No evidence for copy number and methylation variation in H19 and KCNQ10T1 imprinting control regions in children born small for gestational age.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a substantial genetic component for birthweight variation, and although there are known associations between fetal genotype and birthweight, the role of common epigenetic variation in influencing the risk for small for gestational age (SGA) is unknown. The two imprinting control regions (ICRs) located on chromosome 11p15.5, involved in the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and the growth restriction disorder Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), are prime epigenetic candidates for regulating fetal growth. We investigated whether common variation in copy number in the BWS/SRS 11p15 region or altered methylation levels at IGF2/H19 ICR or KCNQ10T1 ICR was associated with SGA. METHODS: We used a methylation-specific multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification assay to analyse copy number variation in the 11p15 region and methylation of IGF2/H19 and KCNQ10T1 ICRs in blood samples from 153 children (including 80 SGA), as well as bisulfite pyrosequencing to measure methylation at IGF2 differentially methylated region (DMR)0 and H19 DMR. RESULTS: No copy number variants were detected in the analyzed cohort. Children born SGA had 2.7% lower methylation at the IGF2 DMR0. No methylation differences were detected at the H19 or KCNQ10T1 DMRs. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that a small hypomethylation of the IGF2 DMR0 is detected in peripheral blood leucocytes of children born SGA at term. Copy number variation within the 11p15 BWS/SRS region is not an important cause of non-syndromic SGA at term.
Project description:Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are associated with many imprinted genes. In mice methylation at a DMR upstream of the H19 gene known as the Imprint Control region (IC1) is acquired in the male germline and influences the methylation status of DMRs 100 kb away in the adjacent Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene through long-range interactions. In humans, germline-derived or post-zygotically acquired imprinting defects at IC1 are associated with aberrant activation or repression of IGF2, resulting in the congenital growth disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Silver-Russell (SRS) syndromes, respectively. In Wilms tumour and colorectal cancer, biallelic expression of IGF2 has been observed in association with loss of methylation at a DMR in IGF2. This DMR, known as DMR0, has been shown to be methylated on the silent maternal IGF2 allele presumably with a role in repression. The effect of IGF2 DMR0 methylation changes in the aetiology of BWS or SRS is unknown.We analysed the methylation status of the DMR0 in BWS, SRS and Wilms tumour patients by conventional bisulphite sequencing and pyrosequencing. We show here that, contrary to previous reports, the IGF2 DMR0 is actually methylated on the active paternal allele in peripheral blood and kidney. This is similar to the IC1 methylation status and is inconsistent with the proposed silencing function of the maternal IGF2 allele. Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell patients with IC1 methylation defects have similar methylation defects at the IGF2 DMR0, consistent with IC1 regulating methylation at IGF2 in cis. In Wilms tumour, however, methylation profiles of IC1 and IGF2 DMR0 are indicative of methylation changes occurring on both parental alleles rather than in cis.These results support a model in which DMR0 and IC1 have opposite susceptibilities to global hyper and hypomethylation during tumorigenesis independent of the parent of origin imprint. In contrast, during embryogenesis DMR0 is methylated or demethylated according to the germline methylation imprint at the IC1, indicating different mechanisms of imprinting loss in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells.
Project description:Background:Loss of paternal methylation (LOM) of the H19/IGF2 intergenic differentially methylated region (H19/IGF2:IG-DMR) causes alteration of H19/IGF2 imprinting and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Recently, internal deletions of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR have been associated with LOM and SRS when present on the paternal chromosome. In contrast, previously described deletions, most of which cause gain of methylation (GOM) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) on maternal transmission, were consistently associated with normal methylation and phenotype if paternally inherited. Presentation of the hypothesis:The presence of several target sites (ZTSs) and three demonstrated binding regions (BRs) for the imprinting factor ZFP57 in the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR suggest the involvement of this factor in the maintenance of methylation of this locus. By comparing the extension of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR deletions with the binding profile of ZFP57, we propose that the effect of the deletions on DNA methylation and clinical phenotype is dependent on their interference with ZFP57 binding. Indeed, deletions strongly affecting a ZFP57 BR result in LOM and SRS, while deletions preserving a significant number of ZFPs in each BR do not alter methylation and are associated with normal phenotype. Testing the hypothesis:The generation of transgenic mouse lines in which the endogenous H19/IGF2:IG-DMR is replaced by the human orthologous locus including the three ZFP57 BRs or their mutant versions will allow to test the role of ZFP57 binding in imprinted methylation and growth phenotype. Implications of the hypothesis:Similarly to what is proposed for maternally inherited BWS mutations and CTCF and OCT4/SOX2 binding, we suggest that deletions of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR result in SRS with LOM if ZFP57 binding on the paternal chromosome is affected.
