Reference intervals for urinary renal injury biomarkers KIM-1 and NGAL in healthy children.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in healthy children for two novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL).Urinary biomarkers were determined in samples from children in the UK (n = 120) and the USA (n = 171) using both Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Luminex-based analytical approaches.95% reference intervals for each biomarker in each cohort are presented and stratified by sex or ethnicity where necessary, and age-related variability is explored using quantile regression. We identified consistently higher NGAL concentrations in females than males (p < 0.0001), and lower KIM-1 concentrations in African-Americans than Caucasians (p = 0.02). KIM-1 demonstrated diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the morning (p < 0.001).This is the first report of reference intervals for KIM-1 and NGAL using two analytical methods in a healthy pediatric population in both UK and US-based populations.
Project description:Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) is an emerging epidemic among farming communities in rural Sri Lanka. Victims do not exhibit common causative factors, however, histopathological studies revealed that CKDu is a tubulointerstitial disease. Urine albumin or albumin-creatinine ratio is still being used as a traditional diagnostic tool to identify CKDu, but accuracy and prevalence data generated are questionable. Urinary biomarkers have been used in similar nephropathy and are widely recognised for their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in determining CKDu and early renal injury. However, these biomarkers have never been used in diagnosing CKDu in Sri Lanka. Male farmers (n = 1734) were recruited from 4 regions in Sri Lanka i.e. Matara and Nuwara Eliya (farming locations with no CKDu prevalence) and two CKDu emerging locations from Hambantota District in Southern Sri Lanka; Angunakolapelessa (EL1) and Bandagiriya (EL2). Albuminuria (ACR ? 30mg/g); serum creatinine based estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); creatinine normalized urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured. Fourteen new CKDu cases (18%) from EL1 and nine CKDu cases (9%) from EL2 were recognized for the first time from EL1, EL2 locations, which were previously considered as non-endemic of the disease and associated with persistent albuminuria (ACR ? 30mg/g Cr). No CKDu cases were identified in non-endemic study locations in Matara (CM) and Nuwara Eliya (CN). Analysis of urinary biomarkers showed urinary KIM-1 and NGAL were significantly higher in new CKDu cases in EL1 and EL2. However, we also reported significantly higher KIM-1 and NGAL in apparently healthy farmers in EL 1 and EL 2 with comparison to both control groups. These observations may indicate possible early renal damage in absence of persistent albuminuria and potential capabilities of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL in early detection of renal injury among farming communities in Southern Sri Lanka.
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus.From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI.Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, p<0.01), diabetes (40% vs 14%, p<0.01), or chronic kidney disease (32% vs 1%, p<0.01). In addition, serum NGAL values (404± 269 vs 116± 78 ng/mL, P<0.001), KIM-1 values (0.80± 0.52 vs 0.33± 0.68 ng/mL, P<0.001), urine NGAL/creatinine values (371± 672 vs 27± 39 ng/mg, P<0.001) and urine KIM-1/creatinine values (4.04± 2.43 vs 2.38± 1.89 ng/mg, P<0.001) were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. By multivariate logistic regression, serum NGAL and the presence of chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of AKI.Serum NGAL might be an additive predictor for scrub typhus-associated AKI.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to assess the levels of selected markers in patients who underwent planned or emergency coronary angiography and to examine if they correlated with the occurrence of AKI. METHODS:The study included 52 patients who underwent planned or emergency coronary angiography and received contrast agent. Serum levels of markers (NGAL, L-FABP, KIM-1, IL-18) were analyzed in all patients using ELISA tests, at baseline, after 24 and 72 h from angiography. RESULTS:9.62% of patients developed CI-AKI. No significant differences were observed between markers levels in patients who developed CI-AKI and those who did not. After 24 h, serum levels of IL-18 were higher in patients with CI-AKI, however, this difference was on the verge of significance. Increase in serum NGAL, KIM-1 and IL-18 was observed after 24 h. Serum levels of biomarkers were insignificantly higher in group with CI-AKI. Significant changes in levels in time (baseline vs. 24 h vs. 72 h) were observed only for NGAL [157.9 (92.4-221.0) vs. 201.8 (156.5-299.9) vs. 118.5 (73.4-198.7); p?<?0.0001]. No significant correlations were observed between the decrease in eGFR or the increase in creatinine and biomarkers level. CONCLUSION:Obtained results do not allow for the indication of efficient AKI biomarkers. Their further validation in large studies of CI-AKI patients is required.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an initial factor in many kidney disorders. Pre- and intra-renal AKI biomarkers have recently been reported. Recovery from AKI by herbal medicine has rarely been reported. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the dose- and time-dependent effects of herbal medicines to protect against AKI in cisplatin-induced human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells by assessing the activities of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1).Proximal tubular HK-2 cell lines were treated with either 400 ?M of cisplatin for 6 h or 10 ?M of cisplatin for 24 h and then exposed to ten types of single herbal medicines, including Nelumbo nymphaea (NY) at a dose of 100 ?g/mL. The AKI biomarkers HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 were repeatedly measured by an ELISA assay at 2, 4, and 6 h in the group treated with 400 ?M of cisplatin to confirm necrotic cell death and at 6, 24, and 48 h in the group treated with 10 ?M of cisplatin to examine apoptotic cell death. Recovery confirm was conducted through in vivo study using ICR mice for 3 day NY or Paeonia suffruticosa intake.Cisplatin treatment at a concentration of 10 ?M decreased cell viability. Treatment with 400 ?M of cisplatin reduced HMBG1 activity and resulted in lactate dehydrogenase release. In longer exposure durations (up to 48 h), NGAL and KIM-1 exhibited activity from 24 h onward. Additionally, NY treatment resulted in an approximately 50% change in all three biomarkers. The time-dependent profiles of HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 activities up to 48 h were notably different; HMGB1 exhibited a 7-fold change at 6 h, and NGAL and KIM-1 exhibited 1.7-fold changes at 24 h, respectively. Consistently, serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 activities were all reduced in ICR mice.Several single herbal medicines, including NY, have a potential as effectors of AKI due to their ability to inhibit the activation of HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 in an in vitro AKI-mimicked condition and simple in vivo confirm. Furthermore, an in vivo proof-of-concept study is needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a new useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury. The aim of the study was to compare two analytical methods for measurement of urinary NGAL: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA).<h4>Methods</h4>Two assays were used to measure urinary NGAL: ELISA kit (R&D Systems) and ARCHITECT Urine NGAL (Abbott Laboratories). The study material was the urine obtained from 30 healthy subjects (mean age 56.4 ± 15.2).<h4>Results</h4>The median value and interquantile range of urinary NGAL in the studied group measured by ELISA (R&D Systems) were 3.5 ng/ml (1.2; 6.6) and by CMIA (ARCHITECT Urine NGAL assay, Abbott Diagnostics) were 4.4 ng/ml (1.9; 9.4). Levels of urinary NGAL obtained by CMIA were significantly higher than by ELISA. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of urinary NGAL determined by both methods (r = 0.8625, P < 0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The comparison of individual data obtained by ELISA and CMIA should be taken with care. From laboratory's point of view, ELISA is less expensive than CMIA method for the determination of NGAL in urine. However, CMIA method allows rapid determination of urinary NGAL concentration through automated assay.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomarkers of early acute kidney injury remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>From February 15 to July 15, 2016, we conducted an ancillary study to the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) comparing the effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) among 261 consecutively-enrolled critically ill adults admitted from the emergency department to the medical ICU. After informed consent, we collected urine 36?± 12?h after hospital admission and measured NGAL and KIM-1 levels using commercially available ELISAs. Levels of NGAL and KIM-1 at 36?± 12?h were compared between patients assigned to balanced crystalloids versus saline using a Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>The 131 patients (50.2%) assigned to the balanced crystalloid group and the 130 patients (49.8%) assigned to the saline group were similar at baseline. Urinary NGAL levels were significantly lower in the balanced crystalloid group (median, 39.4?ng/mg [IQR 9.9 to 133.2]) compared with the saline group (median, 64.4?ng/mg [IQR 27.6 to 339.9]) (P <?0.001). Urinary KIM-1 levels did not significantly differ between the balanced crystalloid group (median, 2.7?ng/mg [IQR 1.5 to 4.9]) and the saline group (median, 2.4?ng/mg [IQR 1.3 to 5.0]) (P =?0.36).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this ancillary analysis of a clinical trial comparing balanced crystalloids to saline among critically ill adults, balanced crystalloids were associated with lower urinary concentrations of NGAL and similar urinary concentrations of KIM-1, compared with saline. These results suggest only a modest reduction in early biomarkers of acute kidney injury with use of balanced crystalloids compared with saline.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02444988 . Date registered: May 15, 2015.
Project description:Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are urinary markers of tubular injury that may also be markers of chronic kidney damage. We evaluated the association of these markers with incident ESRD in a community-based sample from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.This was a matched case-control study of 135 patients with ESRD and 186 controls who were matched on sex, race, kidney function, and diabetes status at baseline (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study visit 4, 1996-1998). Urinary KIM-1 indexed to creatinine (Cr), NAG/Cr, NGAL/Cr, and L-FABP/Cr were measured in stored spot urine samples from the baseline examination. Associations of KIM-1/Cr, NAG/Cr, and NGAL/Cr with patients with incident ESRD through 2008 were modeled continuously and categorically (quartiles) using conditional logistic regression. L-FABP/Cr was modeled only categorically because of a large number of measurements below the lower limit of detection for the assay (2.4 ng/ml).No significant associations were observed for NAG/Cr, NGAL/Cr, or L-FABP/Cr with ESRD. Those in the highest category for KIM-1/Cr had a higher risk of ESRD compared with those with undetectable biomarker levels (reference group) in unadjusted models (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.97 to 4.69; P=0.03) or adjustment for age (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.67; P=0.03). This association was attenuated with additional adjustment for baseline kidney function (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 4.31; P=0.07 after additional adjustment for eGFR and natural log of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio). No association between KIM-1/Cr and ESRD was found when KIM-1/Cr was analyzed as a continuous variable.Elevated urinary KIM-1/Cr may be associated with a higher risk of incident ESRD, but it does not add to risk prediction after accounting for traditional markers of kidney function in this population.
