Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings.
ABSTRACT: Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings.
Project description:The present study was carried out to investigate how plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) influence plant growth and uptake of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Rapeseed was subjected to control, B, P and B + P treatments, either with or without B. pumilus (PGPB) inoculation, and grown in pot culture for 6 weeks. In the absence of B. pumilus, the addition of B, P or both elements improved the growth of rapeseed compared with the control. Interestingly, B. pumilus inoculation inhibited plant growth and enhanced B uptake under B and B + P but not under control and P conditions. In addition, B. pumilus inoculation decreased the pH of soil under B and B + P supplies. Bacillus pumilus inoculation thus increased rapeseed B uptake and inhibited growth under B supply, which suggests that the effects of PGPB on rapeseed growth depend on the addition of B to soil. Bacillus pumilus inoculation may therefore be recommended for the enhancement of rapeseed B levels in B-deficient soils but not in B-sufficient ones.
Project description:Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p<0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by AMF, or a combination of both mechanisms.
Project description:Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are soil micro-organisms able to interact with plants and stimulate their growth, positively affecting plant physiology and development. Although ethylene plays a key role in plant growth, little is known about the involvement of ethylene sensitivity in bacterial inoculation effects on plant physiology. Thus, the present study was pursued to establish whether ethylene perception is critical for plant-bacteria interaction and growth induction by two different PGPB strains, and to assess the physiological effects of these strains in juvenile and mature tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants.An experiment was performed with the ethylene-insensitive tomato never ripe and its isogenic wild-type line in which these two strains were inoculated with either Bacillus megaterium or Enterobacter sp. C7. Plants were grown until juvenile and mature stages, when biomass, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis as well as nutritional, hormonal and metabolic statuses were analysed.Bacillus megaterium promoted growth only in mature wild type plants. However, Enterobacter C7 PGPB activity affected both wild-type and never ripe plants. Furthermore, PGPB inoculation affected physiological parameters and root metabolite levels in juvenile plants; meanwhile plant nutrition was highly dependent on ethylene sensitivity and was altered at the mature stage. Bacillus megaterium inoculation improved carbon assimilation in wild-type plants. However, insensitivity to ethylene compromised B. megaterium PGPB activity, affecting photosynthetic efficiency, plant nutrition and the root sugar content. Nevertheless, Enterobacter C7 inoculation modified the root amino acid content in addition to stomatal conductance and plant nutrition.Insensitivity to ethylene severely impaired B. megaterium interaction with tomato plants, resulting in physiological modifications and loss of PGPB activity. In contrast, Enterobacter C7 inoculation stimulated growth independently of ethylene perception and improved nitrogen assimilation in ethylene-insensitive plants. Thus, ethylene sensitivity is a determinant for B. megaterium , but is not involved in Enterobacter C7 PGPB activity.
Project description:Direct revegetation, or phytostabilization, is a containment strategy for contaminant metals associated with mine tailings in semiarid regions. The weathering of sulfide ore-derived tailings frequently drives acidification that inhibits plant establishment resulting in materials prone to wind and water dispersal. The specific objective of this study was to associate pyritic mine waste acidification, characterized through pore-water chemistry analysis, with dynamic changes in microbial community diversity and phylogenetic composition, and to evaluate the influence of different treatment strategies on the control of acidification dynamics. Samples were collected from a highly instrumented one-year mesocosm study that included the following treatments: 1) unamended tailings control; 2) tailings amended with 15% compost; and 3) the 15% compost-amended tailings planted with Atriplex lentiformis. Tailings samples were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 12months and pore water chemistry was monitored as an indicator of acidification and weathering processes. Results confirmed that the acidification process for pyritic mine tailings is associated with a temporal progression of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes from pH sensitive Thiobacillus and Thiomonas to communities dominated by Leptospirillum and Ferroplasma. Pore-water chemistry indicated that weathering rates were highest when Leptospirillum was most abundant. The planted treatment was most successful in disrupting the successional evolution of the Fe/S-oxidizing community. Plant establishment stimulated growth of plant-growth-promoting heterotrophic phylotypes and controlled the proliferation of lithoautotrophic Fe/S-oxidizers. The results suggest the potential for eco-engineering a microbial inoculum to stimulate plant establishment and inhibit proliferation of the most efficient Fe/S-oxidizing phylotypes.
Project description:Phytostabilized highly acidic, pyritic mine tailings are susceptible to re-acidification over time despite initial addition of neutralizing amendments. Studies examining plant-associated microbial dynamics during re-acidification of phytostabilized regions are sparse. To address this, we characterized the rhizosphere and bulk bacterial communities of buffalo grass used in the phytostabilization of metalliferous, pyritic mine tailings undergoing re-acidification at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Dewey-Humboldt, AZ. Plant-associated substrates representing a broad pH range (2.35-7.76) were sampled to (1) compare the microbial diversity and community composition of rhizosphere and bulk compartments across a pH gradient, and (2) characterize how re-acidification affects the abundance and activity of the most abundant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; including N2-fixing) versus acid-generating bacteria (AGB; including Fe-cycling/S-oxidizing). Results indicated that a shift in microbial diversity and community composition occurred at around pH 4. At higher pH (>4) the species richness and community composition of the rhizosphere and bulk compartments were similar, and PGPB, such as Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Devosia, Phyllobacterium, Sinorhizobium, and Hyphomicrobium, were present and active in both compartments with minimal presence of AGB. In comparison, at lower pH (<4) the rhizosphere had a significantly higher number of species than the bulk (p < 0.05) and the compartments had significantly different community composition (unweighted UniFrac; PERMANOVA, p < 0.05). Whereas some PGPB persisted in the rhizosphere at lower pH, including Arthrobacter and Devosia, they were absent from the bulk. Meanwhile, AGB dominated in both compartments; the most abundant were the Fe-oxidizer Leptospirillum and Fe-reducers Acidibacter and Acidiphilium, and the most active was the Fe-reducer Aciditerrimonas. This predominance of AGB at lower pH, and even their minimal presence at higher pH, contributes to acidifying conditions and poses a significant threat to sustainable plant establishment. These findings have implications for phytostabilization field site management and suggest re-application of compost or an alternate buffering material may be required in regions susceptible to re-acidification to maintain a beneficial bacterial community conducive to long-term plant establishment.
