Adiponectin reduces thermogenesis by inhibiting brown adipose tissue activation in mice.
ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether or not adiponectin regulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and thermogenesis.Core body temperatures (CBTs) of genetic mouse models were monitored at room temperature and during cold exposure. Cultured brown adipocytes and viral vector-mediated gene transduction were used to study the regulatory effects of adiponectin on Ucp1 gene expression and the underlying mechanisms.The CBTs of adiponectin knockout mice (Adipoq(-/-)) were significantly higher than those of wild type (WT) mice both at room temperature and during the cold (4°C) challenge. Conversely, reconstitution of adiponectin in Adipoq(-/-) mice significantly blunted ? adrenergic receptor agonist-induced thermogenesis of interscapular BAT. After 10 days of intermittent cold exposure, Adipoq(-/-) mice exhibited higher UCP1 expression and more brown-like structure in inguinal fat than WT mice. Paradoxically, we found that the anti-thermogenic effect of adiponectin requires neither AdipoR1 nor AdipoR2, two well-known adiponectin receptors. In sharp contrast to the anti-thermogenic effects of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and especially AdipoR2 promote BAT activation. Mechanistically, adiponectin was found to inhibit Ucp1 gene expression by suppressing ?3-adrenergic receptor expression in brown adipocytes.This study demonstrates that adiponectin suppresses thermogenesis, which is likely to be a mechanism whereby adiponectin reduces energy expenditure.
Project description:Adult humans and mice possess significant classical brown adipose tissues (BAT) and, upon cold-induction, acquire brown-like adipocytes in certain depots of white adipose tissues (WAT), known as beige adipose tissues or WAT browning/beiging. Activating thermogenic classical BAT or WAT beiging to generate heat limits diet-induced obesity or type-2 diabetes in mice. Adiponectin is a beneficial adipokine resisting diabetes, and causing "healthy obese" by increasing WAT expansion to limit lipotoxicity in other metabolic tissues during high-fat feeding. However, the role of its receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), on cold-induced thermogenesis in vivo in BAT and in WAT beiging is still elusive. Here, we established a cold-induction procedure in transgenic mice over-expressing AdipoR1 and applied a live 3-D [<sup>18</sup>F] fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (<sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT) scanning to measure BAT activity by determining glucose uptake in cold-acclimated transgenic mice. Results showed that cold-acclimated mice over-expressing AdipoR1 had diminished cold-induced glucose uptake, enlarged adipocyte size in BAT and in browned WAT, and reduced surface BAT/body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, decreased gene expression, related to thermogenic <i>Ucp1</i>, BAT-specific markers, BAT-enriched mitochondrial markers, lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, and increased expression of whitening genes in BAT or in browned subcutaneous inguinal WAT of AdipoR1 mice are congruent with results of PET/CT scanning and surface body temperature in vivo. Moreover, differentiated brown-like beige adipocytes isolated from pre-adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT of transgenic AdipoR1 mice also had similar effects of lowered expression of thermogenic <i>Ucp1</i>, BAT selective markers, and BAT mitochondrial markers. Therefore, this study combines in vitro and in vivo results with live 3-D scanning and reveals one of the many facets of the adiponectin receptors in regulating energy homeostasis, especially in the involvement of cold-induced thermogenesis.
Project description:The adipocyte-derived adiponectin hormone bridges obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. Genetic variants at the ADIPOQ locus, in ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 have been associated with adiponectin concentrations and cardio-metabolic complications in diverse ethnicities. However, no studies have examined these associations in Mexican children. We recruited 1 457 Mexican children from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in or near ADIPOQ (rs182052, rs2241766, rs266729, rs822393), ADIPOR1 (rs10920533), and ADIPOR2 (rs11061971) were genotyped. Associations between serum adiponectin, genetic variants, and cardio-metabolic traits were assessed using linear and logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, and recruitment center. Serum adiponectin concentration was negatively associated with body mass index, waist to hip ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and overweight/obesity status (7.76?×?10-40???p???3.00?×?10-3). No significant associations between genetic variants in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 and serum adiponectin concentration were identified (all p???0.30). No significant associations between the six genetic variants and cardio-metabolic traits were observed after Bonferroni correction (all p?<?6.9?×?10-4). Our study suggests strong associations between circulating adiponectin concentration and cardio-metabolic traits in Mexican children.
