Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves plantaris muscle recovery after disuse in aged rats.
ABSTRACT: Aging exacerbates muscle loss and slows the recovery of muscle mass and function after disuse. In this study we investigated the potential that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, would reduce signaling for apoptosis and promote skeletal muscle recovery in the fast plantaris muscle and the slow soleus muscle after hindlimb suspension (HLS) in senescent animals. Fischer 344 × Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 months) received either EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or water daily by gavage. One group of animals received HLS for 14 days and a second group of rats received 14 days of HLS, then the HLS was removed and they recovered from this forced disuse for 2 weeks. Animals that received EGCg over the HLS followed by 14 days of recovery, had a 14% greater plantaris muscle weight (p<0.05) as compared to the animals treated with the vehicle over this same period. Plantaris fiber area was greater after recovery in EGCg (2715.2±113.8 ?m(2)) vs. vehicle treated animals (1953.0±41.9 ?m(2)). In addition, activation of myogenic progenitor cells was improved with EGCg over vehicle treatment (7.5% vs. 6.2%) in the recovery animals. Compared to vehicle treatment, the apoptotic index was lower (0.24% vs. 0.52%), and the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (-22%), and FADD (-77%) was lower in EGCg treated plantaris muscles after recovery. While EGCg did not prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it improved muscle recovery after the atrophic stimulus in fast plantaris muscles. However, this effect was muscle specific because EGCg had no major impact in reversing HLS-induced atrophy in the slow soleus muscle of old rats.
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.
Project description:Aging is associated with poor skeletal muscle regenerative ability following extended periods of hospitalization and other forms of muscular disuse. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin which has been shown in skeletal muscle to improve oxidative stress levels in muscles of aged rats. As muscle disuse and reloading after disuse increases oxidative stress, we hypothesized that resveratrol supplementation would improve muscle regeneration after disuse. A total of thirty-six male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats (32 mo.) were treated with either a water vehicle or resveratrol via oral gavage. The animals received hindlimb suspension for 14 days. Thereafter, they were either sacrificed or allowed an additional 14 day period of cage ambulation during reloading. A total of six rats from the vehicle and the resveratrol treated groups were used for the hindlimb suspension and recovery protocols. Furthermore, two groups of 6 vehicle treated animals maintained normal ambulation throughout the experiment, and were used as control animals for the hindlimb suspension and reloading groups. The data show that resveratrol supplementation was unable to attenuate the decreases in plantaris muscle wet weight during hindlimb suspension but it improved muscle mass during reloading after hindlimb suspension. Although resveratrol did not prevent fiber atrophy during the period of disuse, it increased the fiber cross sectional area of type IIA and IIB fibers in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension. There was a modest enhancement of myogenic precursor cell proliferation in resveratrol-treated muscles after reloading, but this failed to reach statistical significance. The resveratrol-associated improvement in type II fiber size and muscle mass recovery after disuse may have been due to decreases in the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 in reloaded muscles. Resveratrol appears to have modest therapeutic benefits for improving muscle mass after disuse in aging.
Project description:Impaired recovery of aged muscle following a disuse event is an unresolved issue facing the older adult population. Although investigations in young animals have suggested that rapid regrowth of skeletal muscle following a disuse event entails a coordinated involvement of skeletal muscle macrophages, this phenomenon has not yet been thoroughly tested as an explanation for impaired muscle recovery in aging. To examine this hypothesis, young (4-5 mo) and old (24-26 mo) male mice were examined as controls following 2 wk of hindlimb unloading (HU) and following 4 (RL4) and 7 (RL7) days of reloading after HU. Muscles were harvested to assess muscle weight, myofiber-specifc cross-sectional area, and skeletal muscle macrophages via immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry was used on gastrocnemius and soleus muscle (at RL4) single-cell suspensions to immunophenotype skeletal muscle macrophages. Our data demonstrated impaired muscle regrowth in aged compared with young mice following disuse, which was characterized by divergent muscle macrophage polarization patterns and muscle-specifc macrophage abundance. During reloading, young mice exhibited the classical increase in M1-like (MHC II+CD206-) macrophages that preceeded the increase in percentage of M2-like macrophages (MHC II-CD206+); however, old mice did not demonstrate this pattern. Also, at RL4, the soleus demonstrated reduced macrophage abundance with aging. Together, these data suggest that dysregulated macrophage phenotype patterns in aged muscle during recovery from disuse may be related to impaired muscle growth. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the dysregulated macrophage response in the old during regrowth from disuse is related to a reduced ability to recruit or activate specific immune cells.
