ABSTRACT: Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3) selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme.
Project description:The Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme selectively ADP-ribosylates low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins RhoA, B and C. This covalent modification inhibits Rho signaling activity, resulting in distinct actin cytoskeleton changes. Although C3 exoenzyme has no binding, the translocation domain assures that C3 enters cells and acts intracellularly. C3 uptake is thought to occur due to the high concentration of the C3 enzyme. However, recent work indicates that C3 is selectively endocytosed, suggesting a specific endocytotic pathway, which is not yet understood. In this study, we show that the C3 exoenzyme binds to cell surfaces and is internalized in a time-dependent manner. We show that the intermediate filament, vimentin, is involved in C3 uptake, as indicated by the inhibition of C3 internalization by acrylamide, a known vimentin disruption agent. Inhibition of C3 internalization was not observed by chemical inhibitors, like bafilomycin A, methyl-?-cyclodextrin, nocodazole or latrunculin B. Furthermore, the internalization of C3 exoenzyme was markedly inhibited in dynasore-treated HT22 cells. Our results indicate that C3 internalization depends on vimentin and does not depend strictly on both clathrin and caveolae.
Project description:The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme (C3bot) is a bacterial protein toxin devoid of a cell-binding or -translocation domain. Nevertheless, C3 can efficiently enter intact cells, including neurons, but the mechanism of C3 binding and uptake is not yet understood. Previously, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as an extracellular membranous interaction partner of C3. However, uptake of C3 into cells still occurs (although reduced) in the absence of vimentin, indicating involvement of an additional host cell receptor. C3 harbors an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is the major integrin-binding site, present in a variety of integrin ligands. To check whether the RGD motif of C3 is involved in binding to cells, we performed a competition assay with C3 and RGD peptide or with a monoclonal antibody binding to ?1-integrin subunit and binding assays in different cell lines, primary neurons, and synaptosomes with C3-RGD mutants. Here, we report that preincubation of cells with the GRGDNP peptide strongly reduced C3 binding to cells. Moreover, mutation of the RGD motif reduced C3 binding to intact cells and also to recombinant vimentin. Anti-integrin antibodies also lowered the C3 binding to cells. Our results indicate that the RGD motif of C3 is at least one essential C3 motif for binding to host cells and that integrin is an additional receptor for C3 besides vimentin.
Project description:C3 exoenzyme from C. botulinum is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that inactivates selectively RhoA, B, and C by coupling an ADP-ribose moiety. Rho-GTPases are involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previous studies of our group with the murine hippocampal cell line HT22 revealed a C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation after 48 h and a prevention of serum-starved cells from apoptosis. For both effects, alterations of various signaling pathways are already known, including also changes on the transcriptional level. Investigations on the transcriptional activity in HT22 cells treated with C3 for 48 h identified five out of 48 transcription factors namely Sp1, ATF2, E2F-1, CBF, and Stat6 with a significantly regulated activity. For validation of identified transcription factors, studies on the protein level of certain target genes were performed. Western blot analyses exhibited an enhanced abundance of Sp1 target genes p21 and COX-2 as well as an increase in phosphorylation of c-Jun. In contrast, the level of p53 and apoptosis-inducing GADD153, a target gene of ATF2, was decreased. Our results reveal that C3 regulates the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and ATF2 resulting downstream in an altered protein abundance of various target genes. As the affected proteins are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus the C3-mediated anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects are consequences of the Rho-dependent alterations of the activity of certain transcriptional factors.
Project description:The ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 exoenzyme from C. botulinum selectively inactivates Rho and is therefore often used as an inhibitor for investigations on Rho signaling. Previous studies of our group revealed that C3 inhibited cell proliferation in HT22 cells accompanied by increased transcriptional activities of Sp1 and c-Jun and reduced levels of cyclin D1, p21 and phosphorylated p38. By use of a p38?-deficient and a p38?-expressing control cell line, the impact of p38 on C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and alterations on MAPK signaling was studied by growth kinetic experiments and Western blot analyses. The cell growth of p38?-expressing cells was impaired by C3, while the p38?-deficient cells did not exhibit any C3-induced effect. The activity of the MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signaling cascade as well as the phosphorylation of c-Jun and JNK was reduced by C3 exclusively in the presence of p38?. Moreover, the activity of upstream MAPKKK TAK1 was lowered in the p38?-expressing cells. These results indicated a resistance of p38?-deficient cells to C3-mediated inhibition of cell growth. This anti-proliferative effect was highly associated with the decreased activity of c-Jun and upstream p38 and JNK MAPK signaling as a consequence of the absence of p38? in these cells.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of C3 exoenzyme (C3) on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinopathy in rats. C3 was expressed in Escherichia. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunofluorescence was performed in NIH 3T3 cells treated with C3 to verify the cellular uptake of the protein. NMDA was injected intravitreally into rat eyes with or without C3. At various time points after injection, eyes were enucleated. Hematoxylin/eosin staining was performed on retina cross-sections for morphological analysis. Survival and apoptosis of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) were assessed by cresyl violet staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) on retina flat-mounts. RhoA levels in retina cells were evaluated by Western blot to detect C3 uptake in vivo. The cellular uptake of C3 was verified by immunofluorescence. Damage including a decrease in inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and reduction of cell density in the GCL, corresponding to apoptosis of neurons, was induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA. Protection against this damage was observed following co-injection of C3 and NMDA. RhoA ADP-ribosylation induced by C3 was confirmed by Western blot. Our results suggest that C3 exerts neuroprotective effects against excitotoxic damage induced by NMDA.
