HIV-1 assembly differentially alters dynamics and partitioning of tetraspanins and raft components.
ABSTRACT: Partitioning of membrane proteins into various types of microdomains is crucial for many cellular functions. Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) are a unique type of protein-based microdomain, clearly distinct from membrane rafts, and important for several cellular processes such as fusion, migration and signaling. Paradoxically, HIV-1 assembly/egress occurs at TEMs, yet the viral particles also incorporate raft lipids. Using different quantitative microscopy approaches, we investigated the dynamic relationship between TEMs, membrane rafts and HIV-1 exit sites, focusing mainly on the tetraspanin CD9. Our results show that clustering of CD9 correlates with multimerization of the major viral structural component, Gag, at the plasma membrane. CD9 exhibited confined behavior and reduced lateral mobility at viral assembly sites, suggesting that Gag locally traps tetraspanins. In contrast, the raft lipid GM1 and the raft-associated protein CD55, while also recruited to assembly/budding sites, were only transiently trapped in these membrane areas. CD9 recruitment and confinement were found to be partially dependent on cholesterol, while those of CD55 were completely dependent on cholesterol. Importantly, our findings support the emerging concept that cellular and viral components, instead of clustering at preexisting microdomain platforms, direct the formation of distinct domains for the execution of specific functions.
Project description:The HIV-1 structural protein Gag associates with two types of plasma membrane microdomains, lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), both of which have been proposed to be platforms for HIV-1 assembly. However, a variety of studies have demonstrated that lipid rafts and TEMs are distinct microdomains in the absence of HIV-1 infection. To measure the impact of Gag on microdomain behaviors, we took advantage of two assays: an antibody-mediated copatching assay and a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that measures the clustering of microdomain markers in live cells without antibody-mediated patching. We found that lipid rafts and TEMs copatched and clustered to a greater extent in the presence of membrane-bound Gag in both assays, suggesting that Gag induces the coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs. Substitutions in membrane binding motifs of Gag revealed that, while Gag membrane binding is necessary to induce coalescence of lipid rafts and TEMs, either acylation of Gag or binding of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate is sufficient. Finally, a Gag derivative that is defective in inducing membrane curvature appeared less able to induce lipid raft and TEM coalescence. A higher-resolution analysis of assembly sites by correlative fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy showed that coalescence of clustered lipid rafts and TEMs occurs predominantly at completed cell surface virus-like particles, whereas a transmembrane raft marker protein appeared to associate with punctate Gag fluorescence even in the absence of cell surface particles. Together, these results suggest that different membrane microdomain components are recruited in a stepwise manner during assembly.
Project description:Tumour metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 inhibits tumour cell movement. As a transmembrane protein, tetraspanin CD82 bridges the interactions between membrane microdomains of lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). In this study, we found that CD82 and other tetraspanins contain cholesterol recognition/interaction amino-acid consensus (CRAC) sequences in their transmembrane domains and revealed that cholesterol binding of CD82 determines its interaction with lipid rafts but not with TEMs. Functionally, CD82 needs cholesterol binding to inhibit solitary migration, collective migration, invasion and infiltrative outgrowth of tumour cells. Importantly, CD82-cholesterol/-lipid raft interaction not only promotes extracellular release of lipid raft components such as cholesterol and gangliosides but also facilitates extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated release of ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein Ezrin. Since ERM proteins link actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, we show for the first time that cell movement can be regulated by EV-mediated releases, which disengage the plasma membrane from cytoskeleton and then impair cell movement. Our findings also conceptualize that interactions between membrane domains, in this case converge of lipid rafts and TEMs by CD82, can change cell movement. Moreover, CD82 coalescences with both lipid rafts and TEMs are essential for its inhibition of tumour cell movement and for its enhancement of EV release. Finally, our study underpins that tetraspanins as a superfamily of functionally versatile molecules are cholesterol-binding proteins. Abbreviations: Ab: antibody; CBM: cholesterol-binding motif; CCM: cholesterol consensus motif; CRAC/CARC: cholesterol recognition or interaction amino-acid consensus; CTxB: cholera toxin B subunit; ECM: extracellular matrix; ERM: ezrin, radixin and moesin; EV: extracellular vesicles; FBS: foetal bovine serum; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MST: microscale thermophoresis; pAb: polyclonal antibody; and TEM: tetraspanin-enriched microdomain.