Project description:In the context of a phytorestoration project, the purpose of this study was to assess the respective contribution to the nutritional status of Picea glauca seedlings of ectomycorrhizae and rhizobacteria native or not to the Sigma-Lamaque gold mine wastes in northern Quebec, Canada. In a glasshouse experiment, inoculated plants were grown for 32 weeks on coarse waste rocks or fine tailings obtained from the mining site. The survival, health, growth, and nutritional status of plants were better on coarse waste rocks than on fine tailings. Fe and Ca were especially found at high levels in plant tissues but at much lower concentrations on waste rocks. Interestingly, inoculation of microsymbionts had only minimal effects on N, P, K, and Mg plant status that were indeed close or within the concentration range encountered in healthy seedlings. However, both fungal and bacterial treatments improved Fe and Ca concentrations in plant tissues. Fe concentration in the foliage of plants inoculated with the fungi Tricholoma scalpturatum Tri. scalp. MBN0213 GenBank #KC840613 and Cadophora finlandia Cad. fin. MBN0213 GenBank #KC840625 was reduced by >50%. Both fungi were isolated from the mining site. The rhizobacteria, Azotobacter chroococcum, also improved plant Fe level in some cases. Regarding Ca nutritional status, the native bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida MBN0213 GenBank #AY391278 was the only symbiont that reduced foliar content by up to 23%. Ca concentration was negatively correlated with the fungal mycorrhization rate of seedling roots. This relation was especially strong (r = -0.66, p-value ? 0.0001) in the case of C. finlandia. Also, a similar relationship existed with root Fe concentration (r = -0.44, p-value ? 0.0001). In fact, results showed that seedling performance was more correlated with elevated Ca and Fe concentration in planta than with nutrient deficiency. Also, native microsymbionts were capable of regulating seedling nutrition in the poor substrate of the Sigma-Lamaque gold mine tailings.
Project description:Possitive effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculation on plant growth and development are dependent on interaction between bacterial strains and plant roots, which are usually the bacterial niche. Furthermore, phytohormones are key regulators of plant physiology. Ethylene is essential in plant growth and development and in response to drought. Plant sensibility to ethylene is involved in plant response to PGPB strain inoculation and plant growth promotion. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlying plant interaction with two different PGPB strains (isolated from arid soils in southern Spain) regarding to plant sentitivity to ethylene by tomato ethylene receptor 3 (SlETR3). Overall design: Ethylene-insensitive never ripe and its isogenic wild-type cv. Pearson lines were inoculated with either Bacillus megaterium or Enterobacter sp. C7 and grown until mature stage (eight weeks post-inoculation) under well-watered and drought conditions. The present study pursued to assess the bacterial effects on gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Root tissue samples inoculated or not with a bacterial strain were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. To that end, we selected three samples per treatment according to plant sensitivity to ethylene, watering regime and inoculated bacteria: wild type cv Pearson (WT) and never ripe (NR) plants under well-watered and drought (D) conditions non-inoculated (NO, controls), or inoculated either with Bacillus megaterium (BM), or Enterobacter C7 (C7).
Project description:Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.
Project description:Plant establishment during phytostabilization of legacy mine tailings in semiarid regions is challenging due to low pH, low organic carbon, low nutrients, and high toxic metal(loid) concentrations. Plant-associated bacterial communities are particularly important under these harsh conditions because of their beneficial services to plants. We hypothesize that bacterial colonization profiles on rhizoplane surfaces reflect deterministic processes that are governed by plant health and the root environment. The aim of this study was to identify associations between bacterial colonization patterns on buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) rhizoplanes and both plant status (leaf chlorophyll and plant cover) and substrate biogeochemistry (pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and rhizosphere microbial community). Buffalo grass plants from mesocosm- and field-scale phytostabilization trials conducted with tailings from the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, were analyzed. These tailings are extremely acidic and have arsenic and lead concentrations of 2-4 g kg-1 substrate. Bacterial communities on rhizoplanes and in rhizosphere-associated substrate were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results indicated that the metabolic status of rhizoplane bacterial colonizers is significantly related to plant health. Principal component analysis revealed that root-surface Alphaproteobacteria relative abundance was associated most strongly with substrate pH and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance associated strongly with substrate pH and plant cover. These factors also affected the phylogenetic profiles of the associated rhizosphere communities. In summary, rhizoplane bacterial colonization patterns are plant specific and influenced by plant status and rhizosphere biogeochemical conditions.
Project description:Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with PGPR, namely, B. pumilus S1r1, K. pneumoniae Fr1, B. subtilis UPMB10 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 at D65 harvest. This study provides evidence that PGPR inoculation, namely, B. pumilus S1r1 can biologically fix atmospheric N2 and provide an alternative technique, besides plant breeding, to delay N remobilisation in maize plant for higher ear yield (up to 30.9%) with reduced fertiliser-N input.