Immune reconstitution following rabbit antithymocyte globulin.
ABSTRACT: Depletional induction therapies are routinely used to prevent acute rejection and improve transplant outcome. The effects of depleting agents on T-cell subsets and subsequent T-cell reconstitution are incompletely defined. We used flow cytometry to examine the effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) on the peripheral T-cell repertoire of pediatric and adult renal transplant recipients. We found that while rATG effectively depleted CD45RA+CD27+ naïve and CD45RO+CD27+ central memory CD4+ T cells, it had little effect on CD45RO+CD27- CD4+ effector memory or CD45RA+CD31-, CD45RO+CD27+ and CD45RO+CD27- CD8+ T cell subsets. When we performed a kinetic analysis of CD31+ recent thymic emigrants and CD45RA+/RO+ T cells, we found evidence for both thymopoiesis and homeostatic proliferation contributing to immune reconstitution. We additionally examined the impact of rATG on peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. We found that in adults, administration of rATG-induced peripheral expansion and new thymic emigration of T cells with a Treg phenotype, while CD4+Foxp3+ T cells of thymic origin predominated in children, providing the first evidence that rATG induces Treg in vivo. Collectively our data indicate that rATG alters the balance of regulatory to memory effector T cells posttransplant, providing an explanation for how it positively impacts transplant outcome.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Animal studies suggest that regulatory T (T(reg)) cells play a beneficial role in ventricular remodeling and our previous data have demonstrated defects of T(reg) cells in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the mechanisms behind T(reg-)cell defects remained unknown. We here sought to elucidate the mechanism of T(reg-)cell defects in CHF patients.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We performed flow cytometry analysis and demonstrated reduced numbers of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CD45RO(-)CD45RA(+) naïve T(reg) (nT(reg)) cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CD45RO(+)CD45RA(-) memory T(reg) (mT(reg)) cells in CHF patients as compared with non-CHF controls. Moreover, the nT(reg)/mT(reg) ratio (p<0.01), CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CD45RO(-) CD45RA(+)CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant T(reg) cell (RTE-T(reg)) frequency (p<0.01), and T-cell receptor excision circle levels in T(reg) cells (p<0.01) were lower in CHF patients than in non-CHF controls. Combined annexin-V and 7-AAD staining showed that peripheral T(reg) cells from CHF patients exhibited increased spontaneous apoptosis and were more prone to interleukin (IL)-2 deprivation- and CD95 ligand-mediated apoptosis than those from non-CHF individuals. Furthermore, analyses by both flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that T(reg)-cell frequency in the mediastinal lymph nodes or Foxp3 expression in hearts of CHF patients was no higher than that of the non-CHF controls.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data suggested that the T(reg)-cell defects of CHF patients were likely caused by decreased thymic output of nascent T(reg) cells and increased susceptibility to apoptosis in the periphery.
Project description:AIDS is caused by CD4 T-cell depletion. Although combination antiretroviral therapy can restore blood T-cell numbers, the clonal diversity of the reconstituting cells, critical for immunocompetence, is not well defined.We performed an extensive analysis of parameters of thymic function in perinatally HIV-1-infected (n?=?39) and control (n?=?28) participants ranging from 13 to 23 years of age. CD4 T cells including naive (CD27 CD45RA) and recent thymic emigrant (RTE) (CD31/CD45RA) cells, were quantified by flow cytometry. Deep sequencing was used to examine T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence diversity in sorted RTE CD4 T cells.Infected participants had reduced CD4 T-cell levels with predominant depletion of the memory subset and preservation of naive cells. RTE CD4 T-cell levels were normal in most infected individuals, and enhanced thymopoiesis was indicated by higher proportions of CD4 T cells containing TCR recombination excision circles. Memory CD4 T-cell depletion was highly associated with CD8 T-cell activation in HIV-1-infected persons and plasma interlekin-7 levels were correlated with naive CD4 T cells, suggesting activation-driven loss and compensatory enhancement of thymopoiesis. Deep sequencing of CD4 T-cell receptor sequences in well compensated infected persons demonstrated supranormal diversity, providing additional evidence of enhanced thymic output.Despite up to two decades of infection, many individuals have remarkable thymic reserve to compensate for ongoing CD4 T-cell loss, although there is ongoing viral replication and immune activation despite combination antiretroviral therapy. The longer term sustainability of this physiology remains to be determined.