyped by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:RV test results were available for 1,212 children (hospitalizations [n=677], ER visits [n=398] and nosocomial AGE cases [n=137]). Proportions of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations and ER visits were 51.70% (350/677; 95%CI: 47.86-55.52) and 36.18% (144/398; 95%CI: 31.45-41.12), respectively. Overall, 45.95% (494/1075) of all community-acquired AGE cases were due to RV. High numbers of RVGE cases were recorded between January and March. Most common genotypes were G9P (34.27%) followed by G4P (25.83%) and G1P (23.02%). Of all community-acquired RVGE cases, the highest number of cases was observed in children aged 12-23 months. Median duration of hospitalization among RV-positive subjects was six days (range: 2-31 days). Incidence of nosocomial RVGE was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.45-0.60) cases per 1,000 child-days hospitalization. Median duration for additional hospitalization due to nosocomial RVGE was five days (range: 1-10). The highest burden of nosocomial RVGE was observed in children aged 12-23 months (42.34%, 58/137). Our findings confirm a high burden of acute RVGE disease in Romania and provide useful data to support the implementation of RV vaccination in Romania. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01253967.
Project description:This study describes the epidemiology of rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis (GE) disease following the introduction of RV vaccination in Greece in 2006.A prospective hospital-based surveillance.A multicentre study was conducted at six hospitals in Greece between July 2008 and March 2010. The hospitals selected served 70% of the paediatric population in Greece.Children aged <5 years who visited the emergency rooms (ERs) or hospitalised with acute GE or acquired acute GE 48 h after hospitalisation and with a confirmed RV-positive stool test were enrolled.The occurrence of RVGE among all acute GE ER visits and hospitalisations and the occurrence of nosocomial RVGE are reported with 95% exact CI. Age-specific proportions of RVGE, seasonality and prevalence of RV genotypes were estimated. Incidence rates of nosocomial acute GE and RVGE are expressed in terms of 1000 children-years with 95% exact Poisson CI. Median duration of hospitalisation and prolongation of hospitalisation due to nosocomial RVGE were reported.RVGE proportions were 10.7% (95% CI 5.5% to 18.3%) and 23.8% (95% CI 20.0% to 28.0%) of acute GE ER visits and hospitalisations, respectively; and 21.6% (95% CI 9.8% to 38.2%) of nosocomial acute GE cases. The majority of RVGE cases occurred in children aged <24 months (53%). RV infection peaked between December and May (31.4%). The most common RV genotypes were G4 (59.6%) and P (75.2%). The median duration of RVGE hospitalisation was 4 days (range 1-10 days). Incidence of nosocomial RVGE was 0.3 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.7)/1000 children-years. The median prolongation of hospitalisation due to nosocomial RVGE was 5 days (range 4-7 days).Our analysis report low proportions of RVGE among acute GE cases in Greece which may be attributable to available RV vaccination in Greece. Future impact/effectiveness studies are necessary to confirm this finding.NCT00751686.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Rotavirus (RV) vaccines are available in Spain since 2006 but are not included in the National Immunization Program. RV vaccination has reached an intermediate vaccination coverage rate (VCR) but with substantial differences between provinces. The aim of this study was to assess the ratio of RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) admissions to all-cause hospitalizations in children under 5 years of age in areas with different VCR. <h4>Methods</h4> Observational, multicenter, cross-sectional, medical record-based study. All children admitted to the study hospitals with a RVGE confirmed diagnosis during a 5-year period were selected. The annual ratio of RVGE to the total number of all-cause hospitalizations in children < 5 years of age were calculated. The proportion of RVGE hospitalizations were compared in areas with low (< 30%), intermediate (31–59%) and high (> 60%) VCR. <h4>Results</h4> From June 2013 to May 2018, data from 1731 RVGE hospitalizations (16.47% of which were nosocomial) were collected from the 12 study hospitals. RVGE hospital admissions accounted for 2.82% (95 CI 2.72–3.00) and 43.84% (95% CI 40.53–47.21) of all-cause and Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations in children under 5 years of age, respectively. The likelihood of hospitalization due to RVGE was 56% (IC95%, 51–61%) and 27% (IC95%, 18–35%) lower in areas with high and intermediate VCR, respectively, compared to the low VCR areas. <h4>Conclusions</h4> RVGE hospitalization ratios are highly dependent on the RV VCR. Increasing VCR in areas with intermediate and low coverage rates would significantly reduce the severe burden of RVGE that requires hospital management in Spain. Clinical trial registration Not applicable <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12879-021-06841-x.