Project description:C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1-3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 A. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix alpha4 and strand beta6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner.
Project description:C3 exoenzymes from bacterial pathogens ADP-ribosylate and inactivate low-molecular-mass GTPases of the Rho subfamily. Ral, a Ras subfamily GTPase, binds the C3 exoenzymes from Clostridium botulinum and C. limosum with high affinity without being a substrate for ADP ribosylation. In the complex, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of C3 is blocked, while binding of NAD and NAD-glycohydrolase activity remain. Here we report the crystal structure of C3 from C. botulinum in a complex with GDP-bound RalA at 1.8 A resolution. C3 binds RalA with a helix-loop-helix motif that is adjacent to the active site. A quaternary complex with NAD suggests a mode for ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibition. Interaction of C3 with RalA occurs at a unique interface formed by the switch-II region, helix alpha3 and the P loop of the GTPase. C3-binding stabilizes the GDP-bound conformation of RalA and blocks nucleotide release. Our data indicate that C. botulinum exoenzyme C3 is a single-domain toxin with bifunctional properties targeting Rho GTPases by ADP ribosylation and Ral by a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor-like effect, which blocks nucleotide exchange.
Project description:Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry.
Project description:C3 exoenzyme is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) that catalyzes transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from NAD(+) to Rho GTPases. C3 has long been used to study the diverse regulatory functions of Rho GTPases. How C3 recognizes its substrate and how ADP-ribosylation proceeds are still poorly understood. Crystal structures of C3-RhoA complex reveal that C3 recognizes RhoA via the switch I, switch II, and interswitch regions. In C3-RhoA(GTP) and C3-RhoA(GDP), switch I and II adopt the GDP and GTP conformations, respectively, which explains why C3 can ADP-ribosylate both nucleotide forms. Based on structural information, we successfully changed Cdc42 to an active substrate with combined mutations in the C3-Rho GTPase interface. Moreover, the structure reflects the close relationship among Gln-183 in the QXE motif (C3), a modified Asn-41 residue (RhoA) and NC1 of NAD(H), which suggests that C3 is the prototype ART. These structures show directly for the first time that the ARTT loop is the key to target protein recognition, and they also serve to bridge the gaps among independent studies of Rho GTPases and C3.
Project description:CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions as hyaluronan receptor. Mouse and human serum contain substantial amounts of soluble CD44, generated either by shedding or alternative splicing. During inflammation and in cancer patients serum levels of soluble CD44 are significantly increased. Experimentally, soluble CD44 overexpression blocks cancer cell adhesion to HA. We have previously found that recombinant CD44 hyaluronan binding domain (CD44HABD) and its non-HA-binding mutant inhibited tumor xenograft growth, angiogenesis, and endothelial cell proliferation. These data suggested an additional target other than HA for CD44HABD. By using non-HA-binding CD44HABD Arg41Ala, Arg78Ser, and Tyr79Ser-triple mutant (CD443MUT) we have identified intermediate filament protein vimentin as a novel interaction partner of CD44. We found that vimentin is expressed on the cell surface of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Endogenous CD44 and vimentin coprecipitate from HUVECs, and when overexpressed in vimentin-negative MCF-7 cells. By using deletion mutants, we found that CD44HABD and CD443MUT bind vimentin N-terminal head domain. CD443MUT binds vimentin in solution with a Kd in range of 12-37 nM, and immobilised vimentin with Kd of 74 nM. CD443MUT binds to HUVEC and recombinant vimentin displaces CD443MUT from its binding sites. CD44HABD and CD443MUT were internalized by wild-type endothelial cells, but not by lung endothelial cells isolated from vimentin knock-out mice. Together, these data suggest that vimentin provides a specific binding site for soluble CD44 on endothelial cells.