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in the regulation of T-cell functionality. However, comprehensive insight into the extent of age-related miRNA changes in T cells is lacking. We established miRNA expression patterns of CD45RO- naïve and CD45RO+ memory T-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood cells from young and elderly individuals. Unsupervised clustering of the miRNA expression data revealed an age-related clustering in the CD45RO- T cells, while CD45RO+ T cells clustered based on expression of CD4 and CD8. Seventeen miRNAs showed an at least 2-fold up- or downregulation in CD45RO- T cells obtained from young as compared to old donors. Validation on the same and independent samples revealed a statistically significant age-related upregulation of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-15a. In a T-cell subset analysis focusing on known age-related phenotypic changes, we showed significantly higher miR-21 and miR-223 levels in CD8+CD45RO-CCR7- TEMRA compared to CD45RO-CCR7+ TNAIVE-cells. Moreover, miR-21 but not miR-223 levels were significantly increased in CD45RO-CD31- post-thymic TNAIVE cells as compared to thymic CD45RO-CD31+ TNAIVE cells. Upon activation of CD45RO- TNAIVE cells we observed a significant induction of miR-21 especially in CD4+ T cells, while miR-223 levels significantly decreased only in CD4+ T cells. Besides composition and activation-induced changes, we showed a borderline significant increase in miR-21 levels upon an increasing number of population doublings in CD4+ T-cell clones. Together, our results show that ageing related changes in miRNA expression are dominant in the CD45RO- T-cell compartment. The differential expression patterns can be explained by age related changes in T-cell composition, i.e. accumulation of CD8+ TEMRA and CD4+ post-thymic expanded CD31- T cells and by cellular ageing, as demonstrated in a longitudinal clonal culture model.
Project description:A subset of circulating T cells (CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(-)) with a naïve phenotype, but mediating effector function, is considered to play an important role in host antitumour defence. To investigate the attributes of these effector T cells in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck cancer, venous blood was obtained from 39 individuals with cancer and 45 normal controls (NC). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, stained with labelled monoclonal antibodies specific for CD8, CD45RO, CD45RA, CD62L, CD27, TCR-zeta as well as isotype controls and examined by multicolour flow cytometry. Annexin V binding to CD8(+) T cells and PMA/ionomycin-induced IFN-gamma expression were also evaluated in patients and NC. The proportions of CD45RA(+)CD45RO(-) (naïve) and CD45RA(-)CD45RO(+) (memory) cells were found to be comparable within the CD8(+) T-cell subset. However, relative to NC, the frequency of effector CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(-) cells was strikingly increased in all SCC patients regardless of the disease status (P=0.0003). The proportion of these cells was found to increase with age in both patients and NC. In NC, stimulated IFN-gamma expression was largely restricted to CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(+) cells, while in patients CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(-) expressed IFN-gamma after ex vivo stimulation. Expression of the TCR-associated zeta chain was decreased or absent in freshly isolated CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(-) T cells in patients (P<0.0001). Annexin V was found to bind to a higher proportion of circulating CD8(+) T cells in patients than NC (P<0.006), and significantly more Annexin V(+) T cells were present in the effector (P<0.0059) than the naïve subset within the CD8(+)CD45RO(-) compartment. The data indicate that the expanded CD8(+)CD45RO(-)CD27(-) T cells, which contain precursors of IFN-gamma-producing T cells, are zeta-negative and sensitive to apoptosis in the circulation of patients with HNC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) T- and B-cell reconstitution from primary lymphoid organs are a prerequisite for an effective early lymphocyte reconstitution and a long-term survival for adult patients suffering from acute leukemia. Here, we asked whether quantification of T cell receptor excision circle, (TREC) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) before and within six month after allogeneic HSCT could be used to measure the thymic and bone marrow outputs in such patients. METHODS: We used a duplex real time PCR assay to quantify the absolute copy counts of TREC and KREC, and correlated the data with absolute cell counts of CD3+CD4+ T-cell and CD19+ B-cell subsets determined by flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: By comparing two recently proposed naïve T cell subsets, CD31+ naive and CD31- naive T cells, we found a better correlation for the CD31+ subset with TREC level post alloHSCT, in line with the assumption that it contained T cells recently derived from the thymus, indicating that TREC levels reflected real thymic de novo production. Transitional as well as naïve B cells highly correlated with KREC levels, which suggested an association of KREC levels with ongoing bone marrow B cell output. CD45RO+ memory T cells and CD27+ memory B cells were significantly less correlated with TREC and KREC recovery, respectively. CONCLUSION: We conclude that simultaneous TREC/ KREC quantification is as a suitable and practicable method to monitor thymic and bone marrow output post alloHSCT in adult patients diagnosed with acute leukemia.
