KRAS, EGFR, PDGFR-?, KIT and COX-2 status in carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE).
ABSTRACT: CASTLE (Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the thyroid resembling lymphoepithelioma-like and squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus with different biological behaviour and a better prognosis than anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid.We retrospectively investigated 6 cases of this very rare neoplasm in order to investigate the mutational status of KRAS, EGFR, PDGFR-? and KIT, as well as the immunohistochemical expression pattern of CD117, EGFR and COX-2, and possibly find new therapeutic targets.Diagnosis was confirmed by a moderate to strong expression of CD5, CD117 and CK5/6, whereas thyroglobulin, calcitonin and TTF-1 were negative in all cases. Tumors were also positive for COX-2 and in nearly all cases for EGFR. In four cases single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be detected in exon 12 of the PDGFR-? gene (rs1873778), in three cases SNPs were found in exon 20 of the EGFR gene (rs1050171). No mutations were found in the KIT and KRAS gene.All tumors showed a COX-2 expression as well as an EGFR expression except for one case and a wild-type KRAS status. No activating mutations in the EGFR, KIT and PDGFR-? gene could be detected. Our data may indicate a potential for targeted therapies, but if these therapeutic strategies are of benefit in CASTLE remains to be determined.The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1658499296115016.
Project description:Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can be recognized by their monotonous cytologic features and overexpression of KIT oncoprotein. Altered morphology and loss of CD117 reactivity has been described previously after chronic imatinib treatment; however, this phenomenon has not been reported in imatinib-naive tumors. Eight patients with abrupt transition from a classic CD117-positive spindle cell GIST to an anaplastic CD117-negative tumor were investigated for underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor progression. Pathologic and molecular analysis was performed on each of the 2 components. Genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction for KIT, PDGFRA, BRAF, and KRAS hot spot mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting KIT gene copy number alterations were performed. TP53 mutational analysis was performed in 5 cases. There were 7 men and 1 woman, with an age range of 23 to 65 years. Five of the primary tumors were located in the stomach, and 1 case each originated in the small bowel, colon, and rectum. In 3 patients, the dedifferentiated component occurred in the setting of imatinib resistance, whereas the remaining 5 occurred de novo. The dedifferentiated component had an anaplastic appearance, including 1 angiosarcomatous phenotype, with high mitotic activity and necrosis, and showed complete loss of CD117 (8/8) and CD34 (5/8) expression and de novo expression of either cytokeratin (4/8) or desmin (1/8). There was no difference in the KIT genotype between the 2 components. However, 2 imatinib-resistant tumors showed coexistence of KIT exon 11 and exon 13 mutations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed loss of 1 KIT gene in 3 cases and low-level amplification of KIT in 2 other cases in the CD117-negative component, compared with the CD117-positive area. TP53 mutation was identified in 1/5 cases tested, being present in both components. In summary, dedifferentiation in GIST may occur either de novo or after chronic imatinib exposure and can represent a diagnostic pitfall. This phenomenon is not related to additional KIT mutations, but might be secondary to genetic instability, either represented by loss of heterozygosity or low level of KIT amplification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common primary mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutations of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha have been well characterized in GISTs. Patients with KIT mutations are generally sensitive to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, some patients with GIST, while initially sensitive to TKIs, gain resistance in later stages of treatment. Heterologous rhabdomyomsarcomatous dedifferentiation of advanced GISTs after long-term imatinib mesylate (IM) therapy has been reported. In these cases, the underlying molecular mechanism of tumor progression and transformation is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION:We report one such patient with rhabdomyosarcomatous dedifferentiation of a GIST without metastatic disease after brief 3-month therapy with IM. The tumor was composed of two distinct phenotypes, a CD117 negative region with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation directly adjacent to a CD117 positive classic GIST region. Molecular analysis identified the activating KIT exon 11 mutation in both regions, indicating a common origin for both phenotypes. Additionally, the dedifferentiated component contained two synonymous variants in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and KIT. The increased number of synonymous variants in the rhabdomyosarcomatous region may reflect increased genetic instability of this tumor that may have resulted in the loss of CD117 expression in the dedifferentiated component. CONCLUSION:This study adds to the growing consensus that rhabdomyosarcomatous GIST progresses from a common GIST primary tumor. The role of IM in this progression is uncertain; however short duration of IM treatment in this study supports the hypothesis that rhabdomyosarcomatous GIST progression is not a consequence of IM therapy. Furthermore, we provide additional information supporting the observation that CD117 negative rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation maintains the activating KIT variant without KIT expression.
