Effects of genotype, season, and nitrogen nutrition on gene expression and protein accumulation in wheat grain.
ABSTRACT: Six commercial U.K. cultivars of winter wheat selected to represent different abilities to partition nitrogen into grain protein were grown in replicated field trials at five different sites over three seasons. The proportion of LMW glutenin subunits decreased and the proportion of gliadins increased during grain development and in response to N application. Differences were observed between the proportions of LMW glutenin subunits and gliadins in low- and high-protein grain, these two fractions being decreased and increased, respectively. There was little effect of grain protein content on the proportions of either the HMW glutenin subunits or large glutenin polymers, which are enriched in these subunits, with the latter increasing during development in all cultivars. The proportion of total protein present in polymers in the mature grain decreased with increasing N level. Correlations were also observed between the abundances of gliadin protein transcripts and the corresponding proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Certain wheat gluten proteins form large protein polymers that are extractable in 0.5% SDS only after sonication. Although there is a strong relationship between the amounts of these polymers in the flour and bread-making quality, the protein components of these polymers have not been thoroughly investigated. RESULTS:Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication. Proteins were further separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) into monomeric and polymeric fractions and analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When proteins in select 2-DE spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), overlapping spots from the different protein fractions often yielded different identifications. Most high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) partitioned into the polymer fractions, while most gliadins were found in the monomer fractions. The exceptions were alpha, gamma and omega gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues. These proteins were detected in all fractions, but comprised the largest proportion of the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Several types of non-gluten proteins also were found in the polymer fractions, including serpins, triticins and globulins. All three types were found in the largest proportions in the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to report the accumulation of gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues in the SDS-extractable glutenin polymer fraction, supporting the hypothesis that these gliadins serve as chain terminators of the polymer chains. These data make it possible to formulate hypotheses about how protein composition influences polymer size and structure and provide a foundation for future experiments aimed at determining how environment affects glutenin polymer distribution. In addition, the analysis revealed additional layers of complexity to the wheat flour proteome that should be considered when evaluating quantitative 2-DE data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mineral nutrition during wheat grain development has large effects on wheat flour protein content and composition, which in turn affect flour quality and immunogenic potential for a commodity of great economic value. However, it has been difficult to define the precise effects of mineral nutrition on protein composition because of the complexity of the wheat flour proteome. Recent improvements in the identification of flour proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and the availability of a comprehensive proteome map of flour from the US wheat Butte 86 now make it possible to document changes in the proportions of individual flour proteins that result from the application of mineral nutrition. RESULTS:Plants of Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization (PAF) and quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to analyze protein composition of the resulting flour. Significant changes in the proportions of 54 unique proteins were observed as a result of the treatment. Most omega-gliadins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and serpins as well as some alpha-gliadins increased in proportion with PAF. In contrast, alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors, farinins, purinins and puroindolines decreased in proportion. Decreases were also observed in several low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), globulins, defense proteins and enzymes. The ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS in the flour increased from 0.61 to 0.95 and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins increased from 1.02 to 1.30 with PAF. Because flour protein content doubled with PAF from 7 to 14%, most protein types actually increased in absolute amount (?g/mg flour protein). Data further suggest that flour proteins change with PAF according to their content of sulfur-containing amino acids Cys + Met. CONCLUSIONS:A 2-DE approach revealed changes in the wheat flour proteome due to PAF that are important for flour quality and immunogenic potential. The work forms a baseline for further studies of the effects of environmental variables on flour protein composition and provides clues about the regulation of specific flour protein genes. The study also is important for identifying targets for breeding programs and biotechnology efforts aimed at improving flour quality.