Project description:PURPOSE:The ability to predict and detect clinical and subclinical nephrotoxicity early in the course of therapy has the potential to improve long-term outcomes in cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Pharmacokinetic parameters could serve as predictors of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS:Participants [n?=?13] were treated with a 1-h cisplatin infusion [30-75 mg/m2]. Blood was collected pre-dose and up to 6 h post-dose. Urinary biomarkers [KIM-1, calbindin, clusterin, GST-pi, ?2M, albumin, NGAL, osteopontin, clusterin, MCP-1, cystatin C, and TFF3] were measured at baseline, days 3 and 10. Total and unbound platinum concentrations were measured using ICP/MS. Noncompartmental analysis was performed, and correlation and regression analyses evaluated the relationships between platinum pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity. RESULTS:Peak platinum urinary concentrations correlated with urinary levels of KIM-1, calbindin, clusterin, GST-pi, ?2M, albumin, NGAL, osteopontin, clusterin, cystatin C, and TFF3 at day 10. Unbound platinum plasma concentrations at 2 h also correlated with urinary clusterin, ?2M, cystatin C, NGAL, osteopontin, and TFF3 at day 3. Regression analyses suggested 2-h total plasma platinum concentrations greater than 2000 ng/ml, and peak urinary platinum concentrations above 24,000 ng/ml may serve as potential approximations for elevated risk of nephrotoxicity. Platinum area under the plasma concentration time curve was associated with serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS:Peak plasma and urinary platinum concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were associated with risk of subclinical cisplatin-induced kidney injury as assessed using novel urinary biomarkers. Future studies will examine these relationships in larger clinical populations of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
Project description:We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and cystatin C), and distal tubular (heart fatty acid-binding protein [H-FABP]) damage markers with kidney disease severity, as assessed by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).Damage markers were measured in triplicate in fresh morning urine samples and in plasma.Of the diabetic patients, 41 were normoalbuminuric, 41 were microalbuminuric, and 12 were macroalbuminuric. Urinary NAG (ninefold), NGAL (1.5-fold), and H-FABP (3.5-fold) were significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic control subjects. Urinary concentrations of all markers increased per albuminuria stratum, except KIM-1. All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with albuminuria, independent of age, sex, and plasma concentrations of the corresponding biomarker (standard ?s between 0.35 and 0.87; all P ? 0.001). All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with the eGFR in univariate models (standard ?s between -0.38 and -0.21; all P < 0.04). After adjusting for age, sex, plasma concentration of the corresponding damage marker, and albuminuria, only the association of H-FABP with eGFR remained significant (standard ? -0.26; P = 0.037).Glomerular and tubular markers are associated with albuminuria, independently of eGFR, suggesting that albuminuria reflects both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage. Only urinary H-FABP is associated with eGFR independently of albuminuria and, therefore, may be a promising urinary damage marker to assess diabetic kidney disease.
Project description:This study was conducted to determine whether urinary excretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is elevated in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and whether elevated levels predict adverse outcomes.Urinary CNP has been detected in patients with heart failure, but its clinical significance and prognostic utility, compared to established kidney injury biomarkers, in ADHF is unknown.We measured 24-h urinary excretion and concurrent plasma concentrations of CNP22, CNP53, and NT-CNP53 in 58 ADHF patients and 20 healthy control subjects. Urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL) and plasma N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were also measured. Mortality and all-cause rehospitalization/death were assessed over a follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.9 years.ADHF patients had higher urinary excretion of all 3 CNP molecular forms than did controls. Plasma CNP22 and CNP53 were elevated in ADHF but showed limited correlation with urinary excretion, suggesting that mainly renal-derived CNP appears in urine. Plasma NT-proBNP and urinary KIM-1 were also elevated in ADHF (p < 0.0001); urinary NGAL was similar to that in controls. At 6 months, event-free survival values in ADHF patients were 86% for mortality and 59% for all-cause rehospitalization/death. On Cox regression analysis, urinary NT-CNP53 was the only predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 2.4; p = 0.01) and all-cause rehospitalization/death (hazard ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 2.4; p = 0.0004), even after adjustment. Integrated discrimination analysis suggested that urinary NT-CNP53 combined with plasma NT-proBNP improved the prediction of adverse outcomes.The findings from this study support the clinical utility of urinary CNP molecular forms. In ADHF, urinary NT-CNP53 correlated with prognosis, better predicted outcomes than did urinary NGAL and KIM-1, and improved the prognostic value of plasma NT-proBNP.