Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction.
ABSTRACT: The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small-molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled both the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks that covered all of this natural-product chemical space and the first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A and neurosporaxanthin b-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach to making small molecules in the laboratory.
Project description:Polyene macrolide antibiotics are naturally occurring antifungal agents. Members of this class include amphotericin B, which has been used widely to treat systemic fungal infections. A general synthetic strategy has been devised to prepare polyol chains associated with the polyene macrolides. Cyanohydrin acetonide alkylations were used to assemble the carbon skeleton, and a simple modification of the strategy allowed an advanced intermediate to be converted to either the candidin polyol or the nystatin polyol. The candidin polyol was further elaborated to a protected candidin aglycone. This strategy will be applicable to other members of the polyene macrolide natural products.
Project description:Bioactive natural products from mangrove-derived actinomycetes are important sources for discovery of drug lead compounds. In this study, an extract prepared from culture of an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG isolated from mangrove soils was found to have activity in inhibiting proliferation of glioma cells. Large culture of this mangrove actinomycete in Gause's liquid medium resulted in isolation of seven novel polyene-polyol macrolides, named as flavofungins III-IX (3-9), together with known flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10). Structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses and HRESIMS data. The stereochemical assignments were achieved by a combination of NOE information, universal NMR database, and chemical reactions including preparation of acetonide derivatives and Mosher esters. Flavofungins IV-VIII (4-8) are rare 32-membered polyene-polyol macrolides with a tetrahydrofuran ring, while flavofungin IX (9) represents the first example of this type of macrolide with a unique oxepane ring. Flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10) showed anti-glioma and antifungal activities.
Project description:Polyketide biosynthesis engages a series of well-timed biosynthetic operations to generate elaborate natural products from simple building blocks. Mimicry of these processes has offered practical means for total synthesis and provided a foundation for reaction discovery. We now report an unusual intramolecular trans-amidation reaction discovered while preparing stabilized probes for the study of actinorhodin biosynthesis. This rapid cyclization event offers insight into the natural cyclization process inherent to the biosynthesis of type II polyketide antibiotics.
Project description:Prized for their ability to rapidly generate chemical complexity by building new ring systems and stereocentres1, cycloaddition reactions have featured in numerous total syntheses2 and are a key component in the education of chemistry students3. Similarly, carbon-carbon (C-C) cross-coupling methods are integral to synthesis because of their programmability, modularity and reliability4. Within the area of drug discovery, an overreliance on cross-coupling has led to a disproportionate representation of flat architectures that are rich in carbon atoms with orbitals hybridized in an sp2 manner5. Despite the ability of cycloadditions to introduce multiple carbon sp3 centres in a single step, they are less used6. This is probably because of their lack of modularity, stemming from the idiosyncratic steric and electronic rules for each specific type of cycloaddition. Here we demonstrate a strategy for combining the optimal features of these two chemical transformations into one simple sequence, to enable the modular, enantioselective, scalable and programmable preparation of useful building blocks, natural products and lead scaffolds for drug discovery.
Project description:Streptomyces are a genus of Actinobacteria capable of producing structurally diverse natural products. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a biosynthetically talented Streptomyces (Streptomyces sp. SD85) from tropical mangrove sediments. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that Streptomyces sp. SD85 harbors at least 52 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which constitute 21.2% of the 8.6-Mb genome. When cultivated under lab conditions, Streptomyces sp. SD85 produces sceliphrolactam, a 26-membered polyene macrolactam with unknown biosynthetic origin. Genome mining yielded a putative sceliphrolactam BGC (sce) that encodes a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) system, several β-amino acid starter biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and transcriptional regulators. Using the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout method, we demonstrated that the sce BGC is essential for sceliphrolactam biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, the PKS system encoded by sce is short of one module required for assembling the 26-membered macrolactam skeleton according to the collinearity rule. With experimental data disfavoring the involvement of a trans-PKS module, the biosynthesis of sceliphrolactam seems to be best rationalized by invoking a mechanism whereby the PKS system employs an iterative module to catalyze two successive chain extensions with different outcomes. The potential violation of the collinearity rule makes the mechanism distinct from those of other polyene macrolactams.