Project description:Exaggerated CD4(+) T helper 2-specific cytokine producing memory T cell responses developing concomitantly with a T helper 1 response might have a detrimental role in immunity to infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To assess the dynamics of Ag-specific memory T cell compartments in the context of filarial infection, we used multiparameter flow cytometry on PBMCs from 25 microfilaremic filarial-infected (Inf) and 14 filarial-uninfected (Uninf) subjects following stimulation with filarial Ag (BmA) or with the M. tuberculosis-specific Ag culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10). Our data demonstrated that the Inf group had a marked increase in BmA-specific CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells (median net frequency compared with baseline [Fo] = 0.09% versus 0.01%; p = 0.038) but also to CFP-10 (Fo = 0.16% versus 0.007%; p = 0.04) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (Fo = 0.49% versus 0.26%; p = 0.04). The Inf subjects showed a BmA-specific expansion of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)IL-4(+) producing central memory (TCM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+); Fo = 1.1% versus 0.5%; p = 0.04) as well as effector memory (TEM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD27(-); Fo = 1.5% versus 0.2%; p = 0.03) with a similar but nonsignificant response to CFP-10. In addition, there was expansion of CD4(+)IL-4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+) (naive-like) in Inf individuals compared with Uninf subjects. Among Inf subjects with definitive latent tuberculosis, there were no differences in frequencies of IL-4-producing cells within any of the memory compartments compared with the Uninf group. Our data suggest that filarial infection induces Ag-specific, exaggerated IL-4 responses in distinct T cell memory compartments to M. tuberculosis-specific Ags, which are attenuated in subjects who are able to mount a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Human memory and naive CD4 T cells can mainly be identified by the reciprocal expression of the CD45RO or CD45RA isoforms. In HIV-1 infection, blood CD45RO memory CD4 T cells are preferentially infected and serve as a major viral reservoir. The molecular mechanism dictating this differential susceptibility to HIV-1 remains largely obscure. Here, we report that the different susceptibility of memory and naive T cells to HIV is not determined by restriction factors such as Apobec3G or BST2. However, we observed a phenotypic distinction between human CD45RO and CD45RA resting CD4 T cells in their cortical actin density and actin dynamics. CD45RO CD4 T cells possess a higher cortical actin density and can be distinguished as CD45RO(+)Actin(high). In contrast, CD45RA T cells are phenotypically CD45RA(+)Actin(low). In addition, the cortical actin in CD45RO memory CD4 T cells is more dynamic and can respond to low dosages of chemotactic induction by SDF-1, whereas that of naive cells cannot, despite a similar level of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 present on both cells. We further demonstrate that this difference in the cortical actin contributes to their differential susceptibility to HIV-1; resting memory but not naive T cells are highly responsive to HIV-mediated actin dynamics that promote higher levels of viral entry and early DNA synthesis in resting memory CD4 T cells. Furthermore, transient induction of actin dynamics in resting naive T cells rescues HIV latent infection following CD3/CD28 stimulation. These results suggest a key role of chemotactic actin activity in facilitating HIV-1 latent infection of these T cell subsets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CD4+ T cells are of great importance in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as an imbalance between CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+ responder T cells (Tresps) causes flares of active disease in SLE patients. In this study, we aimed to find the role of aberrant Treg/Tresp cell differentiation for maintaining Treg/Tresp cell balance and Treg functionality. METHODS:To determine differences in the differentiation of Tregs/Tresps we calculated the percentages of CD45RA+CD31+ recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Tregs/Tresps and CD45RA+CD31- mature naive (MN) Tregs/Tresps, as well as CD45RA-CD31+ and CD45RA-CD31- memory Tregs/Tresps (CD31+ and CD31- memory Tregs/Tresps) within the total Treg/Tresp pool of 78 SLE remission patients compared with 94 healthy controls of different ages. The proliferation capacity of each Treg/Tresp subset was determined by staining the cells with anti-Ki67 monoclonal antibodies. Differences in the autologous or allogeneic Treg function between SLE remission patients and healthy controls were determined using suppression assays. RESULTS:With age, we found an increased differentiation of RTE Tregs via CD31+ memory Tregs and of RTE Tresps via MN Tresps into CD31- memory Tregs/Tresp in healthy volunteers. This opposite differentiation of RTE Tregs and Tresps was associated with an age-dependent