Cloning and characterization of a unique cytotoxic protein parasporin-5 produced by Bacillus thuringiensis A1100 strain.
ABSTRACT: Parasporin is the cytocidal protein present in the parasporal inclusion of the non-insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains, which has no hemolytic activity but has cytocidal activities, preferentially killing cancer cells. In this study, we characterized a cytocidal protein that belongs to this category, which was designated parasporin-5 (PS5). PS5 was purified from B. thuringiensis serovar tohokuensis strain A1100 based on its cytocidal activity against human leukemic T cells (MOLT-4). The 50% effective concentration (EC??) of PS5 to MOLT-4 cells was approximately 0.075 ?g/mL. PS5 was expressed as a 33.8-kDa inactive precursor protein and exhibited cytocidal activity only when degraded by protease at the C-terminal into smaller molecules of 29.8 kDa. Although PS5 showed no significant homology with other known parasporins, a Position Specific Iterative-Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (PSI-BLAST) search revealed that the protein showed slight homology to, not only some B. thuringiensis Cry toxins, but also to aerolysin-type ?-pore-forming toxins (?-PFTs). The recombinant PS5 protein could be obtained as an active protein only when it was expressed in a precursor followed by processing with proteinase K. The cytotoxic activities of the protein against various mammalian cell lines were evaluated. PS5 showed strong cytocidal activity to seven of 18 mammalian cell lines tested, and low to no cytotoxicity to the others.
Project description:An unusual property, human leukemic cell-recognizing activity, associated with parasporal inclusions of a noninsecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolate was investigated, and a protein (named parasporin in this study) responsible for the activity was cloned. The parasporin, encoded by a gene 2,169 bp long, was a polypeptide of 723 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 81, 045. The sequence of parasporin contained the five conserved blocks commonly found in B. thuringiensis Cry proteins; however, only very low homologies (<25%) between parasporin and the existing classes of Cry and Cyt proteins were detected. Parasporin exhibited cytocidal activity only when degraded by proteases into smaller molecules of 40 to 60 kDa. Trypsin and proteinase K activated parasporin, while chymotrypsin did not. The activated parasporin showed strong cytocidal activity against human leukemic T cells (MOLT-4) and human uterus cervix cancer cells (HeLa) but not against normal T cells.
Project description:Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is popularly known as insecticidal bacterium. However, non-insecticidal Bt strains are more extensively available in natural environment than the insecticidal ones. Parasporin (PS) is a collection of genealogically heterogeneous Cry proteins synthesized in non-insecticidal isolates of Bt. An important character generally related with PS proteins is their strong cytocidal activity preferentially on human cancer cells of various origins. Identification and characterization of novel parasporin protein which are non-hemolytic and non-insecticidal but having selective anticancer activity raise the possibility of a novel application of Bt in medical field. In the present study, seven new indigenous isolates (T6, T37, T68, T98, T165, T186, and T461) of Bt showed variation in colony morphology, crystal characters and protein profiles with each other. Out of the seven new isolates screened for parasporin (ps) and cry genes, two of the new indigenous isolates (T98 and T186) of Bt showed the presence of ps4 gene. Partial ps4 gene was cloned from the two new isolates and the sequence of partial ps4 gene showed high homology with its holotype ps4Aa1. These two isolates were characterized based on the proteolytic processing of the inclusion proteins and the proteolytic products were found to be comparable to the PS4 reference strain A1470. The two isolates of Bt did not show toxicity toward Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the isolates T98 and T186 are parasporin producers.
Project description:Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type ?-PFTs, Cyt toxin type ?-PFTs and aerolysin type ?-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively.