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To estimate the proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) among children aged less than 5 years who had been diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and admitted to hospitals and emergency rooms (ERs). The seasonal distribution of RVGE and most prevalent rotavirus (RV) strains was also assessed.<h4>Design</h4>A cross-sectional hospital-based surveillance study.<h4>Setting</h4>5 reference paediatric hospitals across Abidjan.<h4>Participants</h4>Children aged less than 5 years, who were hospitalised/visiting ERs for WHO-defined AGE, were enrolled. Written informed consent was obtained from parents/guardians before enrolment. Children who acquired nosocomial infection were excluded from the study.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>The proportion of RVGE among AGE hospitalisations and ER visits was expressed with 95% exact CI. Stool samples were collected from all enrolled children and were tested for the presence of RV using an enzyme immunoassay. RV-positive samples were serotyped using reverse transcriptase-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Of 357 enrolled children (mean age 13.6±11.14 months), 332 were included in the final analyses; 56.3% (187/332) were hospitalised and 43.7% (145/332) were admitted to ERs. The proportion of RVGE hospitalisations and ER visits among all AGE cases was 30.1% (95% CI 23.6% to 37.3%) and 26.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 34.9%), respectively. Ninety-five children (28.6%) were RV positive; the highest number of RVGE cases was observed in children aged 6-11 months. The number of GE cases peaked in July and August 2008; the highest percentage of RV-positive cases was observed in January 2008. G1P wild-type and G8P were the most commonly detected strains.<h4>Conclusions</h4>RVGE causes substantial morbidity among children under 5 years of age and remains a health concern in the Republic of Ivory Coast, where implementation of prevention strategies such as vaccination might help to reduce disease burden.
Project description:Background: Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children. There is no specific treatment for AGE caused by RV (RVGE) but since 2006 two safe and effective vaccines have been available. RV vaccination was included in the national immunization program (NIP) of Latvia in 2015 with full reimbursement, and within the first year a coverage of 87% was achieved. This surveillance study was carried out to investigate the proportion of RVGE among AGE episodes in Latvia up to the inclusion of RV vaccination in the NIP to provide a basis for future assessments of the impact of RV vaccination. Methods: Prospective, one-year observational study of children younger than 5 years presenting with AGE in the primary care setting. At first primary care contact, a stool sample was collected and tested for RV using a rapid, visual immunochromatographic kit. The parents monitored their child's symptoms over 2 weeks after the first contact and the investigator recorded these observations during a follow-up phone call. The proportion of RVGE among the AGE cases was estimated and the severity of each AGE case was assessed based on the recorded symptoms using the 20-point Vesikari scale. The seasonality of RVGE was also investigated. Results: Fifty-two primary care investigators collected data on 606 evaluable children with AGE. The proportion of RVGE was 38.1%. Severe AGE was experienced by 40.7% of the RV-positive and 19.5% of the RV-negative patients. The rate of hospitalization was 9.1% for the RV-positive and 4.8% for the RV-negative with no difference in the mean duration of hospital stays. AGE and RVGE both occurred all year round but with a clearly marked peak only for RVGE, from March to May. Conclusion: This study underlines that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under 5 years old in Latvia and that the burden of disease of RVGE in primary care was substantial before inclusion of RV vaccination in the NIP. Trial registration: NCT01733849.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rotavirus affects 95% of children worldwide by age 5 years and is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea. The objective of this review was to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the Western European pediatric population.