Metastatic colorectal cancer: survival comparison of hepatic resection versus cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Liver resection has long been considered the standard of care for resectable colorectal hepatic metastases (HM). Patients with colorectal peritoneal surface disease (PSD) are now also being treated with aggressive therapy in the form of cytoreductive surgery (CS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).A retrospective comparison of optimally-treated colorectal cancer patients with HM or PSD obtained from prospectively maintained databases (1991-2010).Liver resection was performed on 179 patients with HM, while 93 PSD patients received a complete cytoreduction followed by HIPEC. Patients differed in terms of age, performance status, site of primary cancer, T stage, and the use of perioperative chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival for HM patients was 36 %, with a median survival of 46 months, compared with 26 % and 34 months in patients with PSD (p = 0.024). When stratified by resection status, R0 HM (n = 170) and R0 PSD (n = 48) patients had similar median survival (49 vs. 41 months; p = 0.39). Median survival following R1 resection was also similar among HM (n = 9) and PSD (n = 45) patients (28 vs. 23 months; p = 0.68). Multivariate analysis identified distinctly different independent prognostic factors between HM and PSD patients. Major morbidity was 21 and 23 % (p = 0.88), while mortality was 3.9 versus 5.4 % (p = 0.55) in the HM and PSD patients, respectively.Colorectal HM and PSD are distinct biologic diseases with different presentations and unique prognostic factors. However, long-term survival following CS/HIPEC is comparable to liver resection when stratified by completeness of resection. Furthermore, perioperative morbidity and mortality are similar.
Project description:Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) provide an effective treatment option for selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastasis with encouraging survival results. Many different drug combinations and HIPEC regimens including bidirectional, i.e. synchronous intravenous and intraperitoneal, drug application have been used. However, there is still no standardization of the HIPEC regimen.Between 05/2007 and 04/2010 190 patients underwent CRS and HIPEC at the University Hospital Regensburg. Thirty-two patients with peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal or appendiceal cancer underwent complete macroscopic cytoreduction (CC-0/1) and bidirectional HIPEC and completed at least 3-year follow-up. Twenty patients received oxaliplatin-based (OX) and twelve patients received irinotecan-based HIPEC (IRI). Group-specific perioperative morbidity and 3-year survival has been determined.The grade 3/4 morbidity rate according to CTCAE v4 was 35.0% in the OX group vs. 33.3% in the IRI group (p = 1.000). There was no perioperative mortality in both groups. Median survival was 26.8 months (95% CI 15.7-33.1 months) in the IRI group and has not yet been reached in the OX group during a median follow-up of 39.4 months. Three-year survival rates were 65.0% in the OX group vs. 41.7% in the IRI group (p = 0.295).The morbidity and toxicity rates of bidirectional irinotecan-based and oxaliplatin-based HIPEC are comparable. Nevertheless, in the absence of contraindications oxaliplatin-based HIPEC might be preferred due to the positive trend regarding 3-year and median survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Upfront cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC (CRS-HIPEC) is the standard treatment for isolated resectable colorectal peritoneal metastases (PM) in the Netherlands. This study investigates whether addition of perioperative systemic therapy to CRS-HIPEC improves oncological outcomes. METHODS:This open-label, parallel-group, phase II-III, randomised, superiority study is performed in nine Dutch tertiary referral centres. Eligible patients are adults who have a good performance status, histologically or cytologically proven resectable PM of a colorectal adenocarcinoma, no systemic colorectal metastases, no systemic therapy for colorectal cancer within six months prior to enrolment, and no previous CRS-HIPEC. Eligible patients are randomised (1:1) to perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC (experimental arm) or upfront CRS-HIPEC alone (control arm) by using central randomisation software with minimisation stratified by a peritoneal cancer index of 0-10 or 11-20, metachronous or synchronous PM, previous systemic therapy for colorectal cancer, and HIPEC with oxaliplatin or mitomycin C. At the treating physician's discretion, perioperative systemic therapy consists of either four 3-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of capecitabine with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), six 2-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), or six 2-weekly neoadjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan (FOLFIRI) followed by four 3-weekly (capecitabine) or six 2-weekly (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) adjuvant cycles of fluoropyrimidine monotherapy. Bevacizumab is added to the first three (CAPOX) or four (FOLFOX/FOLFIRI) neoadjuvant cycles. The first 80 patients are enrolled in a phase II study to explore the feasibility of accrual and the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of perioperative systemic therapy. If predefined criteria of feasibility and safety are met, the study continues as a phase III study with 3-year overall survival as primary endpoint. A total of 358 patients is needed to detect the hypothesised 15% increase in 3-year overall survival (control arm 50%; experimental arm 65%). Secondary endpoints are surgical characteristics, major postoperative morbidity, progression-free survival, disease-free survival, health-related quality of life, costs, major systemic therapy related toxicity, and objective radiological and histopathological response rates. DISCUSSION:This is the first randomised study that prospectively compares oncological outcomes of perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC with upfront CRS-HIPEC alone for isolated resectable colorectal PM. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT02758951 , NTR/ NTR6301 , ISRCTN/ ISRCTN15977568 , EudraCT/ 2016-001865-99 .