Project description:Few studies have examined the association of SNPs in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) genes with the euglycemic clamp, i.e. the gold standard measure of insulin sensitivity. The association of comprehensive tag SNPs in these genes with insulin sensitivity was examined in a cohort of adolescents and their parents. Probands and siblings (n=441, mean age=17.9 years) were recruited along with their parents (n=262, mean age=47.9 years). Typed SNPs included 21 SNPs in ADIPOQ, 7 SNPs in ADIPOR1, and 13 SNPs in ADIPOR2. Mixed model linear regression was used to test the association of SNPs with euglycemic-clamp derived insulin sensitivity. All analyses were stratified by race. After corrections to account for multiple testing and the linkage disequilibrium structure of the genes, one SNP in the ADIPOQ gene (rs822393) was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity in white subjects. In whites, six SNPs in ADIPOQ, one SNP in ADIPOR1 and one SNP in ADIPOR2 were associated with insulin sensitivity at the P<0.05 level. In African Americans, two SNPs in ADIPOR1 were associated with insulin sensitivity at the P<0.05 level. These results suggest that a variant in the ADIPOQ gene influences levels of insulin sensitivity and age may modify the effects of this variant. There are several other variants in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 that may influence insulin sensitivity and these variants should be further investigated in other populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Low levels of serum adiponectin have been linked to central obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Variants in ADIPOQ, the gene encoding adiponectin, have been shown to influence serum adiponectin concentration, and along with variants in the adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) have been implicated in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the association of common variants in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 with serum adiponectin and insulin resistance syndromes in a large cohort of European-Australian individuals. METHODS: Sixty-four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were genotyped in two general population cohorts consisting of 2,355 subjects, and one cohort of 967 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The association of tagSNPs with outcomes were evaluated using linear or logistic modelling. Meta-analysis of the three cohorts was performed by random-effects modelling. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed nine genotyped tagSNPs in ADIPOQ significantly associated with serum adiponectin across all cohorts after adjustment for age, gender and BMI, including rs10937273, rs12637534, rs1648707, rs16861209, rs822395, rs17366568, rs3774261, rs6444175 and rs17373414. The results of haplotype-based analyses were also consistent. Overall, the variants in the ADIPOQ gene explained <5% of the variance in serum adiponectin concentration. None of the ADIPOR1/R2 tagSNPs were associated with serum adiponectin. There was no association between any of the genetic variants and insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. A multi-SNP genotypic risk score for ADIPOQ alleles revealed an association with 3 independent SNPs, rs12637534, rs16861209, rs17366568 and type 2 diabetes after adjusting for adiponectin levels (OR=0.86, 95% CI=(0.75, 0.99), P=0.0134). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in ADIPOQ, but not its receptors, was associated with altered serum adiponectin. However, genetic variation in ADIPOQ and its receptors does not appear to contribute to the risk of insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome but did for type 2 diabetes in a European-Australian population.
Project description:Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few studies have included black participants. Using cross-sectional interview data and blood samples collected from 990 black and 977 white women enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) from 2002 to 2006, we examined 25 SNPs in ADIPOQ, 19 in ADIPOR1, and 27 in ADIPOR2 in relation to serum adiponectin levels and BMI using race-stratified linear regression models adjusted for age and percentage African ancestry. SNP rs17366568 in ADIPOQ was significantly associated with serum adiponectin levels in white women only (adjusted mean adiponectin levels = 15.9 for G/G genotype, 13.7 for A/G, and 9.3 for A/A, P = 0.00036). No other SNPs were associated with adiponectin or BMI among blacks or whites. Because adiponectin levels as well as obesity are highly heritable and vary by race but associations with polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genes have been few in this and other studies, future work including large populations from diverse racial groups is needed to detect additional genetic variants that influence adiponectin and BMI.
Project description:Baseline adiponectin concentrations predict incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) would associate with circulating adiponectin concentrations and/or with diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program population.Seventy-seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ (24), ADIPOR1 (22) and ADIPOR2 (31) were genotyped. Associations of SNPs with baseline adiponectin concentrations were evaluated using linear modelling. Associations of SNPs with diabetes incidence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modelling.Thirteen of 24 ADIPOQ SNPs were significantly associated with baseline adiponectin concentrations. Multivariable analysis including these 13 SNPs revealed strong independent contributions of rs17366568, rs1648707, rs17373414 and rs1403696 with adiponectin concentrations. However, no ADIPOQ SNPs were directly associated with diabetes incidence. Two ADIPOR1 SNPs (rs1342387 and rs12733285) were associated with ?18% increased diabetes incidence for carriers of the minor allele without differences across treatment groups, and without any relationship with adiponectin concentrations.? ADIPOQ SNPs are significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort. This observation extends prior observations from unselected populations of European descent into a broader multi-ethnic population, and confirms the relevance of these variants in an obese/dysglycaemic population. Despite the robust relationship between adiponectin concentrations and diabetes risk in this cohort, variants in ADIPOQ that relate to adiponectin concentrations do not relate to diabetes risk in this population. ADIPOR1 variants exerted significant effects on diabetes risk distinct from any effect of adiponectin concentrations.
