Seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of genotype 4 hepatitis E virus in Shandong Province, China.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the ancestor of HEVs in China's Shandong Province.A total of 2028 serum, 60 fecal and 82 bile samples were collected from the general human population, patients and swine, respectively. This seroepidemiological study was conducted using an immunnosorbent assay and HEV RNA was detected by the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method. Complete genome sequences of the prevalent strains (CH-YT-HEV01, CH-YT-HEV02 and CH-YT-sHEV01) were determined, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. In addition, the evolutionary dynamics of three HEV isolates were determined using the framework of coalescent analysis in the program package BEAST, and the time of the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of China-indigenous genotype 4 HEV isolates was calculated.The overall viral burden in the general human population was 0.1%, and the positive rates of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum specimens were 25.1% (509/2028) and 2.3% (51/2028), respectively. In addition, IgG positivity increased with age. The phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length nucleotide sequences showed that the strain CH-YT-HEV02 was directly related to CH-YT-sHEV01 with a 94% identity, suggesting that they were involved in cross-species transmission. The isolate CH-YT-HEV01 was close to HB-3 and CHN-SD-sHEV with a bootstrap value of 100%, sharing a 96.1%-96.4% identity with each other. Surprisingly, the HB-3 strain was a representative strain prevalent in swine in Hubei, and the isolate CHN-SD-sHEV was obtained from swine in Shandong in a previous report. TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and HB-3 was 2003, which was consistent with the TMRCA for the clade of CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3, and they were both earlier than the TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and CHN-SD-sHEV (2004).The strains CH-YT-HEV01, CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3 are involved in trans-regional transmission, and the ancestors of HEVs in Shandong come from Hubei Province.
Project description:Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major causative pathogen of the big liver and spleen disease, hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, and hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome. Until now, there are 6 different avian HEV genotypes that infect chickens have been reported worldwide. Epidemiologic investigations of the avian HEV demonstrated that avian HEV has been widely spread in China in recent years. In this study, an avian HEV named YT-aHEV was obtained from white-feathered broilers using LMH cells by virus isolation assay in Shandong province, China. The complete genome consists of 6656-nt excluding the poly(A) tail. The isolate was highly similar to the CaHEV strain and segregated into the same branch belonging to avian HEV genotype 3. Indirect immunofluorescence using capsid protein-specific polyclonal antibodies confirmed that YT-aHEV could establish productive infection and replicate stably in LMH cells. Furthermore, an in vivo avian HEV infection model was established successfully in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos by intravenous experiments. In the present study, we demonstrate an avian HEV infection associated with liver lesions of hemorrhage and swelling by LMH cells for the first time in a white-feather broiler flock in China. This research also provides a new diagnosis method for detection of avian HEV, which laid a foundation for the understanding of pathogenicity and molecular biology of this virus for further study.
Project description:The pathogenicity of each hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes/subtypes may be different. This study aimed to investigate the infectivity and pathogenicity of different HEV genotypes/subtypes from different mammalian sources especially human in rabbits, and to assess whether rabbits are an appropriate animal model to study different HEV genotypes/subtypes. Thirty-seven rabbits were randomly divided into nine groups and inoculated with eight different HEV strains, including human-derived HEV3b (hHEV-3b), hHEV-4a, hHEV-4d and hHEV-4h, swine-derived HEV4d (sHEV-4d) and sHEV-4h, rabbit-derived HEV3 (HEV-3ra) and camel-derived HEV8. HEV RNA, antigen, anti-HEV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum or/and feces were monitored weekly. One rabbit from each group was euthanized at seven weeks post inoculation and the liver specimens were taken for histopathological analysis and immunofluorescence staining of HEV ORF2 proteins. hHEV-4d, sHEV-4d and HEV-3ra infections were successfully established in rabbits and typical acute hepatitis symptoms were observed, including viraemia/antigenemia, fecal virus/antigen shedding, elevated ALT level and liver histopathological changes. One rabbit infected with HEV-3ra showed chronic infection. hHEV-4d and sHEV-4d are less infectious and pathogenic than HEV-3ra in rabbits. hHEV-3b and HEV8 only caused inapparent infection in rabbits as 60% (3/5) and 20% (1/5) of the rabbits seroconverted to anti-HEV, respectively. No obvious signs of HEV infection in rabbits inoculated with hHEV-4a, hHEV-4h and sHEV-4h. The infectivity and pathogenicity of different HEV genotypes/subtypes in rabbits is different, which may be related to the species specificity of HEV. Rabbit can be used as an animal model for the study of HEV-3ra and more importantly human HEV-4d.