Project description:In this study, we report antifungal activity of auroramycin against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Auroramycin, a potent antimicrobial doubly glycosylated 24-membered polyene macrolactam, was previously isolated and characterized, following CRISPR-Cas9 mediated activation of a silent polyketide synthase biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces rosesporous NRRL 15998. Chemogenomic profiling of auroramycin in yeast has linked its antifungal bioactivity to vacuolar transport and membrane organization. This was verified by disruption of vacuolar structure and membrane integrity of yeast cells with auroramycin treatment. Addition of salt but not sorbitol to the medium rescued the growth of auroramycin-treated yeast cells suggesting that auroramycin causes ionic stress. Furthermore, auroramycin caused hyperpolarization of the yeast plasma membrane and displayed a synergistic interaction with cationic hygromycin. Our data strongly suggest that auroramycin inhibits yeast cells by causing leakage of cations from the cytoplasm. Thus, auroramycin's mode-of-action is distinct from known antifungal polyenes, reinforcing the importance of natural products in the discovery of new anti-infectives.
Project description:(2S,3S)-3-Hydroxyleucine can be found in an increasing number of bioactive natural products. Within the context of our work regarding the total synthesis of muraymycin nucleoside antibiotics, we have developed a synthetic approach towards (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine building blocks. Application of different protecting group patterns led to building blocks suitable for C- or N-terminal derivatization as well as for solid-phase peptide synthesis. With respect to according motifs occurring in natural products, we have converted these building blocks into 3-O-acylated structures. Utilizing an esterification and cross-metathesis protocol, (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine derivatives were synthesized, thus opening up an excellent approach for the synthesis of bioactive natural products and derivatives thereof for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies.
Project description:One of the most widely recognized features of biological systems is their modularity. The modules that constitute biological systems are said to be redeployed and combined across several conditions, thus acting as building blocks. In this work, we analyse to what extent are these building blocks reusable as compared with those found in randomized versions of a system. We develop a notion of decompositions of systems into phenotypic building blocks, which allows them to overlap while maximizing the number of times a building block is reused across several conditions. Different biological systems present building blocks whose reusability ranges from single use (e.g. condition specific) to constitutive, although their average reusability is not always higher than random equivalents of the system. These decompositions reveal a distinct distribution of building block sizes in real biological systems. This distribution stems, in part, from the peculiar usage pattern of the elements of biological systems, and constitutes a new angle to study the evolution of modularity.
Project description:Capoamycin-type antibiotics (2-5) and polyene acids (6, 7) were isolated from marine Streptomyces fradiae strain PTZ0025. Their structures were established by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) analyses and chemical degradation. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 7 were found to be new and named as fradimycins A (3) and B (4), and fradic acids A (6) and B (7). Compounds 3-5 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.0 to 6.0 ?g/mL. Interestingly, Compounds 3-5 also significantly inhibited cell growth of colon cancer and glioma with IC?? values ranging from 0.13 to 6.46 ?M. Fradimycin B (4), the most active compound, was further determined to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. The results indicated that fradimycin B (4) arrested the cell cycle at the G?/G? phase and induced apoptosis and necrosis in colon cancer and glioma cells. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the marine natural products 3-5, particularly fradimycin B (4), possessed potent antimicrobial and antitumor activities.
Project description:(+)-Hongoquercin A and B were synthesized from commercially available trans, trans-farnesol in six and eleven steps, respectively, using dual biomimetic strategies with polyketide aromatization and subsequent polyene functionalization from a common farnesyl-resorcylate intermediate. Key steps involve Pd(0)-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic rearrangement of a dioxinone ?,?-diketo ester to a ?,?-diketo dioxinone, which was readily aromatized into the corresponding resorcylate, and subsequent polyene cyclization via enantioselective protonation or regioselective terminal alkene oxidation and cationic cyclization of enantiomerically enriched epoxide to furnish the tetracyclic natural product cores. Analogues of the hongoquercin were synthesized via halonium-induced polyene cyclizations, and the meroterpenoid could be further functionalized via saponification, hydrolytic decarboxylation, reduction, and amidation reactions.