Evaluation of 2.0-mm Titanium Three-Dimensional Curved Angle Strut Plate in the Fixation of Mandibular Angle Fractures-A Prospective Clinical and Radiological Analysis.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and complication rate with use of 2.0-mm titanium three-dimensional (3D) curved angle strut plate for mandibular angle fractures. Twenty cases requiring internal fixation of the mandibular angle by 2.0-mm titanium 3D curved angle strut plates were evaluated. Postoperative clinical and radiological analyses were done on 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th weeks, which included wound healing, transmitted movements, difficulty in function and occlusion, and neurosensory changes, if any. Reasonable level of success in terms of immediate jaw function was noted in all cases. Transient inferior alveolar nerve dysfunction was observed in three cases, which recovered gradually in 2 months, and surgical site infection was observed in two cases, which resolved with appropriate course of antibiotics and wound care. Fixation of mandibular angle fractures with a 2.0-mm titanium 3D curved angle strut plate is predictable, expeditious, and has less complication rate.
Project description:PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and stability of 2.0 mm Titanium plates in treatment of mandibular angle fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, prospective study was carried out on 17 patients treated by ORIF with 2.0 mm titanium plates. Operative handling of the plate and clinical stability were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: The 2.0 mm plate showed good intra-operative handling and adequate clinical stability with follow up of 6 months showing good soft tissue healing. CONCLUSION: A single 2.0 mm titanium plate provides easy handling and adequate occlusal stability in the post-operative phase as compared to the traditional 2.5 mm plate without post-operative MMF. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0128-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:The aim of this study was to make a comparison of the biomechanical behavior of four different internal fixation systems for mandibular angle fractures. A total of 40 polyurethane mandible replicas were employed with different fixation methods: group 1SP, one 2.0-mm four-hole miniplate; group 2PPL, two 2.0-mm four-hole parallel miniplates; group 3DP, one 3D 2.0-mm four-hole miniplate; and group 3DPP, one 3D 2.0-mm eight-hole miniplate. Each group was subjected to incisal or homolateral molar region loading. The load resistance values were measured at load application causing tip displacement of 1, 3, and 5?mm, and at the time at which the system achieves its maximum strength (MS). Means and standard deviations were compared among groups using analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Group 2PPL showed higher strength for all the displacements. For incisal loading, no statistically significant differences were found between groups 1SP, 3DP, and 3DPP. For molar loading, group 1SP and 3DPP showed statistically significant differences. For MS testing, group 1SP and 2PPL showed statistically significant differences in incisal loading; group 1SP and 3DP showed no statistically significant differences; and group 3DPP showed lower values of strength. Two parallel miniplates provide the most favorable mechanical behavior under the conditions tested.
Project description:To guide the selection of osteosynthesis systems, this study compared the mechanical properties of biodegradable and titanium osteosynthesis systems. SonicPins Rx and xG were subjected to pull-out tests. Additionally, 15 biodegradable (Inion CPS 2.0 and 2.5 mm; LactoSorb 2.0 mm; Macropore 2.0 mm; Polymax 2.0 mm; BioSorb FX 2.0 mm; ResorbX 2.1 mm; Osteotrans-MX 2.0 mm with plate thicknesses 1.0 and 1.4 mm; SonicWeld Rxplate/Rxpins, xGplate/Rxpins and xGplate/xGpins 2.1 mm without and with tapping the burr hole) and six titanium (CrossDrive (2006), CrossDrive (2018), MaxDrive; all 1.5 and 2.0 mm) straight, four-hole osteosynthesis systems were evaluated. All systems were subjected to tensile, bending and torsion tests. Pull-out loads of the SonicPins were comparable (P?=?0.423). Titanium systems' tensile loads were higher than biodegradable systems (P?<?0.001). CrossDrive (2018) and MaxDrive systems' tensile and torsional stiffness were lower, accompanied with higher ductility, than corresponding CrossDrive (2006) systems (P?<?0.001). Bending stiffness of 1.5 mm titanium systems was comparable to, and of the 2.0 mm systems higher than, all biodegradable systems (P?<?0.001). Regarding biodegradable systems, Inion CPS 2.5 mm had highest tensile load and torsional stiffness, SonicWeld 2.1 mm highest tensile stiffness, and BioSorbFX 2.0 mm highest bending stiffness (P?<?0.001). On the basis of the results of this study, the CrossDrive (2018) and MaxDrive 1.5 mm titanium systems are recommended for midface fractures (e.g., zygomatic or maxillary fractures) and osteotomies (e.g., Le Fort I osteotomy), and the CrossDrive (2018) and MaxDrive 2.0 mm titanium systems for mandibular fractures and osteotomies when a titanium osteosynthesis system is used. When there is an indication for a biodegradable osteosynthesis system, the SonicWeld 2.1 mm or BioSorbFX 2.0 mm are recommended for midface fractures and osteotomies, and the Inion CPS 2.5 mm biodegradable system for mandibular osteotomies and non-load bearing mandibular fractures, especially when high torsional forces are expected (e.g., mandibular symphysis fractures).
