A 14.7 kDa protein from Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (named FTN_1133), involved in the response to oxidative stress induced by organic peroxides, is not endowed with thiol-dependent peroxidase activity.
ABSTRACT: Francisella genus comprises Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that are among the most infectious human pathogens. A protein of 14.7 KDa named as FTN_1133 was previously described as a novel hydroperoxide resistance protein in F. tularensis subsp. novicida, implicated in organic peroxide detoxification and virulence. Here, we describe a structural and biochemical characterization of FTN_1133. Contrary to previous assumptions, multiple amino acid sequence alignment analyses revealed that FTN_1133 does not share significant similarity with proteins of the Ohr/OsmC family or any other Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase, including conserved motifs around reactive cysteine residues. Circular dichroism analyses were consistent with the in silico prediction of an all-?-helix secondary structure. The pKa of its single cysteine residue, determined by a monobromobimane alkylation method, was shown to be 8.0±0.1, value that is elevated when compared with other Cys-based peroxidases, such as peroxiredoxins and Ohr/OsmC proteins. Attempts to determine a thiol peroxidase activity for FTN_1133 failed, using both dithiols (DTT, thioredoxin and lipoamide) and monothiols (glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol) as reducing agents. Heterologous expression of FTN_1133 gene in ahpC and oxyR mutants of E. coli showed no complementation. Furthermore, analysis of FTN_1133 protein by non-reducing SDS-PAGE showed that an inter-molecular disulfide bond (not detected in Ohr proteins) can be generated under hydroperoxide treatment, but the observed rates were not comparable to those observed for other thiol-dependent peroxidases. All the biochemical and structural data taken together indicated that FTN_1133 displayed distinct characteristics from other thiol dependent peroxidases and, therefore, suggested that FTN_1133 is not directly involved in hydroperoxide detoxification.
Project description:The Ohr (organic hydroperoxide resistance) family of 15-kDa Cys-based, thiol-dependent peroxidases is central to the bacterial response to stress induced by organic hydroperoxides but not by hydrogen peroxide. Ohr has a unique three-dimensional structure and requires dithiols, but not monothiols, to support its activity. However, the physiological reducing system of Ohr has not yet been identified. Here we show that lipoylated enzymes present in the bacterial extracts of Xylella fastidiosa interacted physically and functionally with this Cys-based peroxidase, whereas thioredoxin and glutathione systems failed to support Ohr peroxidase activity. Furthermore, we could reconstitute in vitro three lipoyl-dependent systems as the Ohr physiological reducing systems. We also showed that OsmC from Escherichia coli, an orthologue of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa, is specifically reduced by lipoyl-dependent systems. These results represent the first description of a Cys-based peroxidase that is directly reduced by lipoylated enzymes.
Project description:Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species). Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr), the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i) the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols), but not by ?-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols), even in large excess; (ii) MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH) over hydrogen peroxide; (iii) MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13)×108M-1s-1). Both Cys87 and Cys154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pKa value of the Cysp residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria.
Project description:The osmotically inducible protein OsmC, like its better-characterized homolog, the organic hydroperoxide protein Ohr, is involved in defense against oxidative stress caused by exposure to organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli OsmC reported here reveals that the protein is a tightly folded domain-swapped dimer with two active sites located at the monomer interface on opposite sides of the molecule. We demonstrate that OsmC preferentially metabolizes organic hydroperoxides over inorganic hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of structural and enzymatic similarities, we propose that the OsmC catalytic mechanism is analogous to that of the Ohr proteins and of the structurally unrelated peroxiredoxins, directly using highly reactive cysteine thiol groups to elicit hydroperoxide reduction.
Project description:Ohr, a bacterial protein encoded by the Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (ohr) gene, plays a critical role in resistance to organic hydroperoxides. In the present study, we show that the Cys-based thiol-dependent Ohr of Corynebacterium glutamicum decomposes organic hydroperoxides more efficiently than hydrogen peroxide. Replacement of either of the two Cys residues of Ohr by a Ser residue resulted in drastic loss of activity. The electron donors supporting regeneration of the peroxidase activity of the oxidized Ohr of C. glutamicum were principally lipoylated proteins (LpdA and Lpd/SucB). A ?ohr mutant exhibited significantly decreased resistance to organic hydroperoxides and marked accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo; protein carbonylation was also enhanced notably. The resistance to hydrogen peroxide also decreased, but protein carbonylation did not rise to any great extent. Together, the results unequivocally show that Ohr is essential for mediation of organic hydroperoxide resistance by C. glutamicum.
