Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is caused by IFIH1 mutations.
ABSTRACT: Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare, genetically determined early-onset progressive encephalopathy. To date, mutations in six genes have been identified as etiologic for AGS. Our Japanese nationwide AGS survey identified six AGS-affected individuals without a molecular diagnosis; we performed whole-exome sequencing on three of these individuals. After removal of the common polymorphisms found in SNP databases, we were able to identify IFIH1 heterozygous missense mutations in all three. In vitro functional analysis revealed that IFIH1 mutations increased type I interferon production, and the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes were elevated. IFIH1 encodes MDA5, and mutant MDA5 lacked ligand-specific responsiveness, similarly to the dominant Ifih1 mutation responsible for the SLE mouse model that results in type I interferon overproduction. This study suggests that the IFIH1 mutations are responsible for the AGS phenotype due to an excessive production of type I interferon.
Project description:Cutaneous lesions described as chilblain lupus occur in the context of familial chilblain lupus or Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. To date, seven genes related to Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have been described. The most recently described encodes the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor IFIH1 (also known as MDA5), a key component of the antiviral type I interferon-mediated innate immune response. Enhanced type I interferon signalling secondary to gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 can result in a range of neuroinflammatory phenotypes including classical Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. It is of note that none of the patients with a neurological phenotype so far described with mutations in this gene was reported to demonstrate cutaneous involvement. We present a family segregating a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in IFIH1 showing dermatological involvement as a prominent feature, variably associated with neurological disturbance and premature tooth loss. All three affected individuals exhibited increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes in whole blood, and the mutant protein resulted in enhanced interferon signalling in vitro, both in the basal state and following ligand stimulation. Our results further extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in IFIH1, indicating that the disease can be confined predominantly to the skin, while also highlighting phenotypic overlap with both Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and Singleton-Merten syndrome.
Project description:While pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially life threatening complication of many inflammatory conditions, an association between Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS), a rare genetic cause of interferon (IFN) overproduction, and the development of PH has not been characterized to date. We analyzed the cardiac function of individuals with AGS enrolled in the Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Project using retrospective chart review (n?=?61). Additional prospective echocardiograms were obtained when possible (n?=?22). An IFN signature score, a marker of systemic inflammation, was calculated through the measurement of mRNA transcripts of type I IFN-inducible genes (interferon signaling genes or ISG). Pathologic analysis was performed as available from autopsy samples. Within our cohort, four individuals were identified to be affected by PH: three with pathogenic gain-of-function mutations in the IFIH1 gene and one with heterozygous TREX1 mutations. All studied individuals with AGS were noted to have elevated IFN signature scores (Mann-Whitney p?<?.001), with the highest levels in individuals with IFIH1 mutations (Mann-Whitney p?<?.0001). We present clinical and histologic evidence of PH in a series of four individuals with AGS, a rare interferonopathy. Importantly, IFIH1 and TREX1 may represent a novel cause of PH. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance of screening all individuals with AGS for PH.
Project description:Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a genetically determined early onset encephalopathy characterized by cerebral calcification, leukodystrophy, and increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Up to now, seven genes (TREX1, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, RNASEH2A, ADAR1, SAMHD1, IFIH1) have been associated with an AGS phenotype. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was performed on 51 AGS patients and interferon signature (IS) was investigated in 18 AGS patients and 31 healthy controls. NGS identified mutations in 48 of 51 subjects, with three patients demonstrating a typical AGS phenotype but not carrying mutations in known AGS-related genes. Five mutations, in RNASEH2B, SAMHD1 and IFIH1 gene, were not previously reported. Eleven patients were positive and seven negatives for the upregulation of interferon signaling (IS > 2.216). This work presents, for the first time, the genetic data of an Italian cohort of AGS patients, with a higher percentage of mutations in RNASEH2B and a lower frequency of mutations in TREX1 than those seen in international series. RNASEH2B mutated patients showed a prevalence of negative IS consistent with data reported in the literature. We also identified five novel pathogenic mutations that warrant further functional investigation. Exome/genome sequencing will be performed in future studies in patients without a mutation in AGS-related genes.
Project description:Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, cerebral calcification, and variable manifestations of autoimmunity. Seven subtypes of AGS have been defined and aberrant activation of the type I interferon system is a common theme among these conditions. We describe a 13-year-old boy who presented with an unusual constellation of psoriasis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension in addition to cerebral calcifications and glomerulonephritis. He was found to have late-onset AGS due to a gain-of-function mutation in IFIH1 and over-activation of the type I interferon pathway was confirmed by RNA sequencing. The majority of his clinical manifestations, including ILD, psoriasis and renal disease improved markedly after treatment with the combination of corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and the Janus-kinase inhibitor tofacitinib. This case extends the clinical spectrum of AGS and suggests the need for lung disease screening in patients with AGS.