Project description:The most stable pattern of internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures is an area of ongoing discussion. This study investigates the stability of three patterns of plate fixation using readily available, commercially pure titanium implants. Finite element models of a simulated mandibular condyle fracture were constructed. The completed models were heterogeneous in bone material properties, contained approximately 1.2 million elements and incorporated simulated jaw adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. No human subjects were involved in this investigation. The stability of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with the different implant configurations, and the von Mises stresses of a 1.5-mm X-shaped plate, a 1.5-mm rectangular plate, and a 1.5-mm square plate (all Synthes (Synthes GmbH, Zuchwil, Switzerland) were compared. The 1.5-mm X plate was the most stable of the three 1.5-mm profile plate configurations examined and had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0-mm straight four-hole plate. This study does not support the use of rectangular or square plate patterns in the open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures. It does provide some support for the use of a 1.5-mm X plate to reduce condylar fractures in selected clinical cases.
Project description:The application of additive manufacturing (AM) technology has been widely used in various medical fields, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. The aim of the present study was to examine the surgical efficiency and post-operative outcomes of patient-specific titanium mandibular reconstruction using AM. Major steps in directly designing and manufacturing 3D customized titanium implants are discussed. Furthermore, pre-operative preparations, surgical procedures and post-operative treatment outcomes were compared among patients who received mandibular reconstruction using a customized 3D titanium implant, titanium reconstruction plates or vascularized autologous fibular grafting. Use of a customized titanium implant significantly improved surgical efficiency and precision. When compared with mandibular reconstruction using the two conventional approaches, patients who received the customized implant were significantly more satisfied with their facial appearance, and exhibited minimal post-operative complications in the 12-month follow-up period. Patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction using a customized titanium implant displayed improved mandibular contour symmetry, restored occlusal function, normal range of mouth opening and no temporomandibular joint related pain; all complications frequently experienced by patients who undergo conventional approaches of mandibular reconstruction.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of advancement magnitude and changes in mandibular plane angle on the stability of mandibular advancement.This retrospective cohort study evaluated the postoperative stability of mandibular advancement in class II skeletal subjects who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Radiographs taken preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and 1 year postoperatively were traced and analyzed using linear and angular measurements. To determine horizontal and vertical relapse, an X-Y coordinate system was established in which the X-axis was constructed by rotating S-N downward by 7° (approximation of the Frankfort horizontal plane) and the Y-axis was defined as a line perpendicular to the X-axis and passing through the point Sella. For certain reference points including point A, point B, pogonion and menton, the perpendicular distance between each point and both axes was determined and cephalometric variables were recorded as X and Y coordinates.Twenty-five subjects were studied. A significant correlation between the amount of mandibular advancement and relapse in the B point (vertical and horizontal) and the pogonion point was observed (vertical and horizontal, P<0.001). Evaluation of data demonstrated a positive correlation between the mandibular plane angle (SN/ML) change and vertical relapse in the B point (P<0.05). A simple regression model demonstrated that 74% of horizontal relapse and 42.3% of vertical relapse in the B point was related to the amount of mandibular advancement. The receiver operating characteristic test showed that 8.5 mm mandibular advancement is related to a relapse rate of 1 mm or more in the pogonion, vertically or horizontally.The magnitude of mandibular advancement is a stronger surgical predictor for horizontal rather than vertical relapse at the B point. Changes in mandibular plane angle (SN/ML) during surgery affect vertical, but not horizontal relapse at the B point.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This Cross-sectional study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate the difference in the alveolar bone of the anterior teeth between high-angle adults with severe skeletal Class II malocclusions and Class III malocclusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adults were selected from patients of the Stomatology Hospital of Peking University between October 2017 to January 2018. The 62 high-angle adult subjects were divided into the following 2 groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: severe skeletal Class II and severe skeletal Class III. Vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and thickness of alveolar bone were measured at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm below and above to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level, as well as at the apical level. Then, independent samples t-test were conducted for statistical comparisons. RESULTS:In the maxillary incisors, the labial VBL was smaller in the patients in skeletal Class III group than those in skeletal Class II group (P<0.05). On the labial side, the ABA was significantly thinner in patients in skeletal Class II group than those in skeletal Class III group, especially in terms of the maxillary central incisors' ABA at 4 mm and 6 mm above the CEJ level (P<0.05), in terms of apical ABA and total ABA of the maxillary lateral incisors (P<0.05). The alveolar bone thickness around maxillary lateral incisors was significantly thinner in patients of skeletal Class II than that of patients of skeletal Class III, especially regarding the apical level on the labial side (P<0.05). The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of the lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in patients in skeletal Class III group than those in skeletal Class II group, especially in terms of apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides, and ABA at 6 mm below the CEJ level on the lingual side (P<0.05). In the mandibular lateral incisors, the alveolar bone thickness was significantly thinner in patients in skeletal Class III group than it was in patients in skeletal Class II group, especially regarding the apical level on the lingual side (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The ABA and the alveolar bone thickness of the mandibular anterior teeth were significantly thinner in the severe high-angle group of skeletal Class III adult patients than in the sample of severe high-angle skeletal Class II adult cases. Our study firstly revealed that the roots of the maxillary central and lateral incisors were placed more labially in the subjects of severe high-angle skeletal Class II than in those of severe high-angle skeletal Class III, especially in the lateral incisors.