Project description:Hepatitis E is an important zoonosis that is prevalent in China. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen that affects humans and animals and endangers public health in China. In this study, the detection of HEV epidemics in swine in Sichuan Province, China, was carried out by nested real-time PCR. A total of 174 stool samples and 160 bile samples from swine in Sichuan Province were examined. In addition, software was used to analyse the biological evolution of HEV. The results showed that within 2 years of swine HEV (SHEV) infection in China, SHEV was first detected in Sichuan Province. HEV was endemic in Sichuan; the positive rate for pig farms was 11.1%, and the total positive sample rate was 10.5%. The age of swine with the highest positive rate (17.9%) was 5-9 weeks. The examined swine species in order of highest to lowest HEV infection rates were Chenghua pig, Large White, Duroc, Pietrain, Landrace and Hampshire. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that the HEV epidemic in swine in Sichuan Province was related to genotype IV, which had the highest homology to HEV in Beijing. Sichuan strains have greater variation than Chinese representative strains, which may indicate the presence of new HEV strains.
Project description:Enterovirus 80 (EV80) is a newly identified serotype of the species Human enterovirus B. An EV80 strain designated HZ01/SD/CHN/2004 was isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis case in Shandong, China, in 2004. Complete genome comparison revealed 79.5% similarity with the prototype strain and an insertion of 36 nucleotides in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. Intertypic recombination with other serotypes was observed. This is the first report of the complete genome of EV80 in China.
Project description:Hepatitis E is a worldwide public health problem, especially in areas with poor sanitation. This study examines the potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) animal reservoirs and the current status of HEV infection among animals and humans in an endemic area of Xinjiang, China. One thousand five hundred twenty-one serum samples from 12 different animal species and 296 sera from humans were detected for anti-HEV with an in-house enzyme immunoassay, and partial HEV RNA was amplified with a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR). All these distinct animal species, except jerboa and hoptoad, were positive for anti-HEV. However, HEV RNA was only amplified from pigs and a sporadic hepatitis E case in humans. The human HEV strain (CHN-XJ-HE29) shared 100% nucleotide identity with the swine HEV strain (CHN-XJ-SW50), both of which were collected from the same district; this indicates the possibility of HEV transmission from swine to humans in an endemic area.
Project description:From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the disease from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces were investigated.A total of 1995 serum samples were collected from 14 flocks with hepatitis syndrome in Shandong and Shaanxi provinces, China. Antibodies against avian HEV and ALV-J in these serum samples were detected using iELISAs. The seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (35.09%) was significantly higher than that of anti-ALV-J antibodies (2.16%) (p?=?0.00). Moreover, the 43 serum samples positive for anti-ALV-J antibodies were all also positive for anti-avian HEV antibodies. In a comparison of both provinces, Shandong chickens exhibited a significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (42.16%) than Shaanxi chickens (26%) (p?=?0.00). In addition, the detection of avian HEV RNA and ALV-J cDNA in the liver samples from the flocks of two provinces also showed the same results of the seroprevalence.In the present study, the results showed that avian HEV infection is widely prevalent and ALV-J infection is endemic in the flocks with hepatitis syndrome from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces of China. These results suggested that avian HEV infection may be the major cause of increased egg drop and hepatitis syndrome observed during the last 2 years in China. These results should be useful to guide development of prevention and control measures to control the diseases within chicken flocks in China.