Project description:Small subtype of the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (micro-GIST, MG) is usually asymptomatic and is frequently found incidentally in association with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The background of this coincidence is still an open question. This study comprehensively characterized nine MGs and GACs present in the same surgical specimen by cross-testing the markers of the major pathogenetic pathways of both tumor types. All of the MGs were immunohistochemically positive for CD117/KIT, CD34, and DOG1. DOG1 was also detected in four GACs. Four MGs carried mutations in c-KIT (exons 9, 11, and 13) and two cases in PDGFR? (exon 18). None of the GACs carried activating mutations in c-KIT or PDGFR?. MMR immunopanel identified one GAC as microsatellite unstable tumor. No EBV-positive tumor was found. According to the TCGA molecular classification, one GAC was categorized in the MSI subgroup, three GACs in the genomically stable subgroup, and the rest into the chromosomal instability subgroup. Although a common carcinogenic effect cannot be ruled out, our data suggest a distinct molecular background in the evolvement of the synchronous MGs and GACs. The presence of a MG in gastric resection specimens may be indicative of the development of synchronous malignant tumors in or outside the stomach.
Project description:Appendiceal adenocarcinomas (AAs) are rare and this has limited their molecular understanding. The purpose of our study was to characterize the molecular profile of AA and explore the role of targeted therapy against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).We performed a retrospective review of 607 patients with AA at a single institution. A total of 149 patients underwent molecular testing for at least one of the following: activating mutations in KRAS, BRAF, cKIT, EGFR, or PI3K; protein expression of c-KIT or COX-2; or microsatellite instability (MSI) status by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS) and to determine associations among OS, COX-2 expression, KRAS mutations, and other characteristics.Age, grade, stage, signet ring cells, mucinous histology, and completeness of cytoreduction score correlated with survival outcomes. COX-2 expression, KRAS, PI3K, and BRAF mutations were seen in 61%, 55%, 17%, and 4% of patients, respectively. High MSI was seen in 6% of patients. KRAS mutation was strongly associated with well differentiated or moderately differentiated AA (p < .01). COX-2 expression (p = .33) and the presence of KRAS mutation (p = .91) had no impact on OS. The use of celecoxib in patients whose tumors expressed COX-2 (p = .84) and the use of cetuximab or panitumumab in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors (p = .83) also had no impact on OS.In this cohort, we demonstrated that COX-2 expression and KRAS mutations were frequently seen in AA, although neither exhibited any prognostic significance. MSI was infrequent in AA. Targeted therapy against COX-2 and EGFR appeared to provide no clinical benefit. Well and moderately differentiated AA were molecularly distinct from poorly differentiated AA.
Project description:Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare intrathoracic malignancies that can be invasive and refractory to conventional treatment. Because these tumors both originate from the thymus, they are often grouped together clinically. However, whether the underlying biology of these tumors warrants such clustering is unclear, and the optimum treatment of either entity is unknown.All thymic tumors were profiled for mutations in genes encoding components of the EGFR and KIT signaling pathways, assessed for EGFR and KIT expression by immunohistochemistry, and analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Previously untreated tumors were subjected to global gene expression arrays.We analyzed 45 thymic tumors [thymoma, n = 38 (type A, n = 8; type B2, n = 22; type B3, n = 8); thymic carcinoma, n = 7]. One thymoma and one thymic carcinoma harbored KRAS mutations (G12A and G12V, respectively), and one thymoma had a G13V HRAS mutation. Three tumors displayed strong KIT staining. Two thymic carcinomas harbored somatic KIT mutations (V560del and H697Y). In cell viability assays, the V560del mutant was associated with similar sensitivities to imatinib and sunitinib, whereas the H697Y mutant displayed greater sensitivity to sunitinib. Genomic profiling revealed distinct differences between type A to B2 thymomas versus type B3 and thymic carcinomas. Moreover, array-based comparative genomic hybridization could readily distinguish squamous cell carcinomas of the thymus versus the lung, which can often present a diagnostic challenge.Comprehensive genomic analysis suggests that thymic carcinomas are molecularly distinct from thymomas. These data have clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic implications for the treatment of thymic malignancies.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common Mesenchymal Neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The tumorigenesis of GISTs has been associated with the gain-of-function mutation and abnormal activation of the stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) kinases. Hence, inhibitors that target c-KIT and PDGFR? could be a therapeutic option for the treatment of GISTs. The available approved c-KIT/PDGFR? inhibitors possessed low efficacy with off-target effects, which necessitated the development of potent inhibitors. We performed computational studies of 48 pyrazolopyridine derivatives that showed inhibitory activity against c-KIT and PDGFR? to study the structural properties important for inhibition of both the kinases. The derivative of phenylurea, which has high activities for both c-KIT (pIC50 = 8.6) and PDGFR? (pIC50 = 8.1), was used as the representative compound for the dataset. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (100 ns) of compound 14 was performed. Compound 14 showed the formation of hydrogen bonding with Cys673, Glu640, and Asp810 in c-KIT, and Cys677, Glu644, and Asp836 in PDGFR?. The results also suggested that Thr670/T674 substitution in c-KIT/PDGFR? induced conformational changes at the binding site of the receptors. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were developed based on the inhibitors. Contour map analysis showed that electropositive and bulky substituents at the para-position and the meta-position of the benzyl ring of compound 14 was favorable and may increase the inhibitory activity against both c-KIT and PDGFR?. Analysis of the results suggested that having bulky and hydrophobic substituents that extend into the hydrophobic pocket of the binding site increases the activity for both c-KIT and PDGFR?. Based on the contour map analysis, 50 compounds were designed, and the activities were predicted. An evaluation of binding free energy showed that eight of the designed compounds have potential binding affinity with c-KIT/PDGFR?. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and synthetic feasibility tests showed that the designed compounds have reasonable pharmaceutical properties and synthetic feasibility. Further experimental study of the designed compounds is recommended. The structural information from this study could provide useful insight into the future development of c-KIT and PDGFR? inhibitors.
