Protective actions of administered mesenchymal stem cells in acute kidney injury: relevance to clinical trials.
ABSTRACT: Current therapies for acute kidney injury remain primarily supportive and have failed to reduce morbidity, mortality (>50%), and associated costs. This prompted our studies in which rats with bilateral ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury were treated with bone marrow-derived, culture-expanded allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells. Their administration into the suprarenal aorta after reflow significantly protected renal function and hastened repair, mediated by complex antiapoptotic, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immune modulating actions that were not elicited by isogeneic fibroblasts. Infused mesenchymal stem cells, recruited to renal sites of injury, did not significantly differentiate into target cells but rather disappeared from kidneys and other organs within 72?h. Furthermore, at 3 months, compared with vehicle-treated controls, renal function was well preserved and interstitial fibrosis was absent. These preclinical data served as the scientific basis for a recently completed Phase I Clinical Trial (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; # NCT00733876), in which patients at high risk for cardiac surgery-associated AKI were treated with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells. Until now, MSC therapy in the study subjects has been safe, and none of the patients has developed postoperative AKI or subsequent loss of renal function, suggesting that this novel form of therapy may have promise in this group of high-risk patients, which will be further investigated in a Phase II Trial.
Project description:Objective: To investigate predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) following open aortic repair (OAR) requiring suprarenal clamping. Methods: The study included 833 nonhemodialysis patients who had undergone elective OAR (with suprarenal clamping, n=73; with infrarenal clamping, n=760). We evaluated AKI as defined by the criteria of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and compared in-hospital outcomes between the two groups. We also investigated the effects of AKI on outcomes, factors related to post-suprarenal clamping AKI, and efficacy of hypothermic renal perfusion (HRP) in the suprarenal clamping group. Results: For the suprarenal vs. infrarenal clamping group, in-hospital mortality was 0% (0/73) vs. 0.5% (4/760). The incidence of AKI was greater in the suprarenal clamping group (37% vs. 15%, P<0.001), and the hospital stay for patients with AKI was longer than for those patients without AKI (median, 21 days vs. 16 days; P=0.005). Renal ischemia time and bleeding volume >1,000?mL were associated with post-suprarenal clamping AKI. Renal ischemia time was longer with HRP (n=15) than without HRP (n=58) (median, 51?min vs. 33?min; P=0.011), and HRP did not decrease the incidence of AKI (40% vs. 36%; P=0.78). Conclusion: Prolonged renal ischemia and substantial intraoperative bleeding are associated with postoperative AKI following suprarenal clamping.
Project description:A complex biologic network regulates kidney perfusion under physiologic conditions. This system is profoundly perturbed following renal ischemia, a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) - a life-threatening condition that frequently complicates the care of hospitalized patients. Therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat AKI are extremely limited. Better understanding of the molecular pathways promoting postischemic reflow could provide new candidate targets for AKI therapeutics. Due to its role in adapting tissues to hypoxia, we hypothesized that extracellular adenosine has a regulatory function in the postischemic control of renal perfusion. Consistent with the notion that equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) terminate adenosine signaling, we observed that pharmacologic ENT inhibition in mice elevated renal adenosine levels and dampened AKI. Deletion of the ENTs resulted in selective protection in Ent1-/- mice. Comprehensive examination of adenosine receptor-knockout mice exposed to AKI demonstrated that renal protection by ENT inhibitors involves the A2B adenosine receptor. Indeed, crosstalk between renal Ent1 and Adora2b expressed on vascular endothelia effectively prevented a postischemic no-reflow phenomenon. These studies identify ENT1 and adenosine receptors as key to the process of reestablishing renal perfusion following ischemic AKI. If translatable from mice to humans, these data have important therapeutic implications.
Project description:: The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in kidney injury repair has been studied widely. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We profiled the altered microRNAs in renal tissues from cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) rats treated with or without rat bone marrow MSCs (rMSCs). We observed that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) expression was considerably upregulated in renal tissues from AKI rats compared with that in healthy rats, and the expression decreased following MSC treatment after cisplatin administration. At the early stage of AKI, serum miR-146b levels exhibited a rapid increase that was even faster than that of two conventional renal function indexes: serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Furthermore, the serum miR-146b levels in AKI patients were higher than those in healthy people. In vitro exposure to cisplatin also increased miR-146b expression in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). miR-146b knockdown protected renal TECs from cisplatin-induced apoptosis and promoted their proliferation. Moreover, ErbB4 was identified as a direct target of miR-146b, and miR-146b inhibition induced ErbB4 expression, resulting in enhanced proliferation of injured renal TECs. In addition, restoration by rMSCs could be controlled through ErbB4 downregulation. In conclusion, elevated miR-146b expression contributes to cisplatin-induced AKI, partly through ErbB4 downregulation. miR-146b might be an early biomarker for AKI, and miR-146b inhibition could be a novel strategy for AKI treatment.The present study found that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) might be a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury and an indicator for its recovery after treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results showed that in acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin, miR-146b in serum increased more quickly than did the usual indexes of kidney injury and decreased with restoration of MSCs. In addition, inhibition of miR-146b could ameliorate the apoptosis induced by cisplatin and potentially improve the proliferation by freeing ErbB4 and its downstream proteins.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells are currently considered as a promising tool for therapeutic application in acute kidney injury (AKI) management. AKI is characterized by acute tubular injury with rapid loss of renal function. After AKI, inflammation, oxidative stress and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix are the molecular events that ultimately cause the end-stage renal disease. Despite numerous improvement of supportive therapy, the mortality and morbidity among patients remain high. Therefore, exploring novel therapeutic options to treat AKI is mandatory. Numerous evidence in animal models has demonstrated the capability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to restore kidney function after induced kidney injury. After infusion, MSCs engraft in the injured tissue and release soluble factors and microvesicles that promote cell survival and tissue repairing. Indeed, the main mechanism of action of MSCs in tissue regeneration is the paracrine/endocrine secretion of bioactive molecules. MSCs can be isolated from several tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood cord; pre-treatment procedures to improve MSCs homing and their paracrine function have been also described. This review will focus on the application of cell therapy in AKI and it will summarize preclinical studies in animal models and clinical trials currently ongoing about the use of mesenchymal stem cells after AKI.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: So far, no effective therapy is available for acute kidney injury (AKI), a common and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Interest has recently been focused on the potential therapeutic effect of mouse adult renal progenitor cells (MRPC), erythropoietin (EPO) and suramin in the recovery of ischemia-induced AKI. The aim of the present study is to compare MRPC with MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin concomitantly in the treatment of a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI. METHODS: MRPC were isolated from adult C57BL/6-gfp mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (eight-weeks old, n = 72) were used for the I/R AKI model. Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and renal histology were detected in MRPC-, MRPC/EPO-, MRPC/suramin- and PBS-treated I/R AKI mice. E-cadherin, CD34 and GFP protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemical assay. RESULTS: MRPC exhibited characteristics consistent with renal stem cells. The features of MRPC were manifested by Pax-2, Oct-4, vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin positive, and E-cadherin negative, distinguished from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by expression of CD34 and Sca-1. The plasticity of MRPC was shown by the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and lipocytes in vitro. Injection of MRPC, especially MRPC/EPO and MRPC/suramin in I/R AKI mice attenuated renal damage with a decrease of the necrotic injury, peak plasma Cr and BUN. Furthermore, seven days after the injury, MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin formed more CD34(+) and E-cadherin+ cells than MRPC alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MRPC, in particular MRPC/EPO or MRPC/suramin, promote renal repair after injury and may be a promising therapeutic strategy.
Project description:Introduction:The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) involves damage to renal epithelial cells, podocytes, and vascular beds that manifests into a deranged, self-perpetuating immune response and peripheral organ dysfunction. Such an injury pattern requires a multifaceted therapeutic to alter the wound healing response systemically. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a unique source of secreted factors that can modulate an inflammatory response to acute organ injury and enhance the repair of injured tissue at the parenchymal and endothelial levels. This phase Ib/IIa clinical trial evaluates SBI-101, a combination product that administers MSCs extracorporeally to overcome pharmacokinetic barriers of MSC transplantation. SBI-101 contains allogeneic human MSCs inoculated into a hollow-fiber hemofilter for the treatment of patients with severe AKI who are receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). SBI-101 therapy is designed to reprogram the molecular and cellular components of blood in patients with severe organ injury. Methods:This study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, study of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AKI who are receiving CRRT. Up to 32 subjects may be enrolled to provide 24 evaluable subjects (as a per protocol population). Subjects will receive CRRT in tandem with a sham control (0 MSCs), or the low- (250 × 106 MSCs) or high-dose (750 × 106 MSCs) SBI-101 therapeutic. Results:The study will measure dose-dependent safety, renal efficacy, and exploratory biomarkers to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SBI-101 in treated subjects. Conclusion:This first-in-human clinical trial will evaluate the safety and tolerability of SBI-101 in patients with AKI who require CRRT.
Project description:Clinically, acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with a cumulative risk of developing end-stage renal disease. In this study, we asked whether the severity of AKI induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is more prominent in DM than in non-DM control using a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model. We also investigated whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) infused via the renal artery could ameliorate renal IRI in DM monkeys. The experimental data, including mortality rate, histologic findings, and urinary albumin secretion indicate that the severity of AKI was greater in DM monkeys than in control animals. Moreover, histological findings and qRT-PCR analysis of Ngal mRNA in renal biopsy tissue showed that hBM-MSC promoted the recovery of tubular damage caused by AKI. Serum analysis also revealed that the level of albumin and ALT was increased 24 and 48 hours after AKI, respectively, suggesting that AKI induced acute liver injury. We suggest that this nonhuman primate model could provide essential information about the renal and nonrenal impairment related to DM and help determine the clinical usefulness of MSCs in AKI.