Project description:PURPOSE: Bilobar colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) are often considered incurable or associated with poor prognosis even after R0 resection. In this single-center study, we evaluate the impact of CRLM spreading on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific overall survival (CSS) after R0 resection of CRLM with respect to multimodal treatment strategies including perioperative chemotherapy and multistep resections. METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2010, R0 resection could be achieved in 70 patients with bilobar and 100 with unilobar CRLM. Extent of disease, perioperative chemotherapy, surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment, histopathological workup, RFS, and CSS were compared between both cohorts. RESULTS: Forty-six (66 %) patients with bilobar and 26 (26 %) patients with unilobar CRLM received preoperative chemotherapy (p?<?0.001). For bilobar CRLM, more extended and multistep resection including portal vein occlusion were performed (29 % versus 3 %; p?<?0.001). Morbidity (39 % versus 28 %, p?=?0.183) and mortality (1 % versus 3 %, p?=?0.644) rates were comparable in both patients' cohorts. Postoperative therapy was applied in adjuvant intent to 42 (60 %) versus 51 (51 %) patients (p?=?0.275). The 5-year RFS and CSS rates were 24 % versus 31 % (p?=?0.169) and 42 % versus 55 % (p?=?0.131), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To our single-center experience, there is no significant effect of CRLM spreading (bilobar versus unilobar) on RFS and CSS rates. Bilobar CRLM are more likely to require extended multimodal efforts to achieve R0 resection.
Project description:More than half of patients with colorectal cancer will develop metastatic disease either evident at the time of initial diagnosis or during their course of disease. Besides multidisciplinary management further treatment intensification is warranted to improve the still limited prognosis.In these two multi-centre, randomized phase II trials, conducted in Germany, 380 patients with R0-resectable colorectal liver metastases (PERIMAX) and with unresectable, metastatic colorectal cancer (CHARTA) will be recruited. Patients previously untreated for metastatic disease with either synchronous or metachronous metastases are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to resection of colorectal liver metastases followed by postoperative FOLFOX for 6 months or perioperative FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab for 3 months pre- and postoperative and resection (PERIMAX), or to induction chemotherapy with FOLFOX and bevacizumab +/- irinotecan for a maximum of 6 months followed by maintenance treatment with fluoropyrimidine and bevacizumab. The primary objective of these trials is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Primary endpoint is failure free survival rate at 18 months in the PERIMAX trial and progression free survival rate at 9 months in CHARTA. Secondary objectives include efficacy, safety and tolerability.The CHARTA and PERIMAX trials are designed to evaluate the benefits and limitations of a highly active four-drug regimen in distinct treatment situations of metastatic CRC. Eligible patients are classified into resectable liver metastases to be randomized to perioperative treatment with FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab or postoperative FOLFOX in the PERIMAX, or unresectable metastatic CRC to be randomized between FOLFOX and bevacizumab with or without irinotecan, stratified for clinical groups according to disease and patients' characteristics in the CHARTA trial.Clinical trial identifier CHARTA: NCT01321957, PERIMAX: NCT01540435.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Synchronous metastatic para-aortic lymph node (mPALN) dissectionin colorectal cancer has relatively good oncological outcomes, though many patients develop recurrence. Universal prognostic factor remain unclear and no definitive perioperative chemotherapy is available, making the treatment of mPALN controversial. In the present study, we aimed to establish a treatment strategy for synchronous mPALN. METHODS:This retrospective study involved 20 patients with pathological mPALN below the renal vein who underwent R0 resection. Long-term outcomes, recurrence type, and prognostic factors for survival were investigated. RESULTS:The 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were 39% and 25%, respectively. Seventeen patients (85%) developed recurrence, including 13 (76%) within 1 year after surgery, and ~ 70% of all recurrences were multiple recurrences. Four patients (20%) survived > 5 years. Pathological T stage (p= 0.011), time to recurrence (p = 0.007), and recurrence resection (p = 0.009) were identified as prognostic factors for long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS:R0 resection of synchronous mPALN in colorectal cancer resulted in acceptable oncological outcomes, though we found a high rate of early unresectable recurrence. If the recurrence occurs late or isolated, surgical resection should be considered for longer survival.