Project description:Recovery from burn injury is associated with stimulated whole-body protein turnover. Since skeletal muscle and liver are the tissues most likely to influence whole-body measurements, we studied protein kinetics in soleus and plantaris muscles as well as liver 3 days after a 3 s burn on one hindlimb of the rat. Muscles from both the burned and unburned limbs of burned rats were compared with those of uninjured controls to distinguish between local and systemic factors involved. The following measurements were performed: (1) fractional growth rate of the tissue protein pool, determined from tissue protein content on days 2, 3 and 4; (2) fractional protein-synthetic rate, measured by [14C]tyrosine constant infusion on day 3; (3) fractional protein-degradation rate, calculated from the difference between the rates of protein synthesis and growth. Protein growth by soleus and plantaris muscles of control rats and unburned limb of burned rats was not paralleled by those in the burned limb, which showed progressive atrophy between 2 and 4 days post-burn (P less than 0.005). Protein synthesis by soleus but not plantaris muscle in the unburned limb of burned rats was enhanced by 62% (P less than 0.04) above control. Protein synthesis by burned-limb soleus and plantaris muscles was elevated by 114% (P less than 0.001) and 67% (P less than 0.02) respectively above control. Protein degradation by both soleus and plantaris muscles in the unburned limb of burned rats did not differ from control. In contrast, that of soleus and plantaris muscles in the burned limb was stimulated by 230% (P less than 0.001) and 164% (P less than 0.001) respectively compared with controls. Protein turnover of soleus muscles in both control and burned rats was more rapid than in corresponding plantaris muscles. Liver protein mass exhibited steady growth in control rats, but remained unchanged in burned animals between 2 and 4 days post-burn. Liver protein synthesis in burned rats was elevated by 56% (P less than 0.01) and protein breakdown was stimulated by 61% (P less than 0.002) above those of controls. The data indicate that both local and systemic factors influence tissue protein turnover in animals recovering from a single-hindlimb scald.
Project description:Groups of young rats (100 g body wt.) were starved from 23:00 to 11:00 h. The animals were then infused intravenously with diluent or insulin at three different doses to achieve plasma insulin concentrations of 20, 50 and 150 microunits/ml. Before the start of the infusion, animals received a single intravenous injection of indomethacin (250 micrograms) or diluent. After 20 min of infusion, the rats were injected with a large amount of labelled phenylalanine and were killed 10 min later. Insulin produced a dose-dependent decrease in plasma glucose and a dose-dependent rise in protein synthesis in cardiac, gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles. Protein synthesis in the liver was unaffected by insulin. Indomethacin had no effect on plasma glucose concentrations, but blocked the insulin-induced rise in protein synthesis in cardiac, gastrocnemius and plantaris, but not in soleus muscle. The hormone also increased the plasma concentration of prostaglandin E2 and of prostaglandins F2 alpha and E2 in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle. The results show close similarities to previous observations with isolated rabbit muscles in vitro and suggest that the involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism in the action of insulin on protein synthesis is of physiological significance.
Project description:Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.
Project description:The effect of glucagon on the rate of muscle protein synthesis was examined in vivo and in the isolated perfused rat hemicorpus. An inhibition of protein synthesis in skeletal muscles from overnight-fasted rats at various plasma concentrations of glucagon was demonstrated in vivo. The plantaris muscle (Type II, fibre-rich) was more sensitive than the soleus (Type I, fibre-rich). Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were equally sensitive in vivo. However, protein synthesis in mixed protein and in sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the heart was unresponsive to glucagon in vivo. In isolated perfused muscle preparations from fed animals, the addition of glucagon also decreased the synthesis of mixed muscle proteins in gastrocnemius (Type I and II fibres) and plantaris, but not in the soleus. The sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the plantaris were also equally affected in vitro. Similar results were observed in vitro with 1-day-starved rats, but the changes were less marked.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful strategies to halt or reverse sarcopenia require a basic understanding of the factors that cause muscle loss with age. Acute periods of muscle loss in older individuals have an incomplete recovery of muscle mass and strength, thus accelerating sarcopenic progression. The purpose of the current study was to further understand the mechanisms underlying the failure of old animals to completely recover muscle mass and function after a period of hindlimb unloading.<h4>Methods</h4>Hindlimb unloading was used to induce muscle atrophy in Fischer 344-Brown Norway (F344BN F1) rats at 24, 28, and 30 months of age. Rats were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded at 24 months (Reloaded 24), 28 months (Reloaded 28), and 24 and 28 months (Reloaded 24/28) of age. Isometric torque was determined at 24 months of age (24 months), at 28 months of age (28 months), immediately after 14 days of reloading, and at 30 months of age (30 months). During control or reloaded conditions, rats were labelled with deuterium oxide (D<sub>2</sub> O) to determine rates of muscle protein synthesis and RNA synthesis.