Project description:Hyper- and hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control region (ICR) result in reciprocal changes in IGF2-H19 expression and the two contrasting growth disorders, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). DNA methylation of the ICR controls the reciprocal imprinting of IGF2 and H19 by preventing the binding of the insulator protein, CTCF. We here show that local changes in histone modifications and CTCF--cohesin binding at the ICR in BWS and SRS together with DNA methylation correlate with the higher order chromatin structure at the locus. In lymphoblastoid cells from control individuals, we found the repressive histone H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 marks associated with the methylated paternal ICR allele and the bivalent H3K4me2/H3K27me3 mark together with H3K9ac and CTCF--cohesin associated with the non-methylated maternal allele. In patient-derived cell lines, the mat/pat asymmetric distribution of these epigenetic marks was lost with H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 becoming biallelic in the BWS and H3K4me2, H3K27me3 and H3K9ac together with CTCF-cohesin becoming biallelic in the SRS. We further show that in BWS and SRS cells, there is opposing chromatin looping conformation mediated by CTCF--cohesin binding sites surrounding the locus. In normal cells, lack of CTCF--cohesin binding at the paternal ICR is associated with monoallelic interaction between two CTCF sites flanking the locus. CTCF--cohesin binding at the maternal ICR blocks this interaction by associating with the CTCF site downstream of the enhancers. The two alternative chromatin conformations are differently favoured in BWS and SRS likely predisposing the locus to the activation of IGF2 or H19, respectively.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare pediatric overgrowth disorder with a variable clinical phenotype caused by deregulation affecting imprinted genes in the chromosomal region 11p15. Alterations of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus resulting in biallelic expression of IGF2 and biallelic silencing of H19 account for approximately 10% of patients with BWS. The majority of these patients have epimutations of the ICR1 without detectable DNA sequence changes. Only a few patients were found to have deletions. Most of these deletions are small affecting different parts of the ICR1 differentially methylated region (ICR1-DMR) removing target sequences for CTCF. Only a very few deletions reported so far include the H19 gene in addition to the CTCF binding sites. None of these deletions include IGF2.A male patient was born with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and hypoglycemia suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Using methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) we have identified a maternally inherited large deletion of the ICR1 region in a patient and his mother. The deletion results in a variable clinical expression with a classical BWS in the mother and a more severe presentation of BWS in her son. By genome-wide SNP array analysis the deletion was found to span ~100 kb genomic DNA including the ICR1DMR, H19, two adjacent non-imprinted genes and two of three predicted enhancer elements downstream to H19. Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite next generation sequencing revealed hypermethylation of the maternal allele at the IGF2 locus in both, mother and child, although IGF2 is not affected by the deletion.We here report on a novel large familial deletion of the ICR1 region in a BWS family. Due to the deletion of the ICR1-DMR CTCF binding cannot take place and the residual enhancer elements have access to the IGF2 promoters. The aberrant methylation (hypermethylation) of the maternal IGF2 allele in both affected family members may reflect the active state of the normally silenced maternal IGF2 copy and can be a consequence of the deletion. The deletion results in a variable clinical phenotype and expression.