Project description:Tetraspanin CD82 suppresses cell migration, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. To determine the mechanism by which CD82 inhibits motility, most studies have focused on the cell surface CD82, which forms tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) with other transmembrane proteins, such as integrins. In this study, we found that CD82 undergoes endocytosis and traffics to endosomes and lysosomes. To determine the endocytic mechanism of CD82, we demonstrated that dynamin and clathrin are not essential for CD82 internalization. Depletion or sequestration of sterol in the plasma membrane markedly inhibited the endocytosis of CD82. Despite the demand on Cdc42 activity, CD82 endocytosis is distinct from macropinocytosis and the documented dynamin-independent pinocytosis. As a TEM component, CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts by redistributing cholesterol into these membrane microdomains. CD82-containing TEMs are characterized by the cholesterol-containing microdomains in the extreme light- and intermediate-density fractions. Moreover, the endocytosis of CD82 appears to alleviate CD82-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that lipid-dependent endocytosis drives CD82 trafficking to late endosomes and lysosomes, and CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts through redistribution of cholesterol.
Project description:Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC), membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM) cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-?-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.
Project description:Tetraspanins regulate cell migration, sperm-egg fusion, and viral infection. Through interactions with one another and other cell surface proteins, tetraspanins form a network of molecular interactions called the tetraspanin web. In this study, we use single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to dissect dynamics and partitioning of the tetraspanin CD9. We show that lateral mobility of CD9 in the plasma membrane is regulated by at least two modes of interaction that each exhibit specific dynamics. The majority of CD9 molecules display Brownian behavior but can be transiently confined to an interaction platform that is in permanent exchange with the rest of the membrane. These platforms, which are enriched in CD9 and its binding partners, are constant in shape and localization. Two CD9 molecules undergoing Brownian trajectories can also codiffuse, revealing extra platform interactions. CD9 mobility and partitioning are both dependent on its palmitoylation and plasma membrane cholesterol. Our data show the high dynamic of interactions in the tetraspanin web and further indicate that the tetraspanin web is distinct from raft microdomains.
Project description:Specific spatial arrangements of proteins and lipids are central to the coordination of many biological processes. Tetraspanins have been proposed to laterally organize cellular membranes via specific associations with each other and with distinct integrins. Here, we reveal the presence of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) containing the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81, and CD82 at the plasma membrane. Fluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic analyses document that the surface of HeLa cells is covered by several hundred TEMs, each extending over a few hundred nanometers and containing predominantly two or more tetraspanins. Further, we reveal that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein, which directs viral assembly and release, accumulates at surface TEMs together with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. TSG101 and VPS28, components of the mammalian ESCRT1 (endosomal sorting complex required for transport), which is part of the cellular extravesiculation machinery critical for HIV-1 budding, are also recruited to cell surface TEMs upon virus expression, suggesting that HIV-1 egress can be gated through these newly mapped microdomains.
Project description:Tetraspanins organize protein complexes in tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains that are distinct from lipid rafts. Our previous studies suggested that reduction in the levels of tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 may be involved in the progression of inflammatory lung diseases, especially COPD. To search for agents that increase the levels of these tetraspanins, we screened 1,165 drugs in clinical use and found that statins upregulate CD9 and CD81 in RAW264.7 macrophages. The lipophilic statins, fluvastatin and simvastatin, reversed LPS-induced downregulation of CD9 and CD81, simultaneously preventing TNF-? and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production and spreading of RAW264.7 cells. These statins exerted anti-inflammatory effects in vitro in wild-type macrophages but not in CD9 knockout macrophages, and decreased lung inflammation in vivo in wild-type mice but not in CD9 knockout mice, suggesting that their effects are dependent on CD9. Mechanistically, the statins promoted reverse transfer of the LPS-signaling mediator CD14 from lipid rafts into CD9-enriched microdomains, thereby preventing LPS receptor formation. Finally, upregulation of CD9/CD81 by statins was related to blockade of GTPase geranylgeranylation in the mevalonate pathway. Our data underscore the importance of the negative regulator CD9 in lung inflammation, and suggest that statins exert anti-inflammatory effects by upregulating tetraspanin CD9 in macrophages.