Project description:Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) share numerous features with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors. Targets of novel therapeutic strategies previously assessed in carcinoid tumors were analyzed in PETs (44 cases).Activating mutations in EGFR, KIT, and PDGFRA and nonresponse mutations in KRAS were evaluated. Copy number of EGFR and HER-2/neu was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression of EGFR, PDGFRA, VEGFR1, TGFBR1, Hsp90, SSTR2A, SSTR5, IGF1R, mTOR, and MGMT was measured immunohistochemically.Elevated EGFR copy number was found in 38% of cases but no KRAS nonresponse mutations. VEGFR1, TGFBR1, PDGFRA, SSTR5, SSTR2A, and IGF1R exhibited the highest levels of expression in the largest percentages of PETs.Anticancer drugs BMS-754807 (selective for IGF1R/IR), 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, targeting Hsp90), and axitinib (directed toward VEGFR1-3/PDGFRA-B/KIT) induced growth inhibition of human QGP-1 PET cells with IC50 values (nM) of 273, 723, and 743, respectively. At growth-inhibiting concentrations, BMS-754807 inhibited IGF1R phosphorylation; 17-AAG induced loss of EGFR, IGF1R, and VEGFR2; and axitinib increased p21(CDKN1A) expression without inhibiting VEGFR2 phosphorylation.Results encourage further research into multidrug strategies incorporating inhibitors targeting IGF1R or Hsp90 and into studies of axitinib combined with conventional chemotherapeutics toxic to tumor cells in persistent growth arrest.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract originating from the pluripotential mesenchymal stem cells, which differentiate into interstitial Cajal cells. They are usually located in the upper gastrointestinal track. These tumors are typically defined by the expression of c-KIT (CD117) and CD34 proteins in the tumor cells. A small percentage of these tumors is negative for c-KIT. The neoplasms are positive for platelet-derived growth factor ? (PDGF?) mutations. In addition to PDGFR? mutations, wild-type c-KIT mutations can also be present. The therapeutic approach to locally developed gastrointestinal stromal tumors is surgical resection, either with open or laparoscopic surgery. In case of systemic disease, molecular pharmacologic agents such as imatinib and sunitinib are used for treatment. These agents block the signaling pathways of neoplastic-cell tyrosine kinases, interfering in their proliferation and causing apoptosis.
Project description:We have previously described the expression of CD44, CD90, CD117 and CD133 in NSCLC tumors, adjacent normal lung, and malignant pleural effusions (MPE). Here we describe the unique subset of tumors expressing CD117 (KIT), a potential therapeutic target. Tumor and adjacent tissue were collected from 58 patients. Six MPE were obtained before therapy. Tissue was paraffin embedded for immunofluorescent microscopy, disaggregated and stained for flow cytometry or cryopreserved for later culture. The effect of imatinib on CD117(high)/KIT+ tumors was determined on first passage cells; absolute cell counts and flow cytometry were readouts for drug sensitivity of cell subsets. Primary tumors divided into KIT(neg) and KIT+ by immunofluorescence. By more sensitive flow cytometric analysis, CD117+ cytokeratin+ cells were detected in all tissues (1.1% of cytokeratin+ cells in normal lung, 1.29% in KIT "negative" tumors, 40.7% in KIT+ tumors, and 0.4% in MPE). In KIT+/CD117(high), but not KIT+/CD117(low) tumors, CD117 was overexpressed 3.1-fold compared to normal lung. Primary cultures of CD117(high) tumors were sensitive to imatinib (5 µM) in short term culture. We conclude that NSCLC tumors divide into CD117(low) and CD117(high). Overexpression of CD117 in CD117(high) NSCLC supports exploring KIT as a therapeutic target in this subset of patients.
Project description:In recent years, the number of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has gradually increased, and the treatment methods have also been significantly increased. However, there are no standard treatment plans at home and abroad for third-line and above patients who are refractory to targeted therapy epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or chemotherapy. The clinical treatment effect is also not satisfactory. Anlotinib is a novel TKI targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-Kit. ALTER0303 trail, phase III study has demonstrated that Anlotinib significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in advanced NSCLC patients as 3rd line treatment.Here we report a case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring KRAS mutation treated with Anlotinib.?.