Project description:We have analyzed several cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) with Wilms' tumor in a familial setting, which give insight into the complex controls of imprinting and gene expression in the chromosome 11p15 region. We describe a 2.2-kbp microdeletion in the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)-imprinting center eliminating three target sites of the chromatin insulator protein CTCF that we believe here is necessary, but not sufficient, to cause BWS and Wilms' tumor. Maternal inheritance of the deletion is associated with IGF2 loss of imprinting and up-regulation of IGF2 mRNA. However, in at least one affected family member a second genetic lesion (a duplication of maternal 11p15) was identified and accompanied by a further increase in IGF2 mRNA levels 35-fold higher than control values. Our results suggest that the combined effects of the H19/IGF2-imprinting center microdeletion and 11p15 chromosome duplication were necessary for manifestation of BWS.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively. Placental IGF2 (DMR0 and DMR2) DNA methylation levels were correlated with newborn's fetal growth indices, such as weight, and with maternal IGF2 circulating concentration at the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas H19 (DMR) DNA methylation levels were correlated with IGF2 levels in cord blood. The maternal genotype of a known IGF2/H19 polymorphism (rs2107425) was associated with birth weight. Taken together, we showed that IGF2/H19 epigenotype and genotypes independently account for 31% of the newborn's weight variance. No association was observed with maternal diabetic status, glucose concentrations or prenatal maternal body mass index. This is the first study showing that DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 genes locus may act as a modulator of IGF2 newborn's fetal growth and development within normal range. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Loss of methylation (LOM) at imprinting control region (ICR) 1 or LOM at ICR 2 on chromosome 11p15 in leucocyte DNA is commonly used to diagnose the imprinting disorders Silver Russell syndrome (SRS) characterized by growth restriction or Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) characterized by overgrowth, respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A child was normally conceived and born by caesarian section to a healthy 19 year old smoking mother (G2P1) at 38 weeks gestation, with SGA (birthweight SDS -2.44), placenta weight 250g (normal histology), with an umbilical hernia and transient neonatal hypoglycemia but no other features of BWS.The methylation status at 11p15 region was initially investigated by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Subsequently, methylation-specific (ms) PCR was performed to screen for this and other imprinted loci abnormalities at PLAG1 (6q24), IGF2R (6q27), GRB10 (7p12), PEG1/MEST (7q32), DLK1 (14q32), SNRPN (15q11); PEG3 (19q32), NESPAS/GNAS (20q13).Leucocyte DNA methylation was normal at ICR1 but markedly reduced at ICR2 using both MLPA and ms-PCR, and no other anomalies of imprinting were detected. Buccal DNA methylation was normal at all imprinted sites tested. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of an isolated LOM at ICR2 in leucocyte but not buccal DNA in a normally conceived singleton SGA child without overt SRS or BWS.
Project description:Human cancer cells often exhibit impaired IGF2 expression and the underlying mechanisms are multifaceted and complex. Besides the well-known imprinting control region IGF2/H19-ICR, the involvement of a differentially methylated region in the promoter P0 of IGF2 gene (IGF2-DMR0) has been suggested. Here, we evaluate several mechanisms potentially leading to up- and/or down-regulation of IGF2 expression in prostate cancer and present a novel role of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a transcriptional regulator of IGF2 binding in IGF2-DMR0.Putative binding sites for transcription factors were identified in IGF2-DMR0 using JASPAR CORE database. Gene expressions were analyzed by RT-qPCR in prostate carcinoma and adjacent benign prostate hyperplasia samples obtained by radical prostatectomy (86 RP-PCa and 47 RP-BPH) and BPH obtained by transurethral prostate resection (13 TUR-BPH). Pyrosequencing and qMSP were used for DNA methylation studies in IGF2-DMR0, IGF2/H19-ICR and Glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1) promoter. Loss of imprinting (LOI) was analyzed by RFLP. Copy number variation (CNV) test was performed using qBiomarker CNV PCR Assay. KLF4-binding and histone-modifications were analyzed by ChIP-qPCR in prostate cancer cell