The Trichoderma reesei Cry1 protein is a member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family with 6-4 photoproduct repair activity.
ABSTRACT: DNA-photolyases use UV-visible light to repair DNA damage caused by UV radiation. The two major types of DNA damage are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP), which are repaired under illumination by CPD and 6-4 photolyases, respectively. Cryptochromes are proteins related to DNA photolyases with strongly reduced or lost DNA repair activity, and have been shown to function as blue-light photoreceptors and to play important roles in circadian rhythms in plants and animals. Both photolyases and cryptochromes belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family, and are widely distributed in all organisms. Here we describe the characterization of cry1, a member of the cryptochrome/photolyase protein family of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. We determined that cry1 transcript accumulates when the fungus is exposed to light, and that such accumulation depends on the photoreceptor Blr1 and is modulated by Envoy. Conidia of cry1 mutants show decreased photorepair capacity of DNA damage caused by UV light. In contrast, strains over-expressing Cry1 show increased repair, as compared to the parental strain even in the dark. These observations suggest that Cry1 may be stimulating other systems involved in DNA repair, such as the nucleotide excision repair system. We show that Cry1, heterologously expressed and purified from E. coli, is capable of binding to undamaged and 6-4PP damaged DNA. Photorepair assays in vitro clearly show that Cry1 repairs 6-4PP, but not CPD and Dewar DNA lesions.
Project description:Despite the sequence and structural conservation between cryptochromes and photolyases, members of the cryptochrome/photolyase (flavo)protein family, their functions are divergent. Whereas photolyases are DNA repair enzymes that use visible light to lesion-specifically remove UV-induced DNA damage, cryptochromes act as photoreceptors and circadian clock proteins. To address the functional diversity of cryptochromes and photolyases, we investigated the effect of ectopically expressed Arabidopsis thaliana (6-4)PP photolyase and Potorous tridactylus CPD-photolyase (close and distant relatives of mammalian cryptochromes, respectively), on the performance of the mammalian cryptochromes in the mammalian circadian clock. Using photolyase transgenic mice, we show that Potorous CPD-photolyase affects the clock by shortening the period of behavioral rhythms. Furthermore, constitutively expressed CPD-photolyase is shown to reduce the amplitude of circadian oscillations in cultured cells and to inhibit CLOCK/BMAL1 driven transcription by interacting with CLOCK. Importantly, we show that Potorous CPD-photolyase can restore the molecular oscillator in the liver of (clock-deficient) Cry1/Cry2 double knockout mice. These data demonstrate that a photolyase can act as a true cryptochrome. These findings shed new light on the importance of the core structure of mammalian cryptochromes in relation to its function in the circadian clock and contribute to our further understanding of the evolution of the cryptochrome/photolyase protein family.
Project description:Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. Both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed cryA, was identified. Deletion of the cryA gene triggers sexual differentiation under inappropriate culture conditions and results in up-regulation of transcripts encoding regulators of fruiting body formation. CryA is a protein whose N- and C-terminal synthetic green fluorescent protein fusions localize to the nucleus. CryA represses sexual development under UVA (350-370 nm) light both on plates and in submerged culture. Strikingly, CryA exhibits photorepair activity as demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strain as well as overexpression in an A. nidulans uvsBDelta genetic background. This is in contrast to the single deletion cryADelta strain, which does not show increased sensitivity toward UV-induced damage. In A. nidulans, cryA encodes a novel type of cryptochrome/photolyase that exhibits a regulatory function during light-dependent development and DNA repair activity. This represents a paradigm for the evolutionary transition between photolyases and cryptochromes.
Project description:DASH (Drosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, Human)-type cryptochromes (cry-DASH) belong to a family of flavoproteins acting as repair enzymes for UV-B-induced DNA lesions (photolyases) or as UV-A/blue light photoreceptors (cryptochromes). They are present in plants, bacteria, various vertebrates, and fungi and were originally considered as sensory photoreceptors because of their incapability to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesions in duplex DNA. However, cry-DASH can repair CPDs in single-stranded DNA, but their role in DNA repair in vivo remains to be clarified. The genome of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus contains a single gene for a protein of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) encoding a cry-DASH, cryA, despite its ability to photoreactivate. Here, we show that cryA expression is induced by blue light in a Mad complex-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that CryA is capable of binding flavin (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF), fully complements the Escherichia coli photolyase mutant and repairs in vitro CPD lesions in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with the same efficiency. These results support a role for Phycomyces cry-DASH as a photolyase and suggest a similar role for cry-DASH in mucoromycotina fungi.