Project description:Brachypodium distachyon L. is a newly emerging model plant system for temperate cereal crop species. However, its grain protein compositions are still not clear. In the current study, we carried out a detailed proteomics and molecular genetics study on grain glutenin proteins in B. distachyon.SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC analysis of grain proteins showed that Brachypodium has few gliadins and high molecular weight glutenin subunits. In contrast the electrophoretic patterns for the albumin, globulin and low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) fractions of the grain protein were similar to those in wheat. In particular, the LMW-C type subunits in Brachypodium were more abundant than the equivalent proteins in common wheat. Southern blotting analysis confirmed that Brachypodium has 4-5 copies of LMW-GS genes. A total of 18 LMW-GS genes were cloned from Brachypodium by allele specific PCR. LMW-GS and 4 deduced amino acid sequences were further confirmed by using Western-blotting and MALDI-TOF-MS. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Brachypodium was closer to Ae. markgrafii and Ae. umbellulata than to T. aestivum.Brachypodium possessed a highly conserved Glu-3 locus that is closely related to Triticum and related species. The presence of LMW-GS in B. distachyon grains indicates that B. distachyon may be used as a model system for studying wheat quality attributes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flour quality is largely determined by the gluten proteins, a complex mixture of proteins consisting of high molecular weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and ?-, ?-, and ?-gliadins. Detailed proteomic analyses of the effects of fertilizer and high temperature on individual gliadin and glutenin protein levels are needed to determine how these environmental factors influence flour quality. RESULTS:Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte 86) were grown in greenhouses under moderate and high temperature regimens with and without post-anthesis fertilizer. Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to construct accumulation profiles in developing endosperm for the entire complement of gluten proteins identified previously by tandem mass spectrometry. Amounts of individual gliadins and glutenins were also determined in flour produced under each of the regimens. Under all environmental regimens, most HMW-GS, LMW-GS, ?- and ?-gliadins accumulated rapidly during early stages of grain development and leveled off during middle stages of development. A subset of LMW-GS showed a second distinct profile, accumulating throughout development, while ?-gliadins showed a variety of accumulation profiles. In flour, fourteen distinct gluten proteins responded similarly to fertilizer, high temperature, and high temperature plus fertilizer. The majority of HMW-GS and ?-gliadins and some ?-gliadins increased while two LMW-GS and a minor ?-gliadin decreased. Fertilizer did not influence gluten protein accumulation under high temperature conditions. Additionally, the effects of fertilizer and high temperature were not additive; very few changes were observed when plants that received fertilizer were subjected to high temperature. CONCLUSIONS:Although post-anthesis temperature and fertilizer have very different effects on grain development and yield, the two treatments elicit surprisingly similar effects on the accumulation of gluten proteins. The similarity of the responses to the different treatments is likely due to source-sink activities of nitrogen reserves in the wheat plant. Because each protein that showed a response in this study is linked to a gene sequence, the work sets the stage for transgenic studies that will better elucidate the roles of specific proteins in flour quality and in the response to the environment.
Project description:The ?-gliadin storage proteins of wheat are of interest in relation to their impact on grain processing properties and their role in food allergy, particularly the ?-5 sub-group and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The ?-gliadins are also known to be responsive to nitrogen application. This study therefore compares the effects of cultivar and nitrogen availability on the synthesis and deposition of ?-gliadins in wheat grown under field conditions in the UK, including temporal and spatial analyses at the protein and transcript levels.SDS-PAGE, western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing were used to compare the patterns of ?-gliadin components in mature grain of six British wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars and their accumulation during the development of grain grown in field plots with varying nitrogen supply. Changes in gene expression during development were determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Spatial patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation were determined by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively.Two patterns of ?-gliadins were identified in the six cultivars, including both monomeric 'gliadin' proteins and subunits present in polymeric 'glutenin' fractions. Increasing the level of nitrogen fertilizer in field plots resulted in increased expression of ?-gliadin transcripts and increased proportions of ?-5 gliadins. Nitrogen supply also affected the spatial patterns of ?-gliadin synthesis and deposition, which were differentially increased in the outer layers of the starchy endosperm with high levels of nitrogen.Wheat ?-gliadins vary in amount and composition between cultivars, and in their response to nitrogen supply. Their spatial distribution is also affected by nitrogen supply, being most highly concentrated in the sub-aleurone cells of the starchy endosperm under higher nitrogen availability.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. METHODS:Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. KEY RESULTS:Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. CONCLUSIONS:Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue on specific domains of the gluten protein gene promoters.