Project description:This study sought to determine the clinical and pathological factors associated with perioperative morbidity, mortality and oncological outcomes after multivisceral en bloc resection in patients with colorectal cancer.Between January 2009 and February 2014, 105 patients with primary colorectal cancer selected for multivisceral resection were identified from a prospective database. Clinical and pathological factors, perioperative morbidity and mortality and outcomes were obtained from medical records. Estimated local recurrence and overall survival were compared using the log-rank method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine the independence of the studied parameters. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02859155.The median age of the patients was 60 (range 23-86) years, 66.7% were female, 80% of tumors were located in the rectum, 11.4% had stage-IV disease, and 54.3% received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The organs most frequently resected were ovaries and annexes (37%). Additionally, 30.5% of patients received abdominoperineal resection. Invasion of other organs was confirmed histologically in 53.5% of patients, and R0 resection was obtained in 72% of patients. The overall morbidity rate of patients in this study was 37.1%. Ureter resection and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with an increased number of complications. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 1.9%. After 27 (range 5-57) months of follow-up, the mortality and local recurrence rates were 23% and 15%, respectively. Positive margins were associated with a higher recurrence rate. Positive margins, lymph node involvement, stage III/IV disease, and stage IV disease alone were associated with lower overall survival rates. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with reduced survival was lymph node involvement.Multivisceral en bloc resection for primary colorectal cancer can be performed with acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality and may lead to favorable oncological outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Careful selection of patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases (PM) for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is crucial. It remains unknown whether the time of onset of colorectal PM (synchronous vs metachronous) influences surgical morbidity and survival outcomes after CRS with HIPEC. METHODS:Patients with histologically proven colorectal PM who underwent CRS with HIPEC between February 2006 and December 2017 in two Dutch tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively included from a prospectively maintained database. The onset of colorectal PM was classified as synchronous (PM diagnosed at the initiational presentation with colorectal cancer) or metachronous (PM diagnosed after initial curative colorectal resection). Major postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between patients with synchronous colorectal PM and those with metachronous colorectal PM using Kaplan-Meier analyses, proportional hazard analyses, and a multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS:The study enrolled 433 patients, of whom 231 (53%) had synchronous colorectal PM and 202 (47%) had metachronous colorectal PM. The major postoperative complication rate and median OS were similar between the patients with synchronous colorectal PM and those with metachronous colorectal PM (26.8% vs 29.7%; p = 0.693 and 34 vs 33 months, respectively; p = 0.819). The median DFS was significantly decreased for the patients with metachronous colorectal PM and those with synchronous colorectal PM (11 vs 15 months; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.26). CONCLUSIONS:Metachronous onset of colorectal PM is associated with early recurrence after CRS with HIPEC compared with synchronous colorectal PM, without a difference in OS or major postoperative complications. Time to onset of colorectal PM should be taken into consideration to optimize patient selection for this major procedure.
