Associations of NINJ2 sequence variants with incident ischemic stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. METHODS AND RESULTS:We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). CONCLUSION:Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The genes underlying the risk of stroke in the general population remain undetermined. METHODS:We carried out an analysis of genomewide association data generated from four large cohorts composing the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, including 19,602 white persons (mean [+/-SD] age, 63+/-8 years) in whom 1544 incident strokes (1164 ischemic strokes) developed over an average follow-up of 11 years. We tested the markers most strongly associated with stroke in a replication cohort of 2430 black persons with 215 incident strokes (191 ischemic strokes), another cohort of 574 black persons with 85 incident strokes (68 ischemic strokes), and 652 Dutch persons with ischemic stroke and 3613 unaffected persons. RESULTS:Two intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 12p13 and within 11 kb of the gene NINJ2 were associated with stroke (P<5x10(-8)). NINJ2 encodes an adhesion molecule expressed in glia and shows increased expression after nerve injury. Direct genotyping showed that rs12425791 was associated with an increased risk of total (i.e., all types) and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.42) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.47), respectively, yielding population attributable risks of 11% and 12% in the discovery cohorts. Corresponding hazard ratios were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.79; P=0.04) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.91; P=0.02) in the large cohort of black persons and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.37; P=0.03) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41; P=0.04) in the Dutch sample; the results of an underpowered analysis of the smaller black cohort were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS:A genetic locus on chromosome 12p13 is associated with an increased risk of stroke.
Project description:Numerous GWAS and candidate gene studies have highlighted the role of the Wnt pathway in bone biology. Our objective has been to study in detail the allelic architecture of three Wnt pathway genes: WNT16, DKK1 and SOST, in the context of osteoporosis. We have resequenced the coding and some regulatory regions of these three genes in two groups with extreme bone mineral density (BMD) (n?=??50, each) from the BARCOS cohort. No interesting novel variants were identified. Thirteen predicted functional variants have been genotyped in the full cohort (n?=?1490), and for ten of them (with MAF?>?0.01), the association with BMD has been studied. We have found six variants nominally associated with BMD, of which 2 WNT16 variants predicted to be eQTLs for FAM3C (rs55710688, in the Kozak sequence and rs142005327, within a putative enhancer) withstood multiple-testing correction. In addition, two rare variants in functional regions (rs190011371 in WNT16b 3'UTR and rs570754792 in the SOST TATA box) were found only present in three women each, all with BMD below the mean of the cohort. Our results reinforce the higher importance of regulatory versus coding variants in these Wnt pathway genes and open new ways for functional studies of the relevant variants.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Rare mitochondrial mutations cause neurologic disease, including ischemic stroke and MRI white matter changes. We investigated whether common mitochondrial genetic variants influence risk of sporadic ischemic stroke and, in patients with stroke, the volume of white matter hyperintensity (WMHV). METHODS:In this multicenter, mitochondrial genome-wide association study (GWAS), 2284 ischemic stroke cases and 1728 controls from the International Stroke Genetics Consortium were genotyped for 64 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Imputation resulted in 144 SNPs, which were tested in each cohort and in meta-analysis for ischemic stroke association. A genetic score of all mitochondrial variants was also tested in association with ischemic stroke. RESULTS:No individual SNP reached adjusted significance in meta-analysis. A genetic score comprised of the summation of contributions from individual variants across the mitochondrial genome showed association with ischemic stroke in meta-analysis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, p < 0.0001) with minimal heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.00). This ischemic stroke score was robust to permutation, and was also associated with WMHV in 792 nested case individuals with ischemic stroke (p = 0.037). INTERPRETATION:In this mitochondrial GWAS of ischemic stroke, a genetic score comprised of the sum of all common variants in the mitochondrial genome showed association with ischemic stroke. In an independent analysis of a related trait, this same score correlated with WMHV in stroke cases. Despite this aggregate association, no individual variant reached significance. Substantially larger studies will be required to identify precise sequence variants influencing cerebrovascular disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. METHODS:Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with P<10(-6) for validation in METASTROKE, a consortium of ischemic stroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. RESULTS:The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (P<10(-6)) for total or ischemic stroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (P<0.05) with stroke in COMPASS. CONCLUSIONS:We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations.
Project description:Genotype imputation has the potential to assess human genetic variation at a lower cost than assaying the variants using laboratory techniques. The performance of imputation for rare variants has not been comprehensively studied. We utilized 8865 human samples with high depth resequencing data for the exons and flanking regions of 202 genes and Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) data to characterize the performance of genotype imputation for rare variants. We evaluated reference sets ranging from 100 to 3713 subjects for imputing into samples typed for the Affymetrix (500K and 6.0) and Illumina 550K GWAS panels. The proportion of variants that could be well imputed (true r(2)>0.7) with a reference panel of 3713 individuals was: 31% (Illumina 550K) or 25% (Affymetrix 500K) with MAF (Minor Allele Frequency) less than or equal 0.001, 48% or 35% with 0.001<MAF<?=?0.005, 54% or 38% with 0.005<MAF<?=?0.01, 78% or 57% with 0.01<MAF<?=?0.05, and 97% or 86% with MAF>0.05. The performance for common SNPs (MAF>0.05) within exons and flanking regions is comparable to imputation of more uniformly distributed SNPs. The performance for rare SNPs (0.01<MAF<?=?0.05) was much more dependent on the GWAS panel and the number of reference samples. These results suggest routine use of genotype imputation for extending the assessment of common variants identified in humans via targeted exon resequencing into additional samples with GWAS data, but imputation of very rare variants (MAF<?=?0.005) will require reference panels with thousands of subjects.
Project description:Bone mineral density (BMD) is a heritable phenotype that predicts fracture risk. We performed fine-mapping by targeted sequencing at WLS, MEF2C, ARHGAP1/F2 and JAG1 loci prioritized by eQTL and bioinformatic approaches among 56 BMD loci from our previous GWAS meta-analysis. Targeted sequencing was conducted in 1,291 Caucasians from the Framingham Heart Study ( n?= ?925) and Cardiovascular Health Study ( n?= ?366), including 206 women and men with extreme low femoral neck (FN) BMD. A total of 4,964 sequence variants (SNVs) were observed and 80% were rare with MAF?<1%. The associations between previously identified SNPs in these loci and BMD, while nominally significant in sequenced participants, were no longer significant after multiple testing corrections. Conditional analyses did not find protein-coding variants that may be responsible for GWAS signals. On the other hand, in the sequenced subjects, we identified novel associations in WLS , ARHGAP1 , and 5' of MEF2C ( P- values?<?8x10? - ? 5 ; false discovery rate (FDR) q-values?<?0.01) that were much more strongly associated with BMD compared to the GWAS SNPs. These associated SNVs are less-common; independent from previous GWAS signals in the same loci; and located in gene regulatory elements. Our findings suggest that protein-coding variants in selected GWAS loci did not contribute to GWAS signals. By performing targeted sequencing in GWAS loci, we identified less-common and rare non-coding SNVs associated with BMD independently from GWAS common SNPs, suggesting both common and less-common variants may associate with disease risks and phenotypes in the same loci.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationships of thrombin generation (TG) with cardiovascular disease risk are underevaluated in population-based cohorts. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the relationships of TG influenced by the contact and tissue factor coagulation pathways ex vivo with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and incident cardiovascular disease and stroke. PATIENTS/METHODS:We measured peak TG (pTG) in baseline plasma samples of Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 5411), both with and without inhibitory anti-factor XIa antibody (pTG/FXIa(-) ). We evaluated their associations with ~ 50 000 SNPs by using the IBCv2 genotyping array, and with incident cardiovascular disease and stroke events over a median follow-up of 13.2 years. RESULTS:The minor allele for an SNP in the FXII gene (F12), rs1801020, was associated with lower pTG in European-Americans (? = - 34.2 ± 3.5 nm; P = 3.3 × 10(-22) ; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.23) and African-Americans (? = - 31.1 ± 7.9 nm; P = 9.0 × 10(-5) ; MAF = 0.42). Lower FXIa-independent pTG (pTG/FXIa(-) ) was associated with the F12 rs1801020 minor allele, and higher pTG/FXIa(-) was associated with the ABO SNP rs657152 minor allele (? = 16.3 nm; P = 4.3 × 10(-9) ; MAF = 0.37). The risk factor-adjusted ischemic stroke hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval CI 1.01-1.17; P = 0.03) for pTG, 1.06 (95% CI 0.98-1.15; P = 0.17) for pTG/FXIa(-) , and 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21; P = 0.02) for FXIa-dependent pTG (pTG/FXIa(+) ), per one standard deviation increment (n = 834 ischemic strokes). In a multicohort candidate gene analysis, rs1801020 was not associated with incident ischemic stroke (? = - 0.02; standard error = 0.08; P = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS:These results support the importance of contact activation pathway-dependent TG as a risk factor for ischemic stroke, and indicate the importance of F12 SNPs for TG ex vivo and in vivo.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of years of life lost. Genetic factors contribute to stroke prevalence, and candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants associated with ischemic stroke risk. These variants often have small effects without obvious biological significance. Exome sequencing may discover predicted protein-altering variants with a potentially large effect on ischemic stroke risk. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the contribution of rare and common genetic variants to ischemic stroke risk by targeting the protein-coding regions of the human genome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) analyzed?approximately 6000 participants from numerous cohorts of European and African ancestry. For discovery, 365 cases of ischemic stroke (small-vessel and large-vessel subtypes) and 809 European ancestry controls were sequenced; for replication, 47 affected sibpairs concordant for stroke subtype and an African American case-control series were sequenced, with 1672 cases and 4509 European ancestry controls genotyped. The ESP's exome sequencing and genotyping started on January 1, 2010, and continued through June 30, 2012. Analyses were conducted on the full data set between July 12, 2012, and July 13, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Discovery of new variants or genes contributing to ischemic stroke risk and subtype (primary analysis) and determination of support for protein-coding variants contributing to risk in previously published candidate genes (secondary analysis). RESULTS:We identified 2 novel genes associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke: a protein-coding variant in PDE4DIP (rs1778155; odds ratio,?2.15; P?=?2.63?×?10(-8)) with an intracellular signal transduction mechanism and in ACOT4 (rs35724886; odds ratio,?2.04; P?=?1.24?×?10(-7)) with a fatty acid metabolism; confirmation of PDE4DIP was observed in affected sibpair families with large-vessel stroke subtype and in African Americans. Replication of protein-coding variants in candidate genes was observed for 2 previously reported GWAS associations: ZFHX3 (cardioembolic stroke) and ABCA1 (large-vessel stroke). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Exome sequencing discovered 2 novel genes and mechanisms, PDE4DIP and ACOT4, associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke. In addition, ZFHX3 and ABCA1 were discovered to have protein-coding variants associated with ischemic stroke. These results suggest that genetic variation in novel pathways contributes to ischemic stroke risk and serves as a target for prediction, prevention, and therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine whether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which had been associated with coronary heart disease, are associated with incident ischemic stroke.Based on antecedent studies of coronary heart disease, we prespecified the risk allele for each of the 74 SNPs. We used Cox proportional hazards models that adjusted for traditional risk factors to estimate the associations of these SNPs with incident ischemic stroke during 14 years of follow-up in a population-based study of older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).In white CHS participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 7 of the 74 SNPs (in HPS1, ITGAE, ABCG2, MYH15, FSTL4, CALM1, and BAT2) were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.42). In black participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 5 SNPs (in KRT4, LY6G5B, EDG1, DMXL2, and ABCG2) were nominally associated with stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.55). The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 was associated with stroke in both white (hazard ratio, 1.46; 90% CI, 1.05 to 2.03) and black (hazard ratio, 3.59; 90% CI, 1.11 to 11.6) participants of CHS. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the 10-year cumulative incidence of stroke were greater among Val allele homozygotes than among Met allele carriers in both white (10% versus 6%) and black (12% versus 3%) participants of CHS.The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 (encoding a transporter of sterols and xenobiotics) was associated with incident ischemic stroke in white and black participants of CHS.
Project description:The genetic architecture of ischemic stroke is complex and is likely to include rare or low frequency variants with high penetrance and large effect sizes. Such variants are likely to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis compared to common variants with small effect sizes. Because a significant portion of human functional variation may derive from the protein-coding portion of genes we undertook a pilot study to identify variation across the human exome (i.e., the coding exons across the entire human genome) in 10 ischemic stroke cases. Our efforts focused on evaluating the feasibility and identifying the difficulties in this type of research as it applies to ischemic stroke. The cases included 8 African-Americans and 2 Caucasians selected on the basis of similar stroke subtypes and by implementing a case selection algorithm that emphasized the genetic contribution of stroke risk. Following construction of paired-end sequencing libraries, all predicted human exons in each sample were captured and sequenced. Sequencing generated an average of 25.5 million read pairs (75 bp×2) and 3.8 Gbp per sample. After passing quality filters, screening the exomes against dbSNP demonstrated an average of 2839 novel SNPs among African-Americans and 1105 among Caucasians. In an aggregate analysis, 48 genes were identified to have at least one rare variant across all stroke cases. One gene, CSN3, identified by screening our prior GWAS results in conjunction with our exome results, was found to contain an interesting coding polymorphism as well as containing excess rare variation as compared with the other genes evaluated. In conclusion, while rare coding variants may predispose to the risk of ischemic stroke, this fact has yet to be definitively proven. Our study demonstrates the complexities of such research and highlights that while exome data can be obtained, the optimal analytical methods have yet to be determined.