Project description:Although the economic value of wheat flour is determined by the complement of gluten proteins, these proteins have been challenging to study because of the complexity of the major protein groups and the tremendous sequence diversity among wheat cultivars. The completion of a high-quality wheat genome sequence from the reference wheat Chinese Spring recently facilitated the assembly and annotation of a complete set of gluten protein genes from a single cultivar, making it possible to link individual proteins in the flour to specific gene sequences. In a proteomic analysis of total wheat flour protein from Chinese Spring using quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with tandem mass spectrometry, gliadins or low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits were identified as the predominant proteins in 72 protein spots. Individual spots were associated with 40 of 56 Chinese Spring gene sequences, including 16 of 26 alpha gliadins, 10 of 11 gamma gliadins, six of seven omega gliadins, one of two delta gliadins, and nine of ten LMW-GS. Most genes that were not associated with protein spots were either expressed at low levels in endosperm or encoded proteins with high similarity to other proteins. A wide range of protein accumulation levels were observed and discrepancies between transcript levels and protein levels were noted. This work together with similar studies using other commercial cultivars should provide new insight into the molecular basis of wheat flour quality and allergenic potential.
Project description:The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.
Project description:The impact of breeding on grain yields of wheat varieties released during the 20th century has been extensively studied, whereas less information is available on the changes in gluten quality associated with effects on the amount and composition of glutenins and gliadins. In order to explore the effects of breeding during the 20th century on gluten quality of durum wheat for processing and health we have compared a set of old and modern Italian genotypes grown under Mediterranean conditions. The better technological performance observed for the modern varieties was found to be due not only to the introgression of superior alleles of high (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits encoded at Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 loci, but also to differential expression of specific storage proteins. In particular, the higher gluten index observed in modern genotypes was correlated with an increased glutenin/gliadin ratio and the expression of B-type LMW-GS which was, on average, two times higher in the modern than in the old group of durum wheat genotypes. By contrast, no significant differences were found between old and modern durum wheat genotypes in relation to the expression of α-type and γ-type gliadins which are major fractions that trigger coeliac disease (CD) in susceptible individuals. Furthermore, a drastic decrease was observed in the expression of ω-type gliadins in the modern genotypes, mainly ω-5 gliadin (also known as Tri a 19) which is a major allergen in wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Immunological and 2DE SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that these differences could be related either to a general down-regulation or to differences in numbers of isoforms. Lower rainfall during grain filling period was related to overall higher expression of HMW-GS and ω-gliadins. In conclusion, breeding activity carried out in Italy during the 20th century appears to have improved durum wheat gluten quality, both in relation to technological performance and allergenic potential.
Project description:The grain yield, as well as the quality and safety of the wheat grains and corresponding malt can be compromised by Fusarium spp. infection. The protein content of the grain affects the chemical composition and enzyme levels of the finished malt. The malting industry demands varieties with good malting and brewing performance, as well as good agronomic performance and disease resistance. The best method of disease control is breeding and selection for resistant varieties. Due to higher requirements for malting wheat worldwide, the goal of this investigation was to explore changes in protein distribution in wheat grains and corresponding malt, which are under higher pressure of Fusarium head blight (FHB) infestation in field conditions. The present study provides new knowledge on the impact of the FHB on the distribution of protein components of naturally Fusarium-infected (control) and Fusarium-inoculated wheat varieties in the grain and the corresponding malt in two consecutive years (2015/2016 and 2016/2017). The results showed that Fusarium infection of the susceptible variety Golubica, decreased total glutenins (5.9%), and both high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (2.5% and 3.5%, respectively) in wheat grains, compared to control, in 2016. In contrast, gliadins and α-gliadins increased significantly (+7.6% and +5.1%, respectively) in the same variety. Wheat grains of the more resistant variety Vulkan showed an increase of the total glutenins content (+4.3%), and of high and of low molecular weight glutenin subunits (+1.2% and +3.2%, respectively) after Fusarium-inoculation, compared to naturally infected grains in 2016. Susceptible variety Golubica increased total glutenins (+9.1%), and both high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (+3.5% and +5.6%, respectively) after Fusarium-inoculation in wheat malt, compared to naturally infected malt in 2016. In 2017, when disease pressure was higher than in 2016, there was a tendency in all varieties to increase gliadins and its sub fractions after malting, and to decrease glutenins and its sub fractions in Fusarium-inoculated treatment. In conclusion, FHB dramatically depressed grain yield (up to 37%) and quality (glutenins and high molecular weight subunits) in the susceptible Fusarium variety, which makes it inconvenient for malting.