Project description:The peritoneum is the second most common site of recurrence in colorectal cancer. Early detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) by imaging is difficult. Patients eventually presenting with clinically apparent PC have a poor prognosis. Median survival is only about five months if untreated and the benefit of palliative systemic chemotherapy is limited. Only a quarter of patients are eligible for curative treatment, consisting of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CR/HIPEC). However, the effectiveness depends highly on the extent of disease and the treatment is associated with a considerable complication rate. These clinical problems underline the need for effective adjuvant therapy in high-risk patients to minimize the risk of outgrowth of peritoneal micro metastases. Adjuvant hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) seems to be suitable for this purpose. Without the need for cytoreductive surgery, adjuvant HIPEC can be performed with a low complication rate and short hospital stay.The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant HIPEC in preventing the development of PC in patients with colon cancer at high risk of peritoneal recurrence. This study will be performed in the nine Dutch HIPEC centres, starting in April 2015. Eligible for inclusion are patients who underwent curative resection for T4 or intra-abdominally perforated cM0 stage colon cancer. After resection of the primary tumour, 176 patients will be randomized to adjuvant HIPEC followed by routine adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in the experimental arm, or to systemic chemotherapy only in the control arm. Adjuvant HIPEC will be performed simultaneously or shortly after the primary resection. Oxaliplatin will be used as chemotherapeutic agent, for 30 min at 42-43 °C. Just before HIPEC, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin will be administered intravenously. Primary endpoint is peritoneal disease-free survival at 18 months. Diagnostic laparoscopy will be performed routinely after 18 months postoperatively in both arms of the study in patients without evidence of disease based on routine follow-up using CT imaging and CEA.Adjuvant HIPEC is assumed to reduce the expected 25 % absolute risk of PC in patients with T4 or perforated colon cancer to a risk of 10 %. This reduction is likely to translate into a prolonged overall survival.NCT02231086 (Clinicaltrials.gov).
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM: Resection of colorectal liver metastases has become a standard of care, although the value of this procedure in non-colorectal non-neuroendocrine (NCRNNE) metastases remains controversial and is still a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to determine the utility of liver resection in the long-term outcome of patients with NCRNNE metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The records of 106 patients who underwent liver resection for NCRNNE metastases in the period 1989 to 2006 at 5 HPB Centers in Argentina were analyzed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, type of resection, long-term outcome and prognostic factors were analyzed. Depending on primary tumor sites, a comparative analysis of survival was performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 54 (17-76). Hepatic metastases were solitary in 62.3% and unilateral in 85.6%. Primary tumor sites: Urogenital (37.7%), sarcomas (21.7%), breast (17.9%), gastrointestinal (6.6%), melanoma (5.7%), and others (10.4%). Fifty-one major hepatectomies and 55 minor resections were performed. Twenty patients underwent synchronous resections. An R0 resection could be achieved in 89.6%. Perioperative mortality was 1.8%. Overall, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 67%, 34%, and 19%, respectively. Survival was significantly longer for metastases of urogenital (p=0.0001) and breast (p=0.003) origin. Curative resections (p=0.04) and metachronous disease (p=0.0001) were predictors of better survival. CONCLUSIONS: Liver resection is an effective treatment for NCRNNE liver metastases; it gives satisfactory long-term survival especially in metachronous disease, in patients with metastases from urogenital and breast tumors and when R0 procedures can be performed.
Project description:Background:The role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) is debated. Melphalan as a perfusion agent has also demonstrated survival benefit in other recurrent and chemoresistant malignancies. Thus, we hypothesize that melphalan as a HIPEC agent may improve overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with PC from CRC. Methods:A retrospective review of a prospective database of 48 patients who underwent optimal CRS (CC-0/1) and HIPEC from 2001-2016 was performed. Nineteen had CRS/HIPEC with melphalan (group I) and 29 with mitomycin-C (group II). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis. Perioperative variables were compared. Results:Mean age at CRS/HIPEC was 53±10 years. Median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 17 vs 13 in groups I and II, respectively (p=0.86). PCI?20 occurred in 9 (47%) and 13 (45%) patients in groups I and II, respectively. Positive lymph nodes were identified in 8/19 (42%) vs 12/29 (41%) in groups I and II, respectively (p=0.73). Multivariate analysis identified PCI?20 as a predictive factor of survival (HR: 7.5). Median OS in groups I and II was 36 and 28 months, respectively (p=0.54). Median PFS in groups I and II was 10 and 20 months, respectively (p=0.05). Conclusions:CRS/HIPEC with MMC had longer median PFS in PC from CRC. PCI?20 was the only independent predictive factor for survival. Until longer follow-up is available, we recommend using MMC in CRS/HIPEC for PC from CRC. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary.