Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.
ABSTRACT: The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.
Project description:The yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, is an extremely important polyphagous insect in Asia. The chemosensory systems of moth play an important role in detecting food, oviposition sites and mate attraction. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in odor detection. Our study aims to identify chemosensory receptor genes for potential applications in behavioral responses of yellow peach moth. By transcriptomic analysis of male and female antennae, 83 candidate chemosensory receptors, including 62 odorant receptors, 11 ionotropic receptors and 10 gustatory receptors were identified. Through Blast and sequence alignment, the highly conserved co-receptor Orco was annotated, eight unigenes clustered into pheromone receptors, and two clustered as sugar receptor. Among the IRs, one unigenes was similar with co-receptors IR25a. Expression levels of 50 odorant receptors were further evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in antennae. All the ORs tested were detected in antennae and some of which were associated with sex-biased expression. The chemosensory receptors identified in C. punctiferalis provide a foundational resource for further analysis on olfaction for behavior. The expression profiles of ORs in antennae indicated variant functions in olfactory recognition, and our results provided the possibility for the potential application of semiochemical to control this pest moth.
Project description:Insect chemoreception, including olfaction and gustation, involves several families of genes, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), and gustatory receptors (GRs). The variegated cutworm Peridroma saucia Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a worldwide agricultural pest that causes serious damage to many crops. To identify such olfactory and gustatory receptors in P. saucia, we performed a systematic analysis of the antennal transcriptome of adult P. saucia through Illumina sequencing. A total of 103 candidate chemosensory receptor genes were identified, including 63 putative ORs, 10 GRs, 24 IRs, and 6 ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). Phylogenetic relationships of these genes with those from other species were predicted, and specific chemosensory receptor genes were analyzed, including ORco, pheromone receptors (PRs), sugar receptors, CO2 receptors, and IR co-receptors. RT-qPCR analyses of these annotated genes revealed that 6 PRs were predominantly expressed in male antennae; 3 ORs, 1 GR, 2 IRs, and 2 iGluRs had higher expression levels in male than in female antennae; and 14 ORs, 1 GR, and 3 IRs had higher expression levels in female than in male antennae. This research increases the understanding of olfactory and gustatory systems in the antennae of P. saucia and facilitates the discovery of novel strategies for controlling this pest.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chemosensory receptors including olfactory receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behaviours, and are potential target genes in insect pest control. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most destructive pest species that can feed on over 200 different plant species. This diversity of host plants is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here we built on previous work to characterize crucial chemosensory tissues linked to environmental interactions including larval antennae, larval mouthparts and larval fat bodies, as well as male and female adult heads, male and female adult tarsi, and female abdomens. RESULTS: Using transcriptome sequencing, Trinity RNA-seq assemblies and extensive manual curation, we identified a total of 91 candidate chemosensory receptors (60 candidate ORs, 10 GRs and 21 IRs). Thirty-five of these candidates present full-length transcripts. First, we performed in silico differential expression analysis on different sequenced tissues. Further, we created extensive expression profiles using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on a variety of adult and larval stages. We found that the expression profile of HarmOR51 was limited to adult male antenna suggesting a role in mating that was further supported by a phylogenetic analysis clustering it into the pheromone receptor clade. HarmOR51 in calcium imaging analysis did not show responses to either of the two H. armigera sex pheromone components (Z9-16:Ald or Z11-16:Ald) inviting a future detailed study. In addition, we found four novel HarmORs (OR1, 53, 54 and 58) that appeared to be larvae-antennal specific. Finally, our expression profiling showed that four "divergent" HarmIRs (IR2, 7d.1, 7d.2 and 7d.3) were expressed in both adult and larval antennae, suggesting a functional divergence from their Drosophila homologues. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored three chemoreceptor superfamily genes using a curated transcriptomic approach coupled with extensive expression profiling and a more limited functional characterization. Our results have now provided an extensive resource for investigating the chemoreceptor complement of this insect pest, and meanwhile allow for targeted experiments to identify potential molecular targets for pest control and to investigate insect-plant interactions.
Project description:The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests.
Project description:The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.
Project description:The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is one of the most biologically diverse species of aphids; a polyphagous species in a family where most are host specialists. It is economically important and belongs to a group of closely related species that has challenged aphid taxonomy. The research presented here seeks to clarify the taxonomic relationships and status of species within the Aphid gossypii group in the North American Midwest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI), nuclear elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and nuclear sodium channel para-type (SCP) genes were used to differentiate between Aphid gossypii and related species. Aphis monardae, previously synonymised with Aphid gossypii, is re-established as a valid species. Phylogenetic analyses support the close relationship of members of the Aphid gossypii group native to North America (Aphid forbesi, Aphid monardae, Aphid oestlundi, Aphid rubifolii, and Aphid rubicola), Europe (Aphid nasturtii, Aphid urticata and Aphid sedi), and Asia (Aphid agrimoniae, Aphid clerodendri, Aphid glycines, Aphid gossypii, Aphid hypericiphaga, Aphid ichigicola, Aphid ichigo, Aphid sanguisorbicola, Aphid sumire and Aphid taraxicicola). The North American species most closely related to Aphid gossypii are Aphid monardae and Aphid oestlundi. The cosmopolitan Aphid gossypii and Aphid sedi identified in the USA are genetically very similar using COI and EF1-α sequences, but the SCP gene shows greater genetic distance between them. We present a discussion of the biological and morphological differentiation of these species.