increase in the suppressive activity of both naive and memory Tregs. SLE patients showed similar age-dependent Treg cell differentiation. However, in these patients RTE Tresps differentiated increasingly via CD31+ memory Tresps, whereby CD31- memory Tresps arose that were much more difficult to inhibit for Tregs than those that emerged through differentiation via MN Tresps. Consequently, the increase in the suppressive activity of Tregs with age could not be maintained in SLE patients. Testing the Tregs of healthy volunteers and SLE patients with autologous and nonautologous Tresps revealed that the significantly decreased Treg function in SLE patients was not exclusively attributed to an age-dependent diminished sensitivity of the Tresps for Treg suppression. The immunosuppressive therapy reduced the accelerated age-dependent Tresp cell proliferation to normal levels, but simultaneously inhibited Treg cell proliferation below normal levels. CONCLUSIONS:Our data reveal that the currently used immunosuppressive therapy has a favorable effect on the differentiation and proliferation of Tresps but has a rather unfavorable effect on the proliferation of Tregs. Newer substances with more specific effects on the immune system would be desirable.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the immunological and viral consequences of planned treatment interruptions (PTI) in children with HIV. DESIGN:This was an immunological and virological sub-study of the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 11 trial, which compared CD4-guided PTI of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with continuous therapy (CT) in children. METHODS:HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets, including CD4 and CD8 cells, were quantified on fresh samples collected during the study; CD45RA, CD45RO and CD31 subpopulations were evaluated in some centres. For 36 (18 PTI, 18 CT) children, immunophenotyping was performed and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA analysed on stored samples to 48 weeks. RESULTS:In the PTI group, CD4 cell count fell rapidly in the first 12 weeks off ART, with decreases in both naïve and memory cells. However, the proportion of CD4 cells expressing CD45RA and CD45RO remained constant in both groups. The increase in CD8 cells in the first 12 weeks off ART in the PTI group was predominantly due to increases in RO-expressing cells. PTI was associated with a rapid and sustained increase in CD4 cells expressing Ki67 and HLA-DR, and increased levels of HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS:PTI in children is associated with rapid changes in CD4 and CD8 cells, likely due to increased cell turnover and immune activation. However, children off treatment may be able to maintain stable levels of naïve CD4 cells, at least in proportion to the memory cell pool, which may in part explain the observed excellent CD4 cell recovery with re-introduction of ART.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in the regulation of T-cell functionality. However, comprehensive insight into the extent of age-related miRNA changes in T cells is lacking. We established miRNA expression patterns of CD45RO- naïve and CD45RO+ memory T-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood cells from young and elderly individuals. Unsupervised clustering of the miRNA expression data revealed an age-related clustering in the CD45RO- T cells, while CD45RO+ T cells clustered based on expression of CD4 and CD8. Seventeen miRNAs showed an at least 2-fold up- or downregulation in CD45RO- T cells obtained from young as compared to old donors. Validation on the same and independent samples revealed a statistically significant age-related upregulation of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-15a. In a T-cell subset analysis focusing on known age-related phenotypic changes, we showed significantly higher miR-21 and miR-223 levels in CD8+CD45RO-CCR7- TEMRA compared to CD45RO-CCR7+ TNAIVE-cells. Moreover, miR-21 but not miR-223 levels were significantly increased in CD45RO-CD31- post-thymic TNAIVE cells as compared to thymic CD45RO-CD31+ TNAIVE cells. Upon activation of CD45RO- TNAIVE cells we observed a significant induction of miR-21 especially in CD4+ T cells, while miR-223 levels significantly decreased only in CD4+ T cells. Besides composition and activation, we showed a borderline significant increase in miR-21 levels upon an increasing number of population doublings in CD4+ T-cell clones. Together, our results show that ageing related changes in miRNA expression are dominant in the CD45RO- T-cell compartment. The differential expression patterns can be explained by age related changes in T-cell composition, i.e. accumulation of CD8+ TEMRA and CD4+ post thymic expanded CD31- T cells and by cellular ageing, as demonstrated in a longitudinal clonal culture model. MicroRNA profiling was performed in eight T cell subsets: CD4 naive (CD3+CD4+CD45RO-), CD8 naive (CD3+CD4-CD45RO-), CD4 memory (CD3+CD4+CD45RO+) and CD8 memory (CD3+CD4-CD45RO+) T cells derived from 5 healthy young and 5 healthy old participants.