Project description:Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins with distinct functions. While photolyases can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in a light-dependent manner, cryptochromes regulate growth, development and the circadian clock in plants and animals. Here we report about two photolyase-related proteins, named PhrA and PhrB, found in the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PhrA belongs to the class III cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases, the sister class of plant cryptochromes, while PhrB belongs to a new class represented in at least 350 bacterial organisms. Both proteins contain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a primary catalytic cofactor, which is photoreduceable by blue light. Spectral analysis of PhrA confirmed the presence of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as antenna cofactor. PhrB comprises also an additional chromophore, absorbing in the short wavelength region but its spectrum is distinct from known antenna cofactors in other photolyases. Homology modeling suggests that PhrB contains an Fe-S cluster as cofactor which was confirmed by elemental analysis and EPR spectroscopy. According to protein sequence alignments the classical tryptophan photoreduction pathway is present in PhrA but absent in PhrB. Although PhrB is clearly distinguished from other photolyases including PhrA it is, like PhrA, required for in vivo photoreactivation. Moreover, PhrA can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in vitro. Thus, A. tumefaciens contains two photolyase homologs of which PhrB represents the first member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) that contains an iron-sulfur cluster.
Project description:Cryptochromes use near-UV/blue light to regulate a variety of growth and adaptive process. Recent biochemical studies demonstrate that the Cryptochrome-Drosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, Human (Cry-DASH) subfamily of cryptochromes have photolyase activity exclusively for single-stranded cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-containing DNA substrate [Selby C, Sancar A (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:17696-17700]. The crystal structure of cryptochrome 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (At-Cry3), a member of the Cry-DASH proteins, at 2.1 A resolution, reveals that both the light-harvesting cofactor 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolyl-polyglutamate (MTHF) and the catalytic cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are noncovalently bound to the protein. The residues responsible for binding of MTHF in At-Cry3 are not conserved in Escherichia coli photolyase but are strongly conserved in the Cry-DASH subfamily of cryptochromes. The distance and orientation between MTHF and flavin adenine dinucleotide in At-Cry3 is similar to that of E. coli photolyase, in conjunction with the presence of electron transfer chain, suggesting the conservation of redox activity in At-Cry3. Two amino acid substitutions and the penetration of three charged side chains into the CPD-binding cavity in At-Cry3 alter the hydrophobic environment that is accommodating the hydrophobic sugar ring and thymine base moieties in class I CPD photolyases. These changes most likely make CPD binding less energetically favorable and, hence, insufficient to compete with pairing and stacking interactions between the CPD and the duplex DNA substrate. Thus, Cry-DASH subfamily proteins may be unable to stabilize CPD flipped out from the duplex DNA substrate but may be able to preserve the DNA repair activity toward single-stranded CPD-containing DNA substrate.
Project description:DNA photolyases and cryptochromes (cry) form a family of flavoproteins that use light energy in the blue/UV-A region for the repair of UV-induced DNA lesions or for signaling, respectively. Very recently, it was shown that members of the DASH cryptochrome subclade repair specifically cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in UV-damaged single-stranded DNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 3 with an in-situ-repaired CPD substrate in single-stranded DNA. The structure shows a binding mode similar to that of conventional DNA photolyases. Furthermore, CPD lesions in double-stranded DNA are bound and repaired with similar efficiency as in single-stranded DNA if the CPD lesion is present in a loop structure. Together, these data reveal that DASH cryptochromes catalyze light-driven DNA repair like conventional photolyases but lack an efficient flipping mechanism for interaction with CPD lesions within duplex DNA.
