Pros and cons of the tuberculosis drugome approach--an empirical analysis.
ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the causative pathogen of tuberculosis (TB), has become a serious threat to global public health. Yet the development of novel drugs against MTB has been lagging. One potentially powerful approach to drug development is computation-aided repositioning of current drugs. However, the effectiveness of this approach has rarely been examined. Here we select the "TB drugome" approach--a protein structure-based method for drug repositioning for tuberculosis treatment--to (1) experimentally validate the efficacy of the identified drug candidates for inhibiting MTB growth, and (2) computationally examine how consistently drug candidates are prioritized, considering changes in input data. Twenty three drugs in the TB drugome were tested. Of them, only two drugs (tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen) effectively suppressed MTB growth at relatively high concentrations. Both drugs significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects of three first-line anti-TB drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol). However, tamoxifen is not a top-listed drug in the TB drugome, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not approved for use in humans. Computational re-examination of the TB drugome indicated that the rankings were subject to technical and data-related biases. Thus, although our results support the effectiveness of the TB drugome approach for identifying drugs that can potentially be repositioned for stand-alone applications or for combination treatments for TB, the approach requires further refinements via incorporation of additional biological information. Our findings can also be extended to other structure-based drug repositioning methods.
Project description:The capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to tolerate multiple antibiotics represents a major problem in tuberculosis (TB) management. Heterogeneity in Mtb populations is one of the factors that drives antibiotic tolerance during infection. However, the mechanisms underpinning this variation in bacterial population remain poorly understood. Here, we show that phagosomal acidification alters the redox physiology of Mtb to generate a population of replicating bacteria that display drug tolerance during infection. RNA sequencing of this redox-altered population revealed the involvement of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas, and drug efflux pumps in antibiotic tolerance. The fraction of the pH- and redox-dependent tolerant population increased when Mtb infected macrophages with actively replicating HIV-1, suggesting that redox heterogeneity could contribute to high rates of TB therapy failure during HIV-TB coinfection. Pharmacological inhibition of phagosomal acidification by the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) eradicated drug-tolerant Mtb, ameliorated lung pathology, and reduced postchemotherapeutic relapse in in vivo models. The pharmacological profile of CQ (C max and AUClast) exhibited no major drug-drug interaction when coadministered with first line anti-TB drugs in mice. Our data establish a link between phagosomal pH, redox metabolism, and drug tolerance in replicating Mtb and suggest repositioning of CQ to shorten TB therapy and achieve a relapse-free cure.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and complex, typically involving a combination of drugs taken for 6 months. Improved drug regimens to shorten and simplify treatment are urgently required, however a major challenge to TB drug development is the lack of predictive pre-clinical tools. To address this deficiency, we have adopted a new high-content imaging-based approach capable of defining the killing kinetics of first line anti-TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) residing inside macrophages. Through use of this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approach we demonstrate that the killing dynamics of the intracellular Mtb sub-population is critical to predicting clinical TB treatment duration. Integrated modelling of intracellular Mtb killing alongside conventional extracellular Mtb killing data, generates the biphasic responses typical of those described clinically. Our model supports the hypothesis that the use of higher doses of rifampicin (35?mg/kg) will significantly reduce treatment duration. Our described PK-PD approach offers a much needed decision making tool for the identification and prioritisation of new therapies which have the potential to reduce TB treatment duration.
Project description:There is a need for better tools to evaluate new or repurposed TB drugs. The whole blood bactericidal activity (WBA) assay has been advocated for this purpose. We investigated whether transcriptional responses in the WBA assay resemble TB responses in vivo, and whether the approach might additionally reveal mechanisms of response. Microarray analysis was performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RNA extracted from whole blood cultures, sputum from TB patients on combination treatment, and drug-free broth cultures Overall design: Microarray analysis was performed on Mtb RNA taken from whole blood cultures from 4 volunteers, 9 sputum of TB patients on standard combination treatment, and 5 drug-free broth cultures. Mtb (H37Rv strain) was incubated in whole blood cultures for one hour with rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol individually and in 4-drug combination; with moxifloxacin, faropenem (with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), and a drug-free control (drugs at Cmax concentrations; each replicate assay prepared from the blood of one of the 4 healthy volunteers).
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem worldwide. The combination of various anti-TB drugs is mainly used to treat TB in clinical practice. Despite the availability of effective antibiotics, effective treatment regimens still require long-term use of multiple drugs, leading to toxicity, low patient compliance, and the development of drug resistance. It has been confirmed that immune recognition, immune response, and immune regulation of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (<i>Mtb</i>) determine the occurrence, development, and outcome of diseases after <i>Mtb</i> infection. The research and development of TB-specific immunotherapy agents can effectively regulate the anti-TB immune response and provide a new approach toward the combined treatment of TB, thereby preventing and intervening in populations at high risk of TB infection. These immunotherapy agents will promote satisfactory progress in anti-TB treatment, achieving the goal of "ultra-short course chemotherapy." This review highlights the research progress in immunotherapy of TB, including immunoreactive substances, tuberculosis therapeutic vaccines, chemical agents, and cellular therapy.
Project description:Discovery of new anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a time-consuming process due to the slow-growing nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A requirement of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility for performing research associated with Mtb is another limitation for the development of TB drug discovery. In our screening of BSL-1 Mycobacterium spp. against a battery of TB drugs, M. smegmatis (ATCC607) exhibits good agreement with its drug susceptibility against the TB drugs under a low-nutrient culture medium (0.5% Tween 80 in Middlebrook 7H9 broth). M. smegmatis (ATCC607) enters its dormant form in 14 days under a nutrient-deficient condition (a PBS buffer), and shows resistance to a majority of TB drugs, but shows susceptibility to amikacin, capreomycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin (with high concentrations) whose activities against non-replicating (or dormant) Mtb were previously validated.
Project description:Conspectus"<i>Drug resistance is an unavoidable consequence of the use of drugs; however, the emergence of multi-drug resistance can be managed by accurate diagnosis and tailor-made regimens.</i>"Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), is one of the most paramount health perils that has emerged in the 21st century. The global increase in drug-resistant strains of various bacterial pathogens prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop a priority list of AMR pathogens. <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (<i>Mtb</i>), an acid-fast bacillus that causes tuberculosis (TB), merits being one of the highest priority pathogens on this list since drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) accounts for ∼29% of deaths attributable to AMR. In recent years, funded collaborative efforts of researchers from academia, not-for-profit virtual R&D organizations and industry have resulted in the continuous growth of the TB drug discovery and development pipeline. This has so far led to the accelerated regulatory approval of bedaquiline and delamanid for the treatment of DR-TB. However, despite the availability of drug regimes, the current cure rate for multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treatment regimens is 50% and 30%, respectively. It is to be noted that these regimens are administered over a long duration and have a serious side effect profile. Coupled with poor patient adherence, this has led to further acquisition of drug resistance and treatment failure. There is therefore an urgent need to develop new TB drugs with novel mechanism of actions (MoAs) and associated regimens.This Account recapitulates drug resistance in TB, existing challenges in addressing DR-TB, new drugs and regimens in development, and potential ways to treat DR-TB. We highlight our research aimed at identifying novel small molecule leads and associated targets against TB toward contributing to the global TB drug discovery and development pipeline. Our work mainly involves screening of various small molecule chemical libraries in phenotypic whole-cell based assays to identify hits for medicinal chemistry optimization, with attendant deconvolution of the MoA. We discuss the identification of small molecule chemotypes active against <i>Mtb</i> and subsequent structure-activity relationships (SAR) and MoA deconvolution studies. This is followed by a discussion on a chemical series identified by whole-cell cross-screening against <i>Mtb</i>, for which MoA deconvolution studies revealed a pathway that explained the lack of in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of TB and reiterated the importance of selecting an appropriate growth medium during phenotypic screening. We also discuss our efforts on drug repositioning toward addressing DR-TB. In the concluding section, we preview some promising future directions and the challenges inherent in advancing the drug pipeline to address DR-TB.
Project description:Hsp90 is an essential molecular chaperone that is also a novel anti-cancer drug target. There is growing interest in developing new drugs that modulate Hsp90 activity.Using a virtual screening approach, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, the active metabolite of the anti-estrogen drug tamoxifen, was identified as a putative Hsp90 ligand. Surprisingly, while all drugs targeting Hsp90 inhibit the chaperone ATPase activity, it was found experimentally that 4-hydroxytamoxifen and tamoxifen enhance rather than inhibit Hsp90 ATPase.Hence, tamoxifen and its metabolite are the first members of a new pharmacological class of Hsp90 activators.
Project description:Successful drug treatment for tuberculosis (TB) depends on the unique contributions of its component drugs. Drug resistance poses a threat to the efficacy of individual drugs and the regimens to which they contribute. Biologically and chemically validated targets capable of replacing individual components of current TB chemotherapy are a major unmet need in TB drug development. We demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the bacterial biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the inhibitor Bio-AMS (5'-[<i>N</i>-(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine) killed <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (<i>Mtb</i>), the bacterial pathogen causing TB. We also show that genetic silencing of BPL eliminated the pathogen efficiently from mice during acute and chronic infection with <i>Mtb</i> Partial chemical inactivation of BPL increased the potency of two first-line drugs, rifampicin and ethambutol, and genetic interference with protein biotinylation accelerated clearance of <i>Mtb</i> from mouse lungs and spleens by rifampicin. These studies validate BPL as a potential drug target that could serve as an alternate frontline target in the development of new drugs against <i>Mtb</i>.
Project description:The global control of tuberculosis (TB) presents a continuous health challenge to mankind. Despite having effective drugs, TB still has a devastating impact on human health. Contributing reasons include the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the AIDS-pandemic, and the absence of effective vaccines against the disease. Indeed, alternative and effective methods of TB treatment and control are urgently needed. One such approach may be to more effectively engage the immune system; particularly the frontline pattern recognition receptor (PRR) systems of the host, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of Mtb. It is well known that 95% of individuals infected with Mtb in latent form remain healthy throughout their life. Therefore, we propose that clues can be found to control the remainder by successfully manipulating the innate immune mechanisms, particularly of nasal and mucosal cavities. This article highlights the importance of signaling through PRRs in restricting Mtb entry and subsequently preventing its infection. Furthermore, we discuss whether this unique therapy employing PRRs in combination with drugs can help in reducing the dose and duration of current TB regimen.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and remains a major health problem worldwide. Thus, identification of new and more effective drugs to treat emerging multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and to reduce the side effects of anti-TB drugs, such as liver toxicity and other detrimental changes, is urgently needed. In this study, to develop a novel candidate drug for effective TB treatment with few side effects in the host, we selected pasakbumin A isolated from Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) Jack, which protected host cells against Mtb infection-induced death. Pasakbumin A significantly inhibited intracellular Mtb growth by inducing the autophagy via the ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathway in Mtb-infected macrophages. We further investigated whether pasakbumin A could be used as a potential adjuvant for TB treatment. Treatment with pasakbumin A and anti-TB drug rifampicin (RMP) potently suppressed intracellular Mtb killing by promoting autophagy as well as TNF-? production via the ERK1/2- and NF-?B-mediated signaling pathways in Mtb-infected cells. Our results suggest that pasakbumin A could be developed as a novel anti-TB drug or host-directed therapeutic (HDT) strategy to protect against host cell death and improve host defense mechanisms against Mtb infection in macrophages.