Project description:In previous studies, parasporin-2Aa1, originally isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547, was shown to be cytotoxic against specific human cancer cells but the mechanisms of action were not studied. In the present study, we found that proteinase K activated parasporin-2Aa1 protein isolated from a novel B. thuringiensis strain, 4R2, was specifically cytotoxic to endometrial, colon, liver, cervix, breast and prostate cancer. It showed no toxicity against normal cells. Upon treatment with proteinase K-activated parasporin-2Aa1, morphological changes were observed and western blot analysis revealed the cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 in cancer cell lines exclusively, indicative of programmed cell death, apoptosis. Flow cytometry analyses,using propidium iodide and annexin V, as well as a caspases 3/7 assay confirmed apoptosis induction. Further analyses were performed to study survival pathways, including AKT, XIAP, ERK1/2 and PAR-4, a known inducer of apoptosis. These results indicate that parasporin-2Aa1 is a selective cytotoxic protein that induces apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines from diverse tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), an ubiquitous gram-positive spore-forming bacterium forms parasporal proteins during the stationary phase of its growth. Recent findings of selective human cancer cell-killing activity in non-insecticidal Bt isolates resulted in a new category of Bt parasporal protein called parasporin. However, little is known about the receptor molecules that bind parasporins and the mechanism of anti-cancer activity. A Malaysian Bt isolate, designated Bt18 produces parasporal protein that exhibit preferential cytotoxic activity for human leukaemic T cells (CEM-SS) but is non-cytotoxic to normal T cells or other cancer cell lines such as human cervical cancer (HeLa), human breast cancer (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HT-29) suggesting properties similar to parasporin. In this study we aim to identify the binding protein for Bt18 in human leukaemic T cells. METHODS: Bt18 parasporal protein was separated using Mono Q anion exchange column attached to a HPLC system and antibody was raised against the purified 68-kDa parasporal protein. Receptor binding assay was used to detect the binding protein for Bt18 parasporal protein in CEM-SS cells and the identified protein was sent for N-terminal sequencing. NCBI protein BLAST was used to analyse the protein sequence. Double immunofluorescence staining techniques was applied to localise Bt18 and binding protein on CEM-SS cell. RESULTS: Anion exchange separation of Bt18 parasporal protein yielded a 68-kDa parasporal protein with specific cytotoxic activity. Polyclonal IgG (anti-Bt18) for the 68-kDa parasporal protein was successfully raised and purified. Receptor binding assay showed that Bt18 parasporal protein bound to a 36-kDa protein from the CEM-SS cells lysate. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 36-kDa protein was GKVKVGVNGFGRIGG. NCBI protein BLAST revealed that the binding protein was Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Double immunofluorescence staining showed co-localisation of Bt18 and GAPDH on the plasma membrane of the CEM-SS cells. CONCLUSIONS: GAPDH has been well known as a glycolytic enzyme, but recently GAPDH was discovered to have roles in apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Pre-incubation of anti-GAPDH antibody with CEM-SS cells decreases binding of Bt18 to the susceptible cells. Based on a qualitative analysis of the immunoblot and immunofluorescence results, GAPDH was identified as a binding protein on the plasma membrane of CEM-SS cells for Bt18 parasporal protein.
Project description:An indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strain B.t.LDC-391 producing cytocidal proteins against human colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, was subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization to evaluate its relatedness to B.anthracis. The morphological features of this strain were meta-analyzed with data of other parasporin and insecticidal protein producing Bacillus thuringiensis strains. The conventional biochemical analysis and antibiotic sensitivity test proved it as an ampicillin resistant which is a salient feature, absent in B.anthracis Ames. PCR analysis showed the absence of cyt and parasporin related genes in the genome of B.t.LDC-391. But the strain was positive for cap gene. The sequencing and bio-informatic analysis of cap gene and 16S rDNA of B.t.LDC-391 placed it closer to B.thuringiensis and revealed significant divergence from that of any B.anthracis strain. However our strain lacked β- hemolysis on human erythrocytes which is a common feature of B.anthracis strains and parasporin producers.
Project description:Parasporal crystalline inclusion proteins of some Bacillus spp. are of paramount importance due to their insecticidal, nematocidal, and cancer cell killing capabilities. Here, we present a brief report of the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. BD59S, a bacterium that produced HeLa cell-killing parasporal crystalline inclusion proteins. From genome sequencing and assembly, we found that the bacterium has one circular chromosome and two large plasmids, pBTBD59S1 and pBTBD59S2. The size of the chromosome is 5283,933 bp with a 35.4% GC content, consisting of 5938 genes and 5550 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 25 complete rRNAs (5S, 16S, 23S), 98 tRNAs, 5 ncRNAs, 260 pseudo-genes, and 356 subsystems. Complete plasmid sequence of pBTBD59S1 comprises a total size of 162,149 bp with 33.4% GC content, 192 CDSs, and 13 subsystems. The other plasmid pBTBD59S2, is 199,209 bp long with 32.9% GC content, 179 CDSs, and 11 subsystems. Analyses by NCBI microbial genome BLAST, phylogenetic genome tree, and BLAST ring image generator (BRIG) revealed that BD59S belongs to Bacillus cereus group, and is more close to B. thuringiensis. Further, the strain possesses 57.04 kDa and 54.42 kDa Cry protein-coding genes, which show significant similarities with cancer cell-killing parasporin proteins of B. thuringiensis strains.