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants. When a new type cryptochrome was identified, it was assumed that another type of CRYs, cryptochrome-DASH (CRY-DASH), which is categorized as a subfamily of photolyase/cryptochrome family, would possess the DNA photolyase activity. However, CRY-DASH had a weak DNA photolyase activity, but the reason for this is still unclear. To clarify the reason, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a complex of CPD-PHR or CRY-DASH with damaged double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and estimated the binding free energy, ?Gbind, between the protein and the damaged dsDNA by using a molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method. ?Gbind for both proteins were -35 and 57 kcal mol-1, respectively, indicating that the structural stability of CRY-DASH was lower than that of CPD-PHR upon the damaged dsDNA binding. In particular, the number of amino acid residues relevant to the damaged dsDNA binding on the CRY-DASH surface was smaller than that on CPD-PHR. Therefore, the present result suggests that CRY-DASH has a weak DNA photolyase activity because it has a lower binding affinity than CPD-PHR.
Project description:Cryptochromes and DNA photolyases are related flavoproteins with flavin adenine dinucleotide as the common cofactor. Whereas photolyases repair DNA lesions caused by UV radiation, cryptochromes generally lack repair activity but act as UV-A/blue light photoreceptors. Two distinct electron transfer (ET) pathways have been identified in DNA photolyases. One pathway uses within its catalytic cycle, light-driven electron transfer from FADH(-)* to the DNA lesion and electron back-transfer to semireduced FADH(o) after photoproduct cleavage. This cyclic ET pathway seems to be unique for the photolyase subfamily. The second ET pathway mediates photoreduction of semireduced or fully oxidized FAD via a triad of aromatic residues that is conserved in photolyases and cryptochromes. The 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF) antenna cofactor in members of the photolyase family is bleached upon light excitation. This process has been described as photodecomposition of 5,10-methenylTHF. We show that photobleaching of 5,10-methenylTHF in Arabidopsis cry3, a member of the cryptochrome DASH family, with repair activity for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesions in single-stranded DNA and in Escherichia coli photolyase results from reduction of 5,10-methenylTHF to 5,10-methyleneTHF that requires the intact tryptophan triad. Thus, a third ET pathway exists in members of the photolyase family that remained undiscovered so far.
Project description:Among the many Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid tumor models are those that exhibit ultraviolet light (UVB) induced melanoma. In previous studies, assessment of UVB induced DNA damage and nucleotide excision DNA repair has been performed in parental lines and interspecies hybrids. Species and hybrid specific differences in the levels of DNA damage induced and the dark repair rates for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4PPs) have been reported. However, UVB induced DNA lesions in Xiphophorus fishes are thought to primarily be repaired via light dependent CPD and 6-4PP specific photolyases. Photolyases are of evolutionary interest since they are ancient and presumably function solely to ameliorate the deleterious effects of UVB exposure. Herein, we report results from detailed studies of CPD and 6-4PP photolyase gene expression within several Xiphophorus tissues. We determined photolyase gene expression patterns before and after exposure to fluorescent light in X. maculatus, X. couchianus, and for F1 interspecies hybrids produced from crossing these two parental lines (X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus). We present novel results showing these two photolyase genes exhibit species, tissue, and hybrid-specific differences in basal and light induced gene expression.
Project description:The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and 6-4 lesion formations along with the specific breaks on strands are the most common type of DNA damage caused by Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. CPD photolyase I and II construct two subfamilies of flavoproteins, which have recognition and repair capabilities of CPD sites on both single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA) with the aid of blue light energy. The other types of flavoprotein family consist of cryptochromes (CRY) that act as photoreceptors in plants, or circadian rhythm regulators in animals. Recent findings showed that a specific type of Cryptochrome-Drosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, Human (CRY-DASH) has photorepair activity on ssDNA. In this work, real-time interactions between CRY-DASH and ss/dsDNA as well as the interactions between Vibrio cholerae photolyase (VcPHR) and ss/dsDNA were investigated using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The interactions were then characterized and compared in order to investigate the effect of different types of flavoprotein on UV damaged ss/dsDNA. SPR results confirm the specific binding of VcPHR and CRY-DASH with UV treated DNA. This study is the first instance to quantify the interactions of UV treated and untreated DNA with flavoproteins.