Project description:Perception of environmental and habitat cues is of significance for insect survival and reproduction. Odor detection in insects is mediated by a number of proteins in antennae such as odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant degrading enzymes. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes of a destructive agricultural pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella. In these transcriptomes, we identified transcripts belonging to 6 chemoreception gene families related to ordor detection, including 54 ORs, 16 IRs, 7 gustatory receptors (GRs), 15 CSPs, 24 OBPs and 2 SNMPs. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of expression patterns indicated that some of these ORs and IRs have clear sex-biased and tissue-specific expression patterns. Our results lay the foundation for future characterization of the functions of these P. xyllostella chemosensory receptors at the molecular level and development of novel semiochemicals for integrated control of this agricultural pest.
Project description:Olfactory transduction is a process by which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) transform odor information into neuronal electrical signals. This process begins with the binding of odor molecules to receptor proteins on olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) dendrites. The major molecular components involved in olfaction include odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs). More importantly, as potential molecular targets, chemosensory proteins are used to identify novel attractants or repellants for environmental-friendly pest management. In this study we analyzed the transcriptome of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), a serious pest of Brassicaceae crops, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of olfactory recognition in this pest. The analysis of transcriptomes from the antennae and terminal abdomens of specimens of both sexes identified transcripts from several key molecular components of chemoreception including 73 ORs, 36 GRs, 49 IRs, 2 SNMPs, 32 OBPs, 8 CSPs, and four candidate odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs): 143 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 68 esterases (ESTs), 27 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and 8 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Bioinformatic analyses indicated that a large number of chemosensory genes were up-regulated in the antennae. This was consistent with a potential role in olfaction. To validate the differential abundance analyses, the expression of 19 genes encoding various ORs, CSPs, and OBPs was assessed via qRT-PCR between non-chemosensory tissue and antennae. Consistent with the bioinformatic analyses, transcripts for all of the genes in the qRT-PCR subset were elevated in antennae. These findings provide the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in the striped flea beetle.
Project description:The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious pest of cotton across the globe, particularly in the cotton agroecosystems of northern China. Parasitic wasps are deemed to be important natural enemies of A. gossypii, but limited information exists about their species composition, richness and seasonal dynamics in northern China. In this study, we combine sampling over a broad geographical area with intensive field trials over the course of three cropping seasons to describe parasitoid-hyperparasitoid communities in cotton crops. We delineate a speciose complex of primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids associated with A. gossypii. Over 90% of the primary parasitoids were Binodoxys communis. Syrphophagus sp. and Pachyneuron aphidis made up most of the hyperparasitoids. Parasitism rates changed in a similar way following the fluctuation of the aphid population. Early in the growing period, there were more hyperparasitoids, while later, the primary parasitoids provided control of A. gossypii. The first systematic report of this cotton aphid parasitoid complex and their population dynamics in association with their hosts presented a comprehensive assessment of cotton parasitoid species and provided important information for the establishment and promotion of their biological control of cotton aphids.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a destructive insect pest worldwide; it directly or indirectly damages (virus transmission) 300 species of host plants. Knowledge of their ecologically adaptive mechanisms at the molecular level may provide an essential and urgent method to effectively control this pest. However, no transcriptome information is available for the cotton aphid and sequence data are scarce. Therefore, we obtained transcriptome data. RESULTS: To facilitate such a study, two cotton aphid transcriptomes at different growth stages of cotton, seedling and summer, were sequenced. A total of 161,396 and 66,668 contigs were obtained and assembled into 83,671 and 42,438 transcripts, respectively. After combining the raw date for both transcriptomes, the sequences were reassembled into 66,695 transcripts, and 52,160 were annotated based on BLASTX analyses. Comparison of the transcriptomes revealed that summer presented less challenges for the cotton aphids than the seedling stage of cotton. In total, 58 putative heat shock protein genes and 66 candidate cytochrome p450 genes were identified with BLASTX. CONCLUSIONS: Our results form a basis for exploring the molecular mechanisms of ecological adaption in the cotton aphid. Our study also provides a baseline for the exploration of abiotic stress responses. In addition, it provides large-scale sequence information for further studies on this species.