Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.
ABSTRACT: Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the (1)S0-(3)P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.
Project description:The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms-six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms--makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems.
Project description:Propagation time through an optical fibre changes with the environment, e.g., a change in temperature alters the fibre length and its refractive index. These changes have negligible impact in many key fibre applications, e.g., telecommunications, however, they can be detrimental in many others. Examples are fibre-based interferometry (e.g., for precise measurement and sensing) and fibre-based transfer and distribution of accurate time and frequency. Here we show through two independent experiments that hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres have a significantly smaller sensitivity to temperature variations than traditional solid-core fibres. The 18 times improvement observed, over 3 times larger than previously reported, makes them the most environmentally insensitive fibre technology available and a promising candidate for many next-generation fibre systems applications that are sensitive to drifts in optical phase or absolute propagation delay.
Project description:Quantum engineering using photonic structures offer new capabilities for atom-photon interactions for quantum optics and atomic physics, which could eventually lead to integrated quantum devices. Despite the rapid progress in the variety of structures, coherent excitation of the motional states of atoms in a photonic waveguide using guided modes has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we use the waveguide mode of a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre to manipulate the mechanical Fock states of single atoms in a harmonic potential inside the fibre. We create a large array of Schrödinger cat states, a quintessential feature of quantum physics and a key element in quantum information processing and metrology, of approximately 15000 atoms along the fibre by entangling the electronic state with the coherent harmonic oscillator state of each individual atom. Our results provide a useful step for quantum information and simulation with a wide range of photonic waveguide systems.
Project description:We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons.
Project description:Gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibre is being used to generate ever wider supercontinuum spectra, in particular via dispersive wave emission in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet, with a multitude of applications. Dispersive waves are the result of nonlinear transfer of energy from a self-compressed soliton, a process that relies crucially on phase-matching. It was recently predicted that, in the strong-field regime, the additional transient anomalous dispersion introduced by gas ionization would allow phase-matched dispersive wave generation in the mid-infrared-something that is forbidden in the absence of free electrons. Here we report the experimental observation of such mid-infrared dispersive waves, embedded in a 4.7-octave-wide supercontinuum that uniquely reaches simultaneously to the vacuum ultraviolet, with up to 1.7?W of total average power.Dispersive wave emission in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibres has been possible in the visible and ultraviolet via the optical Kerr effect. Here, Köttig et al. demonstrate dispersive waves generated by an additional transient anomalous dispersion from gas ionization in the mid-infrared.
Project description:The success of photonic crystal fibres relies largely on the endless variety of two-dimensional photonic crystals in the cross-section. Here, we propose a topological bandgap fibre whose bandgaps along in-plane directions are opened by generalised Kekulé modulation of a Dirac lattice with a vortex phase. Then, the existence of mid-gap defect modes is guaranteed to guide light at the core of this Dirac-vortex fibre, where the number of guiding modes equals the winding number of the spatial vortex. The single-vortex design provides a single-polarisation single-mode for a bandwidth as large as one octave.
Project description:Photothermal interferometry is an ultra-sensitive spectroscopic means for trace chemical detection in gas- and liquid-phase materials. Previous photothermal interferometry systems used free-space optics and have limitations in efficiency of light-matter interaction, size and optical alignment, and integration into photonic circuits. Here we exploit photothermal-induced phase change in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre, and demonstrate an all-fibre acetylene gas sensor with a noise equivalent concentration of 2?p.p.b. (2.3 × 10(-9)?cm(-1) in absorption coefficient) and an unprecedented dynamic range of nearly six orders of magnitude. The realization of photothermal interferometry with low-cost near infrared semiconductor lasers and fibre-based technology allows a class of optical sensors with compact size, ultra sensitivity and selectivity, applicability to harsh environment, and capability for remote and multiplexed multi-point detection and distributed sensing.
Project description:Measuring Raman spectra through an optical fibre is usually complicated by the high intrinsic Raman scatter of the fibre material. Common solutions such as the use of multiple fibres and distal optics are complex and bulky. We demonstrate the use of single novel hollow-core negative-curvature fibres (NCFs) for Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing using no distal optics. The background Raman emission from the silica in the NCF was at least 1000× smaller than in a conventional solid fibre, while maintaining the same collection efficiency. We transmitted pump light from a 785-nm laser through the NCF, and we collected back the weak Raman spectra of different distal samples, demonstrating the fibre probe can be used for measurements of weak Raman and SERS signals that would otherwise overlap spectrally with the silica background. The lack of distal optics and consequent small probe diameter (<0.25 mm) enable applications that were not previously possible.
Project description:Active manipulation of light in optical fibres has been extensively studied with great interest because of its compatibility with diverse fibre-optic systems. While graphene exhibits a strong electro-optic effect originating from its gapless Dirac-fermionic band structure, electric control of all-fibre graphene devices remains still highly challenging. Here we report electrically manipulable in-line graphene devices by integrating graphene-based field effect transistors on a side-polished fibre. Ion liquid used in the present work critically acts both as an efficient gating medium with wide electrochemical windows and transparent over-cladding facilitating light-matter interaction. Combined study of unique features in gate-variable electrical transport and optical transition at monolayer and randomly stacked multilayer graphene reveals that the device exhibits significant optical transmission change (>90%) with high efficiency-loss figure of merit. This subsequently modifies nonlinear saturable absorption characteristics of the device, enabling electrically tunable fibre laser at various operational regimes. The proposed device will open promising way for actively controlled optoelectronic and nonlinear photonic devices in all-fibre platform with greatly enhanced graphene-light interaction.
Project description:The fibre-optic microwave photonic link has become one of the basic building blocks for microwave photonics. Increasing the optical power at the receiver is the best way to improve all link performance metrics including gain, noise figure and dynamic range. Even though lasers can produce and photodetectors can receive optical powers on the order of a Watt or more, the power-handling capability of optical fibres is orders-of-magnitude lower. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the use of few-mode fibres to bridge this power-handling gap, exploiting their unique features of small acousto-optic effective area, large effective areas of optical modes, as well as orthogonality and walk-off among spatial modes. Using specially designed few-mode fibres, we demonstrate order-of-magnitude improvements in link performances for single-channel and multiplexed transmission. This work represents the first step in few-mode microwave photonics. The spatial degrees of freedom can also offer other functionalities such as large, tunable delays based on modal dispersion and wavelength-independent lossless signal combining, which are indispensable in microwave photonics.