Project description:Objective:It is commonly accepted that adiponectin binds to its two receptors to regulate fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes. To better understand their functions in the regulation of intramuscular adipogenesis in goats, we cloned the three genes (adiponectin [AdipoQ], adiponectin receptor 1 [AdipoR1], and AdipoR2) encoding these proteins and detected their mRNA distribution in different tissues. We also determined the role of AdipoQ in the adipogenic differentiation of goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). METHODS:SMSCs were isolated using 1 mg/mL Pronase E from the longissimus dorsi muscles of 3-day-old female Nanjiang brown goats. Adipogenic differentiation was induced in satellite cells by transferring the cells to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with an isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone and insulin cocktail. The pEGFP-N1-AD plasmid was transfected into SMSCs using Lipofectamine 2000. Expression of adiponectin in tissues and SMSCs was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining. RESULTS:The three genes were predominantly expressed in adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. According to fluorescence and immunocytochemical analyses, adiponectin protein expression was only observed in the cytoplasm, suggesting that adiponectin is localized to the cytoplasm of goat SMSCs. In SMSCs overexpressing the AdipoQ gene, adiponectin promoted SMSC differentiation into adipocytes and significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated expression of AdipoR2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty-acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, though expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, and AdipoR1 did not change significantly. CONCLUSION:Adiponectin induced SMSC differentiation into adipocytes, indicating that adiponectin may promote intramuscular adipogenesis in goat SMSC.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermogenic organ in mammals. The ability of BAT mitochondria to generate heat in response to cold-challenge to maintain core body temperature is essential for organismal survival. While cold activated BAT mitochondrial biogenesis is recognized as critical for thermogenic adaptation, the contribution of mitochondrial quality control to this process remains unclear. Here, we show mitophagy is required for brown adipocyte mitochondrial homeostasis during thermogenic adaptation. Mitophagy is significantly increased in BAT from cold-challenged mice (4?°C) and in ?-agonist treated brown adipocytes. Blockade of mitophagy compromises brown adipocytes mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) capacity, as well as BAT mitochondrial integrity. Mechanistically, cold-challenge induction of BAT mitophagy is UCP1-dependent. Furthermore, our results indicate that mitophagy coordinates with mitochondrial biogenesis, maintaining activated BAT mitochondrial homeostasis. Collectively, our in vivo and in vitro findings identify mitophagy as critical for brown adipocyte mitochondrial homeostasis during cold adaptation.
Project description:Adiponectin (Adipoq), a protein secreted by adipocytes in inverse proportion to the adipose mass present, modulates energy homeostasis and increases insulin sensitivity. Tissue Adipoq signaling decreases in settings of maternal diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis, conditions which are associated with reproductive difficulty. Our objective was to define the expression and hormonal regulation of Adipoq and its receptors in the mouse preimplantation embryo and uterus.By real-time quantitative PCR, mRNA transcripts for Adipoq, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, Ppara, Ppard, FATP1 (SLC27A1) and acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) were identified in mouse 2-cell and 8-cell embryos, while blastocyst stage embryos and trophoblast stem (TS) cells expressed mRNA for all genes except Adipoq. Protein expression of Adipoq, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, the insulin sensitive transporters GLUT8 (Slc2A8), GLUT12 (Slc2A12) and p-PRKAA1 was identified by immunofluorescence staining in all stages of preimplantation embryos including the blastocyst. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of Adipoq, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in the mouse decidual cells of the implantation site and in artificially decidualized cells, and the expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting. Flow cytometry confirmed cell surface expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in TS cells and decidual cells.These results suggest for the first time that Adipoq signaling may play an important role in preimplantation embryo development and uterine receptivity by autocrine and paracrine methods in the mouse. Implantation failures and pregnancy loss, specifically those experienced in women with maternal metabolic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and PCOS, may be the result of aberrant Adipoq and AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression and suboptimal decidualization in the uterus.
Project description:Hypoadiponectinemia and adiponectin resistance are implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, hence represent a potential therapeutic axis. Here we characterised the effects of in vivo electrotransfer-mediated overexpression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, into tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) of lean or obese mice. In lean mice, TAM-specific overexpression of AdipoR1 (<sup>TAM</sup>R1) or AdipoR2 (<sup>TAM</sup>R2) increased phosphorylation of AMPK, AKT and ERK and expression of the insulin responsive glucose transporter glut4. In contrast, only <sup>TAM</sup>R2 increased ppar? and a target gene acox1. These effects were decreased in obese mice despite no reduction in circulating adiponectin levels. <sup>TAM</sup>R2 also increased expression of adipoQ in TAM of lean and obese mice. Furthermore, in obese mice <sup>TAM</sup>R2 promoted systemic effects including; decreased weight gain; reduced epididymal fat mass and inflammation; increased epididymal adipoQ expression; increased circulating adiponectin. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 exhibit overlapping and distinct effects in skeletal muscle consistent with enhanced adiponectin sensitivity but these appear insufficient to ameliorate established obesity-induced adiponectin resistance. We also identify systemic effects upon <sup>TAM</sup>R2 in obese mice and postulate these are mediated by altered myokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate this possibility which may reveal novel therapeutic approaches.