Project description:Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis such as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (ONR-60A) and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (PG-14) pathogenic for mosquito larvae produce a complex parasporal body consisting of several protein endotoxins synthesized during sporulation that form an aggregate of crystalline inclusions bound together by a multilamellar fibrous matrix. Most studies of these strains focus on the molecular biology of the endotoxins, and although it is known that parasporal body structural integrity is important to achieving high toxicity, virtually nothing is known about the matrix that binds the toxin inclusions together. In the present study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of this matrix to identify proteins that potentially mediate assembly and stability of the parasporal body. In addition to fragments of their known major toxins, namely, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry11Aa, and Cyt1Aa, we identified peptides with 100% identity to regions of Bt152, a protein coded for by pBtoxis of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, the plasmid that encodes all endotoxins of this subspecies. As it is known that the Bt152 gene is expressed in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, we disrupted its function and showed that inactivation destabilized the parasporal body matrix and, concomitantly, inclusion aggregation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we further demonstrate that Bt152 localizes to the parasporal body in both strains, is absent in other structural or soluble components of the cell, including the endospore and cytoplasm, and in ligand blots binds to purified multilamellar fibrous matrix. Together, the data show that Bt152 is essential for stability of the parasporal body of these strains.
Project description:Bacillus pumilus strain 15.1 was previously found to cause larval mortality in the Med-fly Ceratitis capitata and was shown to produce crystals in association with the spore. As parasporal crystals are well-known as invertebrate-active toxins in entomopathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry and Cyt toxins) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin and Cry toxins), the B. pumilus crystals were characterized. The crystals were composed of a 45 kDa protein that was identified as an oxalate decarboxylase by peptide mass fingerprinting, N-terminal sequencing and by comparison with the genome sequence of strain 15.1. Synthesis of crystals by a plasmid-cured derivative of strain 15.1 (produced using a novel curing strategy), demonstrated that the oxalate decarboxylase was encoded chromosomally. Crystals spontaneously solubilized when kept at low temperatures, and the protein produced was resistant to trypsin treatment. The insoluble crystals produced by B. pumilus 15.1 did not show significant toxicity when bioassayed against C. capitata larvae, but once the OxdD protein was solubilized, an increase of toxicity was observed. We also demonstrate that the OxdD present in the crystals has oxalate decarboxylate activity as the formation of formate was detected, which suggests a possible mechanism for B. pumilus 15.1 activity. To our knowledge, the characterization of the B. pumilus crystals as oxalate decarboxylase is the first report of the natural production of parasporal inclusions of an enzyme.
Project description:Bacillus cereus sensu lato also known as B. cereus group is composed of an ecologically diverse bacterial group with an increasing number of related species, some of which are medically or agriculturally important. Numerous e?orts have been undertaken to allow presumptive di?erentiation of B. cereus group species from one another. FCC41 is a Bacillus sp. strain toxic against mosquito species like Aedes aegypti, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) albifasciatus, Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex apicinus, some of them responsible for the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of FCC41 strain, which consists of one circular chromosome and eight circular plasmids ranging in size from 8 to 490?kb. This strain harbors six crystal protein genes, including cry24Ca, two cry4-like and two cry52-like, a cry41-like parasporin gene and multiple virulence factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the whole-genome sequence of this strain with molecular approaches places this strain into the Bacillus wiedmannii cluster. However, according with phenotypical characteristics such as the mosquitocidal activity due to the presence of Cry proteins found in the parasporal body and cry genes encoded in plasmids of different sizes, indicate that this strain could be renamed as B. wiedmannii biovar thuringiensis strain FCC41.