Project description:Organic hydroperoxide resistance (Ohr) enzymes are unique Cys-based, lipoyl-dependent peroxidases. Here, we investigated the involvement of Ohr in bacterial responses toward distinct hydroperoxides. In silico results indicated that fatty acid (but not cholesterol) hydroperoxides docked well into the active site of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa and were efficiently reduced by the recombinant enzyme as assessed by a lipoamide-lipoamide dehydrogenase-coupled assay. Indeed, the rate constants between Ohr and several fatty acid hydroperoxides were in the 107-108 M-1?s-1 range as determined by a competition assay developed here. Reduction of peroxynitrite by Ohr was also determined to be in the order of 107 M-1?s-1 at pH 7.4 through two independent competition assays. A similar trend was observed when studying the sensitivities of a ?ohr mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward different hydroperoxides. Fatty acid hydroperoxides, which are readily solubilized by bacterial surfactants, killed the ?ohr strain most efficiently. In contrast, both wild-type and mutant strains deficient for peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases were equally sensitive to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Ohr also appeared to play a central role in the peroxynitrite response, because the ?ohr mutant was more sensitive than wild type to 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1 , a peroxynitrite generator). In the case of H2O2 insult, cells treated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (a catalase inhibitor) were the most sensitive. Furthermore, fatty acid hydroperoxide and SIN-1 both induced Ohr expression in the wild-type strain. In conclusion, Ohr plays a central role in modulating the levels of fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite, both of which are involved in host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:Organic hydroperoxide resistance (Ohr) enzymes are highly efficient Cys-based peroxidases that play central roles in bacterial response to fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite, two oxidants that are generated during host-pathogen interactions. In the active site of Ohr proteins, the conserved Arg (Arg19 in Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa) and Glu (Glu51 in Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa) residues, among other factors, are involved in the extremely high reactivity of the peroxidatic Cys (Cp) toward hydroperoxides. In the closed state, the thiolate of Cp is in close proximity to the guanidinium group of Arg19. Ohr enzymes can also assume an open state, where the loop containing the catalytic Arg is far away from Cp and Glu51. Here, we aimed to gain insights into the putative structural switches of the Ohr catalytic cycle. First, we describe the crystal structure of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa (XfOhr) in the open state that, together with the previously described XfOhr structure in the closed state, may represent two snapshots along the coordinate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. These two structures were used for the experimental validation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations employing distinct protonation states and in silico mutagenesis indicated that the polar interactions of Arg19 with Glu51 and Cp contributed to the stabilization of XfOhr in the closed state. Indeed, Cp oxidation to the disulfide state facilitated the switching of the Arg19 loop from the closed to the open state. In addition to the Arg19 loop, other portions of XfOhr displayed high mobility, such as a loop rich in Gly residues. In summary, we obtained a high correlation between crystallographic data, MD simulations and biochemical/enzymatic assays. The dynamics of the Ohr enzymes are unique among the Cys-based peroxidases, in which the active site Arg undergoes structural switches throughout the catalytic cycle, while Cp remains relatively static.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Corynebacterium glutamicum is a well-known producer of various L-amino acids in industry. During the fermenting process, C. glutamicum unavoidably encounters oxidative stress due to a specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by consistent adverse conditions. To combat the ROS, C. glutamicum has developed many common disulfide bond-based regulatory devices to control a specific set of antioxidant genes. However, nothing is known about the mixed disulfide between the protein thiol groups and the mycothiol (MSH) (S-mycothiolation)-based sensor. In addition, no OhrR (organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator) homologs and none of the organic hydroperoxide reductase (Ohr) sensors have been described in the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase CF-missing C. glutamicum, while organic hydroperoxides (OHPs)-specific Ohr was a core detoxification system.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we showed that the C. glutamicum OhsR acted as an OHPs sensor that activated ohr expression. OhsR conferred resistance to cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and t-butyl hydroperoxide but not H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, hypochlorous acid, and diamide; this outcome was substantiated by the fact that the ohsR-deficient mutant was sensitive to OHPs but not inorganic peroxides. The DNA binding activity of OhsR was specifically activated by CHP. Mutational analysis of the two cysteines (Cys125 and Cys261) showed that Cys125 was primarily responsible for the activation of DNA binding. The oxidation of Cys125 produced a sulfenic acid (C125-SOH) that subsequently reacted with MSH to generate S-mycothiolation that was required to activate the ohr expression. Therefore, OhsR regulated the ohr expression using an S-mycothiolation mechanism in vivo.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This is the first report demonstrating that the regulatory OhsR specifically sensed OHPs stress and responded to it by activating a specific ohr gene under its control using an S-mycothiolated mechanism.