Project description:In this article, authors report the different steps of development and clinical validation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates (Synthes, Soletta, Switzerland), a specialized osteosynthesis system developed by Synthes during the past 4 years. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 62 patients were treated for subcondylar and condylar neck fractures via a preauricular or retromandibular/transparotid approach. The MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System consists of a Trapezoidal Plate, a three-dimensional (3D) 4-hole 1.0-mm plate for smaller fracture areas, the Lambda Plate, a 7-hole 1.0-mm linear plate which mimics the two miniplates technique, and the Strut Plate, a 3D 1.0-mm plate with great versatility of employment. All devices satisfy the principles of a functionally stable osteosynthesis as stated by Champy et al. None of the plates broke and no macroscopic condylar displacement was noted on radiological follow-up. Clinical and functional parameters assessed at 6 months postoperative (mandibular range of motion, pain, dental occlusion) were almost restored. MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes) has proved to provide sufficient mechanical stiffness and anatomically accurate fracture reduction to avoid major postoperative drawbacks of subcondylar and condylar neck fractures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:When the application of a free vascularised flap is not possible, a segmental mandibular defect is often reconstructed using a conventional reconstruction plate. Mechanical failure of such reconstructions is mostly caused by plate fracture and screw pull-out. This study aims to develop a reliable, mechanically superior, yet slender patient-specific reconstruction plate that reduces failure due to these causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Eight patients were included in the study. Indications were as follows: fractured reconstruction plate (2), loosened screws (1) and primary reconstruction of a mandibular continuity defect (5). Failed conventional reconstructions were studied using finite element analysis (FEA). A 3D virtual surgical plan (3D-VSP) with a novel patient-specific (PS) titanium plate was developed for each patient. Postoperative CBCT scanning was performed to validate reconstruction accuracy. RESULTS:All PS plates were placed accurately according to the 3D-VSP. Mean 3D screw entry point deviation was 1.54 mm (SD: 0.85, R: 0.10-3.19), and mean screw angular deviation was 5.76° (SD: 3.27, R: 1.26-16.62). FEA indicated decreased stress and screw pull-out inducing forces. No mechanical failures appeared (mean follow-up: 16 months, R: 7-29). CONCLUSION:Reconstructing mandibular continuity defects with bookshelf-reconstruction plates with FEA underpinning the design seems to reduce the risk of screw pull-out and plate fractures.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miniscrew insertion angle and vertical facial type on the interradicular miniscrew-root distance available for molar distalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cone-beam computed tomography images of 60 adults with skeletal Class I occlusion exhibiting hyperdivergent (n = 20), normodivergent (n = 20), and hypodivergent (n = 20) facial types were used. Placement of a 6-mm long, 1.5-mm diameter, tapered miniscrew was simulated at a site 4 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction, with insertion angles of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60° relative to the transverse occlusal plane. The shortest linear distance between the miniscrew and anterior root at four interradicular sites was measured: maxillary second premolar and first molar (Mx 5-6), maxillary first and second molars (Mx 6-7), mandibular second premolar and first molar (Mn 5-6), and mandibular first and second molars (Mn 6-7). RESULTS:Miniscrew-root distance significantly increased as the insertion angle increased from 0° to 60°. In the mandible, the distances significantly differed among vertical facial types, increasing in the following order: hyperdivergent, normodivergent, and hypodivergent. The minimum mean distance was found in the Mx 6-7 (30°; 0.86±0.35 mm), and the maximum mean distance was found in the Mn 5-6 (60°; 2.64±0.56 mm). The rates of miniscrews located buccally outside the root distalization path were up to 70% and 55% when the miniscrews were placed at 60° insertion angles in the Mx 5-6 and Mn 5-6 regions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Miniscrew-root distance increased significantly with the increased insertion angle, and the amount of increase was affected by the miniscrew placement site and vertical facial type. To ensure adequate distalization of the posterior segment, the miniscrew should be inserted at an angle in the interradicular area between the second premolar and first molar.