Project description:Damage to endothelial cells contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) by causing impaired perfusion, while the permanent loss of the capillary network following AKI has been suggested to promote chronic kidney disease. Therefore, strategies to protect renal vasculature may impact both short-term recovery and long-term functional preservation post-AKI. Human adipose stromal cells (hASCs) possess pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore have been tested as a therapeutic agent to treat ischaemic conditions. This study evaluated hASC potential to facilitate recovery from AKI with specific attention to capillary preservation and inflammation. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ischaemia/reperfusion and allowed to recover for either two or seven days. At the time of reperfusion, hASCs or vehicle was injected into the suprarenal abdominal aorta. hASC-treated rats had significantly greater survival compared to vehicle-treated rats (88.7% versus 69.3%). hASC treatment showed hastened recovery as demonstrated by lower creatinine levels at 48 hrs, while tubular damage was significantly reduced at 48 hrs. hASC treatment resulted in a significant decrease in total T cell and Th17 cell infiltration into injured kidneys at 2 days post-AKI, but an increase in accumulation of regulatory T cells. By day 7, hASC-treated rats showed significantly attenuated capillary rarefaction in the cortex (15% versus 5%) and outer medulla (36% versus 18%) compared to vehicle-treated rats as well as reduced accumulation of interstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts. These results suggest for the first time that hASCs improve recovery from I/R-induced injury by mechanisms that contribute to decrease in inflammation and preservation of peritubular capillaries.
Project description:Aims:To investigate whether bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) have ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) via tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) and how TSG-6 exerted this effect. Methods:We used lentiviral vectors of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting TSG-6 gene to silence TSG-6 in BMSC. And TSG-6-silenced BMSC were administrated into IRI-AKI rats. Then we analyzed serum creatinine (Scr) and renal histology of IRI-AKI rats treated with BMSC after different pretreatments. Furthermore, we explored the effect of TSG-6 on renal tubular epithelial cells proliferation in vivo and in vitro assays. Results:The Scr levels of IRI-AKI rats treated with BMSC (73.5±7.8 μmol/L) significantly decreased compared to those of IRI-AKI rats treated without BMSC (392.5±24.8 μmol/L, P<0.05) or with DMEM (314.0±19.8 μmol/L, P<0.05). Meanwhile, the renal tissue injury in IRI-AKI rats treated with BMSC improved markedly. However, the Scr levels of IRI-AKI rats treated with TSG-6-silenced BMSC (265.1±21.2 μmol/L) significantly increased compared to those with BMSC (74.0±8.5 μmol/L, P<0.05). The proportion of Ki67-positive cells was reduced in IRI-AKI rats treated with TSG-6-silenced BMSC compared to that in IRI-AKI rats treated with BMSC (29.7±0.8% versus 43.4±3.0%, P<0.05). In vitro, the cell proliferation rate of TSG-6-stimulated NRK-52E cells under hypoxia (89.2±3.9%) increased significantly compared to that of NRK-52E cells alone under hypoxia (82.4±0.8%, P<0.05). Similarly, the proportion of Ki67-positive cells was significantly elevated in TSG-6-stimulated NRK-52E cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, TSG-6 could inhibit infiltration of neutrophils in kidney tissue of IRI-AKI. Conclusions:TSG-6 plays a key role in the treatment of IRI-AKI with BMSC, which may be due to its effect on promoting renal tubular epithelial cells proliferation by modulating inflammation.
Project description:PTBA has been published to increase renal tubular cell proliferation, increased survival, and increased renal functional recovery in fish and various models of murine models of acute kidney injury. Immunohistological analyses suggested increased cell proliferation is accompanied by increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the RTECs. In order to elucidate pathways responsible for the increased repair response after compound treatment, larval zebrafish were given AKI and treated with PTBA analogue, UPHD25 or DMSO. Results suggests that epithelial-related genes were downregulated while mesenchymal-related genes were upregulated with injury and compound treatment. Results further validate our immunohistological finding that our compound increase post-AKI repair by increasing EMT in renal tubular cells. Overall design: At 3dpf, larval zebrafish are given acute kidney injury with gentamicin microinjection. 2 days post injury, larvae with AKI are selected and treated with 1uM of PTBA analogue, UPHD25 or vehicle control, 1% DMSO. The fish were treated with UPHD25 or DMSO for 24 hours. Then, pronephric kidneys were collected using DDT, collagenase I, and manual collection. Total 100 larvae were collected per sample, per replicate. Each treatment group was repeated with 3 biological replicates. RNA was collected and sequenced.