lines exhibiting differentially methylated IGF2-DMR0 (LNCaP hypomethylated and DU145 hypermethylated). KLF4 protein was analyzed by western blot. Statistical associations of gene expression to methylation, IGF2 LOI and CNV were calculated by Mann-Whitney-U-test. Correlations between gene expression and methylation levels were evaluated by Spearman's-Rank-Correlation-test.We found a significant reduction of IGF2 expression in the majority of RP-PCa and RP-BPH in comparison to TUR-BPH. Analyzing potential molecular reasons, we found in RP-PCa and RP-BPH in comparison to TUR-BPH a significant hypomethylation of IGF2-DMR0, which coincided with hypermethylation of GSTP1-promoter, a prominent marker of prostate tumors. In contrast, IGF2 LOI and CNV did not associate significantly with up- and/or down-regulation of IGF2 expression in prostate tumors. By analyzing IGF2-DMR0, we detected a consensus sequence for KLF4 with a z-score of 7.6. Interestingly, we found that KLF4 binds to hypomethylated (17%) IGF2-DMR0 enriched with H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 (LNCaP), but does not bind under hypermethylated (85%) and H3K4me3-enriched conditions (DU145). KLF4 expression was detected in TUR-BPH as well as in RP-BPH and RP-PCa and showed a highly significant correlation to IGF2 expression.Our study demonstrated that in human prostate cancer the impairment of IGF2 expression is accompanied by hypomethylation of IGF2-DMR0. We revealed that KLF4 is a putative transcriptional regulator of IGF2, which binds in IGF2-DMR0 in dependence of the prevailing epigenetic state in this region. Herewith we provide complementary new insights into IGF2 dysregulation mechanisms as a critical process in prostate tumorigenesis.
Project description:Molecular defects altering the expression of the imprinted genes of the 11p15.5 cluster are responsible for the etiology of two congenital disorders characterized by opposite growth disturbances, Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), associated with growth restriction, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), associated with overgrowth. At the molecular level, SRS and BWS are characterized by defects of opposite sign, including loss (LoM) or gain (GoM) of methylation at the <i>H19/IGF2</i>:intergenic differentially methylated region (<i>H19/IGF2</i>:IG-DMR), maternal or paternal duplication (dup) of 11p15.5, maternal (mat) or paternal (pat) uniparental disomy (upd), and gain or loss of function mutations of <i>CDKN1C</i>. However, while upd(11)pat is found in 20% of BWS cases and in the majority of them it is segmental, upd(11)mat is extremely rare, being reported in only two SRS cases to date, and in both of them is extended to the whole chromosome. Here, we report on two novel cases of mosaic upd(11)mat with SRS phenotype. The upd is mosaic and isodisomic in both cases but covers the entire chromosome in one case and is restricted to 11p14.1-pter in the other case. The segmental upd(11)mat adds further to the list of molecular defects of opposite sign in SRS and BWS, making these two imprinting disorders even more specular than previously described.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous overgrowth disease. BWS is caused by (epi)genetic defects at the 11p15 chromosomal region, which harbors two clusters of imprinted genes, <i>IGF2</i>/<i>H19</i> and <i>CDKN1C</i>/<i>KCNQ1OT1</i>, regulated by differential methylation of imprinting control regions, <i>H19/IGF2</i>:IG DMR and <i>KCNQ1OT1</i>:TSS DMR, respectively. A subset of BWS patients show multi-locus imprinting disturbances (MLID), with methylation defects extended to other imprinted genes in addition to the disease-specific locus. Specific (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations have been defined in order to help clinicians in the classification of patients and referring them to a timely diagnosis and a tailored follow-up. However, specific phenotypic correlations have not been identified among MLID patients, thus causing a debate on the usefulness of multi-locus testing in clinical diagnosis. Finally, the high incidence of BWS monozygotic twins with discordant phenotypes, the high frequency of BWS among babies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies, and the female prevalence among BWS-MLID cases provide new insights into the timing of imprint establishment during embryo development. In this review, we provide an overview on the clinical and molecular diagnosis of single- and multi-locus BWS in pre- and post-natal settings, and a comprehensive analysis of the literature in order to define possible (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations in MLID patients.