Project description:We have isolated a new organic hydroperoxide resistance (ohr) gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. This was done by complementation of an Escherichia coli alkyl hydroperoxide reductase mutant with an organic hydroperoxide-hypersensitive phenotype. ohr encodes a 14.5-kDa protein. Its amino acid sequence shows high homology with several proteins of unknown function. An ohr mutant was subsequently constructed, and it showed increased sensitivity to both growth-inhibitory and killing concentrations of organic hydroperoxides but not to either H2O2 or superoxide generators. No alterations in sensitivity to other oxidants or stresses were observed in the mutant. ohr had interesting expression patterns in response to low concentrations of oxidants. It was highly induced by organic hydroperoxides, weakly induced by H2O2, and not induced at all by a superoxide generator. The novel regulation pattern of ohr suggests the existence of a second organic hydroperoxide-inducible system that differs from the global peroxide regulator system, OxyR. Expression of ohr in various bacteria tested conferred increased resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide killing, but this was not so for wild-type Xanthomonas strains. The organic hydroperoxide hypersensitivity of ohr mutants could be fully complemented by expression of ohr or a combination of ahpC and ahpF and could be partially complemented by expression ahpC alone. The data suggested that Ohr was a new type of organic hydroperoxide detoxification protein.
Project description:Fatty acid hydroperoxides are involved in host-pathogen interactions. In both plants and mammals, polyunsaturated fatty acids are liberated during infection and enzymatically oxidized to the corresponding toxic hydroperoxides during the defensive oxidative burst that is designed to thwart the infection. The bacterial transcription factor OhrR (organic hydroperoxide reductase regulator) is oxidized by organic hydroperoxides, as a result of which the ohr gene encoding organic hydroperoxide reductase is induced. This enzyme converts the hydroperoxides to less toxic alcohols. We show here that OhrR from Burkholderia thailandensis represses expression of ohr Gene expression is induced by cumene hydroperoxide and to a lesser extent by inorganic oxidants; however, Ohr contributes to degradation only of the organic hydroperoxide. B. thailandensis OhrR, which binds specific sites in both ohr and ohrR promoters, as evidenced by DNase I footprinting, belongs to the 2-Cys subfamily of OhrR proteins, and its oxidation leads to reversible disulfide bond formation between conserved N- and C-terminal cysteines in separate monomers. Oxidation of the N-terminal Cys is sufficient for attenuation of DNA binding in vitro, with complete restoration of DNA binding occurring on addition of a reducing agent. Surprisingly, both overexpression of ohr and deletion of ohr results in enhanced survival on exposure to organic hydroperoxide in vitro While ?ohr cells are more virulent in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection, ?ohrR cells are less so. Taken together, our data suggest that B. thailandensis OhrR has several unconventional features and that both OhrR and organic hydroperoxides may contribute to virulence.
Project description:Escherichia coli thiol peroxidase (Tpx, p20, scavengase) is part of an oxidative stress defense system that uses reducing equivalents from thioredoxin (Trx1) and thioredoxin reductase to reduce alkyl hydroperoxides. Tpx contains three Cys residues, Cys(95), Cys(82), and Cys(61), and the latter residue aligns with the N-terminal active site Cys of other peroxidases in the peroxiredoxin family. To identify the catalytically important Cys, we have cloned and purified Tpx and four mutants (C61S, C82S, C95S, and C82S,C95S). In rapid reaction kinetic experiments measuring steady-state turnover, C61S is inactive, C95S retains partial activity, and the C82S mutation only slightly affects reaction rates. Furthermore, a sulfenic acid intermediate at Cys(61) generated by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) treatment was detected in UV-visible spectra of 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-labeled C82S,C95S, confirming the identity of Cys(61) as the peroxidatic center. In stopped-flow kinetic studies, Tpx and Trx1 form a Michaelis complex during turnover with a catalytic efficiency of 3.0 x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1), and the low K(m) (9.0 microm) of Tpx for CHP demonstrates substrate specificity toward alkyl hydroperoxides over H(2)O(2) (K(m) > 1.7 mm). Rapid inactivation of Tpx due to Cys(61) overoxidation is observed during turnover with CHP and a lipid hydroperoxide, 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, but not H(2)O(2). Unlike most other 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, which operate by an intersubunit disulfide mechanism, Tpx contains a redox-active intrasubunit disulfide bond yet is homodimeric in solution.