Project description:The dynamic lateral segregation of signaling proteins into microdomains is proposed to facilitate signal transduction, but the constraints on microdomain size, mobility, and diffusion that might realize this function are undefined. Here we interrogate a stochastic spatial model of the plasma membrane to determine how microdomains affect protein dynamics. Taking lipid rafts as representative microdomains, we show that reduced protein mobility in rafts segregates dynamically partitioning proteins, but the equilibrium concentration is largely independent of raft size and mobility. Rafts weakly impede small-scale protein diffusion but more strongly impede long-range protein mobility. The long-range mobility of raft-partitioning and raft-excluded proteins, however, is reduced to a similar extent. Dynamic partitioning into rafts increases specific interprotein collision rates, but to maximize this critical, biologically relevant function, rafts must be small (diameter, 6 to 14 nm) and mobile. Intermolecular collisions can also be favored by the selective capture and exclusion of proteins by rafts, although this mechanism is generally less efficient than simple dynamic partitioning. Generalizing these results, we conclude that microdomains can readily operate as protein concentrators or isolators but there appear to be significant constraints on size and mobility if microdomains are also required to function as reaction chambers that facilitate nanoscale protein-protein interactions. These results may have significant implications for the many signaling cascades that are scaffolded or assembled in plasma membrane microdomains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The importance of membrane compartmentalization into specific membrane microdomains has been shown in many biological processes such as immunoreceptor signaling, membrane trafficking, pathogen infection, and tumor progression. Microdomains like lipid rafts, caveolae and tetraspanin enriched microdomains are relatively resistant to solubilization by some detergents. Large detergent-resistant membrane fragments (DRMs) resulting from such membrane solubilization can be conveniently isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation or gel filtration. Recently, we described a novel type of raft-like membrane microdomains producing, upon detergent Brij98 solubilization, "heavy DRMs" and containing a number of functionally relevant proteins. Transmembrane adaptor protein LAX is a typical "heavy raft" protein. The present study was designed to identify the molecular determinants targeting LAX-derived constructs to heavy rafts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prepared several constructs encoding chimeric proteins containing various informative segments of the LAX sequence and evaluated their effects on targeting to heavy rafts. Replacement of the polybasic membrane-proximal part of LAX by CD3?-derived membrane-proximal part had no effect on LAX solubilization. Similarly, the membrane-proximal part of LAX, when introduced into non-raft protein CD25 did not change CD25 detergent solubility. These results indicated that membrane-proximal part of LAX is not important for LAX targeting to heavy rafts. On the other hand, the replacement of transmembrane part of CD25 by the transmembrane part of LAX resulted in targeting into heavy rafts. We also show that LAX is not S-acylated, thus palmitoylation is not involved in LAX targeting to heavy rafts. Also, covalent dimerization was excluded as a cause of targeting into heavy rafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified the transmembrane domain of LAX as a first motif targeting transmembrane protein constructs to detergent-resistant heavy rafts, a novel type of membrane microdomains containing a number of physiologically important proteins.
Project description:Antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) stimulates naive CD4+ T cells, triggering T cell activation and the adaptive arm of the immune response. Newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules accumulate at MHC-II-enriched endosomal compartments and are transported to the plasma membrane of DCs after binding to antigenic peptides to enable antigen presentation. In DCs, MHC-II molecules are included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). However, the role of tetraspanin CD9 in these processes remains largely undefined. Here, we show that CD9 regulates the T cell-stimulatory capacity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), without affecting antigen presentation by fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-dependent BMDCs. CD9 knockout (KO) GM-CSF-dependent BMDCs, which resemble monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), induce lower levels of T cell activation than wild-type DCs, and this effect is related to a reduction in MHC-II surface expression in CD9-deficient MoDCs. Importantly, MHC-II targeting to the plasma membrane is largely impaired in immature CD9 KO MoDCs, in which MHC-II remains arrested in acidic intracellular compartments enriched in LAMP-1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1), and MHC-II internalization is also blocked. Moreover, CD9 participates in MHC-II trafficking in mature MoDCs, regulating its endocytosis and recycling. Our results demonstrate that the tetraspanin CD9 specifically regulates antigenic presentation in MoDCs through the regulation of MHC-II intracellular trafficking.