Project description:Aicardi Goutières syndrome is a monogenic interferonopathy caused by abnormalities in the intracellular nucleic acid sensing machinery (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1, or IFIH1). Most individuals affected by Aicardi Goutières syndrome exhibit some degree of neurologic impairment, from spastic paraparesis with relatively preserved cognition to tetraparesis and severe intellectual disability. Because of this heterogeneity, it is important to fully characterize the developmental trajectory in Aicardi Goutières syndrome. To characterize the clinical presentation in Aicardi Goutières syndrome, early features were collected from an international cohort of children (n = 100) with genetically confirmed Aicardi Goutières syndrome. There was a heterogeneous age of onset, with overlapping clusters of presenting symptoms: altered mental status, systemic inflammatory symptoms, and acute neurologic disability. Next, we created genotype-specific developmental milestone acquisition curves. Individuals with microcephaly or TREX1-related Aicardi Goutières syndrome secondary were the most severely affected and less likely to reach milestones, including head control, sitting, and nonspecific mama/dada. Individuals affected by SAMHD1, IFIH1, and ADAR attained the most advanced milestones, with 44% achieving verbal communication and 31% independently ambulating. Retrospective function scales (Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System, and Communication Function Classification System) demonstrated that two-thirds of the Aicardi Goutières syndrome population are severely affected. Our results suggest multifactorial influences on developmental trajectory, including a strong contribution from genotype. Further studies are needed to identify the additional factors that influence overall outcomes to better counsel families and to design clinical trials with appropriate clinical endpoints.
Project description:Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare disorder with in utero or postnatal onset of encephalopathy and progressive neurological deterioration. The seven genetic subtypes of AGS are associated with abnormal type I interferon-mediated innate immune response. Most patients with AGS present with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and cognitive impairment. Some, especially those with type 2 (AGS2), manifest milder phenotypes, reduced childhood mortality, and relative preservation of physical and cognitive abilities. In this report, we describe two siblings (sister and brother) diagnosed with AGS2 in their second decade, who exhibited static encephalopathy since 1 year of age with spastic quadriplegia and anarthria but preserved intellect. Both were homozygous for the common pathogenic RNASEH2B allele (c.529G>A, p.Ala177Thr). Rather than manifesting calcifications and leukoencephalopathy, both had increased iron signal in the basal ganglia. Our report broadens the clinical and imaging spectrum of AGS2 and emphasizes the importance of including AGS2 in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic spastic cerebral palsy. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:We identified two siblings (sister and brother) with atypical Aicardi-Goutières syndrome type 2 due to RNASEH2B mutation. Manifestations included spastic quadriplegia and anarthria but preserved intellect and increased iron signal in the basal ganglia. RNASEH2B-related Aicardi-Goutières syndrome type 2 can have present with a variable phenotype, including idiopathic spastic cerebral palsy.
Project description:Singleton-Merten syndrome (SMS) is an infrequently described autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by early and extreme aortic and valvular calcification, dental anomalies (early-onset periodontitis and root resorption), osteopenia, and acro-osteolysis. To determine the molecular etiology of this disease, we performed whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing. We identified a common missense mutation, c.2465G>A (p.Arg822Gln), in interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1, encoding melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 [MDA5]) in four SMS subjects from two families and a simplex case. IFIH1 has been linked to a number of autoimmune disorders, including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the localization of MDA5 in all affected target tissues. In vitro functional analysis revealed that the IFIH1 c.2465G>A mutation enhanced MDA5 function in interferon beta induction. Interferon signature genes were upregulated in SMS individuals' blood and dental cells. Our data identify a gain-of-function IFIH1 mutation as causing SMS and leading to early arterial calcification and dental inflammation and resorption.
Project description:The type I interferon system is integral to human antiviral immunity. However, inappropriate stimulation or defective negative regulation of this system can lead to inflammatory disease. We sought to determine the molecular basis of genetically uncharacterized cases of the type I interferonopathy Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and of other undefined neurological and immunological phenotypes also demonstrating an upregulated type I interferon response. We found that heterozygous mutations in the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor gene IFIH1 (also called MDA5) cause a spectrum of neuroimmunological features consistently associated with an enhanced interferon state. Cellular and biochemical assays indicate that these mutations confer gain of function such that mutant IFIH1 binds RNA more avidly, leading to increased baseline and ligand-induced interferon signaling. Our results demonstrate that aberrant sensing of nucleic acids can cause immune upregulation.
Project description:In 1973, Singleton and Merten described a new syndrome in 2 female probands with aortic and cardiac valve calcifications, early loss of secondary dentition, and widened medullary cavities of the phalanges. In 1984, Aicardi and Goutières defined a phenotype resembling congenital viral infection with basal ganglia calcification and increased protein content in the cerebrospinal fluid. Between 2006 and 2012, mutations in 6 different genes were described to be associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, specifically-TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, ADAR, and SAMHD1. More recently, mutations in IFIH1 were reported in a variety of neuroimmunological phenotypes, including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, while a specific Arg822Gln mutation in IFIH1 was described in 3 discrete families with Singleton-Merten syndrome (SMS). IFIH1 encodes for melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), and all mutations identified to date have been associated with an enhanced interferon response in affected individuals. In this study, we present a male child demonstrating recurrent febrile episodes, spasticity, and basal ganglia calcification suggestive of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, who carries the same Arg822Gln mutation in IFIH1 previously associated with SMS. We conclude that both diseases are part of the interferonopathy grouping and that the Arg822Gln mutation in IFIH1 can cause a spectrum of disease, including neurological involvement.
Project description:Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response.