<h4>Methods</h4>A comprehensive literature search (1999-2010) was conducted in PubMed and other sources (CDC; WHO, others). Data on the epidemiology and burden of RVGE among children < 5 years-old in Western Europe --including hospital-acquired disease--were extracted.<h4>Results</h4>76 studies from 16 countries were identified. The mean percentage of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases caused by rotavirus ranged from 25.3%-63.5% in children < 5 years of age, peaking during winter. Incidence rates of RVGE ranged from 1.33-4.96 cases/100 person- years. Hospitalization rates for RVGE ranged from 7% to 81% among infected children, depending on the country. Nosocomial RVGE accounted for 47%-69% of all hospital-acquired AGE and prolonged hospital stays by 4-12 days. Each year, RVGE incurred $0.54- $53.6 million in direct medical costs and $1.7-$22.4 million in indirect costs in the 16 countries studied. Full serotyping data was available for 8 countries. G1P, G2P, G9P, and G3P were the most prevalent serotypes (cumulative frequency: 57.2%- 98.7%). Serotype distribution in nosocomial RVGE was similar.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This review confirms that RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity and costs across Western Europe. A vaccine protecting against multiple serotypes may decrease the epidemiological and cost burden of RVGE in Western Europe.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Globally, rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of gastroenteritis (GE) in children. Longitudinal data about changes in RV genotype distribution and vaccine effectiveness (VE) are scarce. This study was conducted in Lebanon over 3 consecutive RV seasons to estimate the rate of RVGE hospitalization, identify RV genotypes, determine the seasonal and geographical variations, and calculate RV VE.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This prospective, multicenter, hospital-based surveillance study was conducted between 2011 and 2013 and enrolled children (<5 years) admitted for GE. Socio-demographic and clinical data about the current episode of GE at admission were collected. Genotypes were determined from stool samples testing positive for RV by PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1,414 cases included in the final analysis, 83% were <2 years old and 55.6% were boys. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days and 91.6% of GE cases were severe (Vesikari score ?11). PCR testing showed that 30.3% of subjects were RV-positive of which 62.1% had fever versus 71.1% of RV-negative subjects (P = 0.001). RV was predominantly detected in the cold season from November till March (69.9%). G and P genotype pairs for all RV-positive stool specimens showed a predominance of G1P in 36% (n = 154) of specimens, G9P in 26.4% (n = 113), and G2P in 17.8% (n = 76). RV-negative subjects were more likely to be RV-vaccinated (21%) compared to the RV-positive subjects (11.3%) (P<0.001), with a vaccine breakthrough rate of 18.8%. The ratio of RV1-vaccinated for each RV5-vaccinated subject was 7.8 and VE against RV disease was 68.4% (95%CI, 49.6%-80.2%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>RV is a major cause of GE requiring hospitalization of children under 5 years of age in Lebanon. A few genotypes predominated over the three RV seasons studied. Mass RV vaccination will likely decrease the burden of hospitalization due to RV. VE is similar to what has been observed for other middle-income countries.
Project description:This study was conducted to assess the impact of administration of two-dose rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) among children aged less than 5 y in three states/territories of Australia. Aggregated and de-identified data on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause gastroenteritis (AGE) from July 1998-June 2009 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare database. The baseline incidence (July 1998-June 2006) of RVGE hospitalizations before RV vaccine introduction in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT) were 33.75, 42.93 and 288.67 per 10,000 child-years, respectively among children aged 0-11 mo. Following RV vaccine introduction in NSW, the ACT and the NT, incidence of RVGE hospitalizations reduced to 13.06, 17.35 and 47.52 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2007-June 2008 and 3.87, 8.40 and 122.79 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2008-June 2009 among children aged 0-11 mo. Reductions in RVGE and AGE were also observed in all children below 5 y of age in NSW and the ACT. Overall reduction in hospitalizations due to RVGE and AGE was observed following RV vaccine introduction into the NIP in Australia.
Project description:Most of the severe cases of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children under 5 globally are caused by rotavirus infection. There are nearly 15,000 rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations in Italy each year, which could be reduced by available rotavirus vaccines. In addition to the economic and societal burden, RVGE hospitalization could impact families negatively. The aim of this survey was to obtain parents' insights after hospitalization of their child for RVGE. Parents, of 500 children aged 0-5 years, were interviewed about their experience of RVGE hospitalization and asked to rate their stress on different items and overall. Most children (32.6%) were hospitalized aged 12-23 months, and 6.8% were <6 months old. Family pediatricians referred 56.2% of cases to hospital, and 25.8% went based on their parents' decision. During hospitalization, mean parental stress scores (out of 10, with 10 as highest stress) ranged from 6.6 to 8.4. The highest scores were for child malaise (8.42, SD 1.00), vomiting/diarrhea (8.07, SD 0.97), stress for the family in general (7.82, SD 0.90), parental stress (7.68, SD 0.93) and child dehydration (7.18, SD 1.02). The overall stress for the family was graded as 'high' by 67.2% of parents. Geographical areas and stress level were related (p = 0.0071), being the "high" stress score not an evenly distributed variable (p < 0.0001). Most children (91.8%) were not vaccinated against rotavirus, as most parents (74.5%) were not aware of vaccination availability. Parental distress due to RVGE hospitalization appears to be significant (93.6% reporting high/medium stress) and there is an important lack of awareness among parents about rotavirus vaccination. More education on RVGE for families in Italy should be warranted.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The benefits of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in developed countries have focused on reductions in mortality, hospitalization and medical visits, and herd protection. We investigated other aspects related to RV-induced nosocomial infection, duration of hospital stay, age shift, and sustained vaccine impact (VI) over time.<h4>Method</h4>RotaBIS (Rotavirus Belgian Impact Study; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146) annually collects retrospective data on hospitalization linked to RV testing in children up to 5 years old from 11 pediatric wards located all over Belgium. Data from 2005 to 2012 have been split in pre- (2005-2006) and post-vaccination (2007-2012) period. Information was collected on age, gender, RV test result, nosocomial infection caused by RV and duration of hospital stay.<h4>Results</h4>Over the 6-year period after the introduction of the RV vaccine, an 85% reduction in nosocomial infections was observed (221 in 2005 to 33 in 2012, p < 0.001). A significant reduction of almost 2 days in average duration of hospital stay per event was observed overall (7.62 days in 2005 to 5.77 days in 2012, p < 0.001). The difference is mainly explained by the higher reduction in number of nosocomial infections. A pronounced age shift (+24%, p < 0.01) of RV nosocomial infection to infants ≤2 months old was observed, increasing with length of post-vaccination period. VI was maintained over the follow-up (±79% VI per birth cohort). A decrease was seen depending on age, 85% (95% CI 76-91%) in the youngest to 63% (95% CI 22-92%) in the oldest age group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The higher reduction in nosocomial infection may affect the overall average duration of hospital stay for RV infection. No change in VI by birth cohort, but a reduction by age group was observed. These findings could be important for decision-makers considering the introduction of universal mass RV vaccination programs.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146.<h4>Funding</h4>GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA (Rixensart, Belgium).
Project description:Two vaccines against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been available in Europe since 2006. Vaccination against rotaviruses significantly reduces the burden of RVGE, but it is also associated with a very small increased risk of intussusception. In a benefit-risk analysis, the prevented RVGE burden is weighed against the possible excess of intussusception.The aim was to compare the estimated benefits and risks of Rotarix vaccination in France.We estimated the benefits (vaccine-preventable RVGE hospitalizations and deaths) and risks (vaccine-caused intussusception hospitalizations and deaths) following two doses of Rotarix in a birth cohort of 791,183 followed for 3-5 years in France. We used data from peer-reviewed clinical and epidemiological studies or publications, and government statistics.Within the total number of French children below 5 years of age, we estimate vaccination could prevent a median 11,132 [95% credible interval (CI) 7842-14,408] RVGE hospitalizations and 7.43 (95% CI 3.27-14.68) RVGE deaths. At the same time, vaccination could cause an average of 6.86 (95% CI 2.25-38.37) intussusception hospitalizations and 0.0099 (95% CI 0.0024-0.060) intussusception deaths in the entire French birth cohort of infants below 1 year of age. Therefore, for every intussusception hospitalization and every intussusception death caused by vaccination, 1624 (95% CI 240-5243) RVGE hospitalizations and 743 (95% CI 93-3723) RVGE deaths are prevented, respectively, by vaccination.The vaccine-prevented RVGE hospitalizations and deaths (benefit) greatly outweigh the excess potentially vaccination-related cases of intussusception (risk), indicating a favorable benefit-risk balance for Rotarix in France.