Project description:This study reports the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (CK/CH/SD/121220, KJ128295) isolated in 2012 from Shandong Province in northern China. The genome is 27,666 nt long, comprising six genes and 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The full-length genome of the CK/CH/SD/121220 isolate had the highest nucleotide sequence identity (96.7 %) to the YX10 strain. Sites of recombination were identified in the genes 1ab, S, 5a, 5b and N, with their putative parental strains belonging to the QX- and YN-type subgroups, which are already circulating in China. Our findings suggest an important role played by recombination in IBV evolution.
Project description:Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern in the world, especially in developing countries of Africa and Asia, including China. Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonotic disease, which is transmitted across species, including between humans and swine. HEV is highly endemic in China, but the complete sequence of HEV in southwestern China is lacking. Swine HEV strain KM01 was isolated from a village in rural Kunming, Yunnan province, China, where swine are housed with humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the swine HEV strain KM01. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses reveal that swine HEV is closely related to the strain isolated from Xinjiang (CHN-XJ-SW13). The genome of the KM01 strain will facilitate further study of HEV molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity in China.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although advance has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of mature T-cell neoplasms, the initiation and progression of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), remain poorly understood. A subset of AITL/PTCL-NOS patients develop concomitant hematologic neoplasms (CHN), and a biomarker to predict this risk is lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>We generated and analyzed the mutation profiles through 537-gene targeted sequencing of the primary tumors and matched bone marrow/peripheral blood samples in 25 patients with AITL and two with PTCL-NOS.<h4>Results</h4>Clonal hematopoiesis (CH)-associated genomic alterations, found in 70.4% of the AITL/PTCL-NOS patients, were shared among CH and T-cell lymphoma, as well as concomitant myeloid neoplasms or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that developed before or after AITL. Aberrant AID/APOBEC activity-associated and tobacco smoking-associated mutational signatures were respectively enriched in the early CH-associated mutations and late non-CH-associated mutations during AITL/PTCL-NOS development. Moreover, analysis showed that the presence of CH harboring ≥2 pathogenic TET2 variants with ≥15% of allele burden conferred higher risk for CHN (p=0.0006, hazard ratio = 14.01, positive predictive value = 88.9%, negative predictive value = 92.1%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We provided genetic evidence that AITL/PTCL-NOS, CH, and CHN can frequently arise from common mutated hematopoietic precursor clones. Our data also suggests smoking exposure as a potential risk factor for AITL/PTCL-NOS progression. These findings provide insights into the cell origin and etiology of AITL and PTCL-NOS and provide a novel stratification biomarker for CHN risk in AITL patients.<h4>Funding</h4>R01 grant (CA194547) from the National Cancer Institute to WT.
Project description:Hepatitis E virus- (HEV-) mediated hepatitis has become a global public health problem. An important regulatory protein of HEV, ORF3, influences multiple signal pathways in host cells. In this study, to investigate the function of ORF3 from the swine form of HEV (SHEV), high-throughput RNA-Seq-based screening was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells. The results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR and gene ontology was employed to assign differentially expressed genes to functional categories. The results indicated that, in the established ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells, the mRNA levels of CLDN6, YLPM1, APOC3, NLRP1, SCARA3, FGA, FGG, FGB, and FREM1 were upregulated, whereas the mRNA levels of SLC2A3, DKK1, BPIFB2, and PTGR1 were downregulated. The deregulated expression of CLDN6 and FREM1 might contribute to changes in integral membrane protein and basement membrane protein expression, expression changes for NLRP1 might affect the apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and the altered expression of APOC3, SCARA3, and DKK1 may affect lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, ORF3 plays a functional role in virus-cell interactions by affecting the expression of integral membrane protein and basement membrane proteins and by altering the process of apoptosis and lipid metabolism in host cells. These findings provide important insight into the pathogenic mechanism of HEV.