<h4>Results</h4>After 14 days of reloading, in vivo isometric torque returned to baseline in Reloaded 24, but not Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28. Despite the failure of Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28 to regain peak force, all groups were equally depressed in peak force generation at 30 months. Increased age did not decrease muscle protein synthesis rates, and in fact, increased resting rates of protein synthesis were measured in the myofibrillar fraction (Fractional synthesis rate (FSR): %/day) of the plantaris (24 months: 2.53 ± 0.17; 30 months: 3.29 ± 0.17), and in the myofibrillar (24 months: 2.29 ± 0.07; 30 months: 3.34 ± 0.11), collagen (24 months: 1.11 ± 0.07; 30 months: 1.55 ± 0.14), and mitochondrial (24 months: 2.38 ± 0.16; 30 months: 3.20 ± 0.10) fractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). All muscles increased myofibrillar protein synthesis (%/day) in Reloaded 24 (soleus: 3.36 ± 0.11, 5.23 ± 0.19; plantaris: 2.53 ± 0.17, 3.66 ± 0.07; TA: 2.29 ± 0.14, 3.15 ± 0.12); however, in Reloaded 28, only the soleus had myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (%/day) >28 months (28 months: 3.80 ± 0.10; Reloaded 28: 4.86 ± 0.19). Across the muscles, rates of protein synthesis were correlated with RNA synthesis (all muscles combined, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.807, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data add to the growing body of literature that indicate that changes with age, including following disuse atrophy, differ by muscle. In addition, our findings lead to additional questions of the underlying mechanisms by which some muscles are maintained with age while others are not.
Project description:The rate of protein synthesis was measured in muscles of the perfused rat hemicorpus, and values were compared with rates obtained in whole animals. In gastrocnemius muscle of fed rats the rate of synthesis measured in the hemicorpus was the same as that in the whole animal. However, in plantaris, quadriceps and soleus muscles rates were higher in the hemicorpus than those in vivo. In the hemicorpus, starvation for 1 day decreased the rate of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, in parallel with decreases in the RNA content, but the soleus remained unaffected. Similar effects of starvation were observed in vivo, so that the relationships between rates in vivo and in the hemicorpus were the same as those in fed rats. Proteins of quadriceps and plantaris muscles were separated into sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions. The rate of synthesis in the sarcoplasmic fraction of the hemicorpus from fed rats was similar to that in vivo, but synthesis in the myofibrillar fraction was greater. In the plantaris of starved rats the rates of synthesis in both fractions were lower, but the relationships between rates measured in vivo and in the perfused hemicorpus were similar to those seen in fed rats. The addition of insulin to the perfusate of the hemicorpus prepared from 1-day-starved animals increased the rates of protein synthesis per unit of RNA in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to values above those seen in fed animals when measured in vivo or in the hemicorpus. Insulin had no effect on the soleus. Overall, the rates of protein synthesis in the hemicorpus differed from those in vivo. However, the effect of starvation when measured in the whole animal was very similar to that measured in the isolated rat hemicorpus when insulin was omitted from the perfusate.
Project description:Prior work established that exercise alleviates muscle function loss in a clinically relevant rodent model mimicking the clinical sequelae of severely burned patients. On the basis of these data, we posit that pharmacologic treatment with insulin combined with exercise further mitigates loss of muscle function following severe burn with immobilization. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed and trained to complete a climbing exercise. All rats followed a standardized protocol to mimic severe burn patients (40% total body surface area scald burn); all rats were immediately placed into a hindlimb unloading apparatus to simulate bedrest. The rats were then randomly assigned to four treatment groups: saline vehicle injection without exercise (VEH/NEX), insulin (5 U/kg) injection without exercise (INS/NEX), saline vehicle with daily exercise (VEH/EX), and insulin with daily exercise (INS/EX). The animals were assessed for 14 days following injury. The groups were compared for multiple variables. Isometric tetanic (Po) and twitch (Pt) forces were significantly elevated in the plantaris and soleus muscles of the INS/EX rats (P < 0.05). Genomic analysis revealed mechanistic causes with specific candidate changes. Molecular analysis of INS/EX rats revealed Akt phosphorylated by PDPK1 was increased with this treatment, and it further activated downstream signals mTOR, eEF2, and GSK3-? (P < 0.05). Furthermore, muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was reduced in the INS/EX group (P < 0.05). Insulin and resistance exercise have a positive combined effect on the muscle function recovery in this clinically relevant rodent model of severe burn. Both treatments altered signaling pathways of increasing protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation.