-Shogaol inhibits ?-MSH-induced melanogenesis through the acceleration of ERK and PI3K/Akt-mediated MITF degradation.
ABSTRACT: -Shogaol is the main biologically active component of ginger. Previous reports showed that -shogaol has several pharmacological characteristics, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of -shogaol on melanogenesis remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate the potential skin whitening mechanisms of -shogaol. The effects of -shogaol on cell viability, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and the expression of the tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were measured. The results revealed that -shogaol effectively suppresses tyrosinase activity and the amount of melanin and that those effects are more pronounced than those of arbutin. It was also found that -shogaol decreased the protein expression levels of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF). In addition, the MITF mRNA levels were also effectively decreased in the presence of 20 ?M -shogaol. The degradation of MITF protein was inhibited by the MEK 1-inhibitor (U0126) or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor) (LY294002). Further immunofluorescence staining assay implied the involvement of the proteasome in the downregulation of MITF by -shogaol. Our confocal assay results also confirmed that -shogaol inhibited ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (?-MSH-) induced melanogenesis through the acceleration of extracellular responsive kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase- (PI3K/Akt-) mediated MITF degradation.
Project description:The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasma, freckles, age spots and chloasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimelanogenic effect of sesamol, an active lignan isolated from Sesamum indicum, in melan-a cells. Sesamol strongly inhibited melanin biosynthesis and the activity of intracellular tyrosinase by decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Sesamol significantly decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related genes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1,2 (TRP-1,2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). In addition, sesamol also induces phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, sesamol dose-dependently decreased zebrafish pigment formation, tyrosinase activity and expression of melanogenesis-related genes. These findings indicate that sesamol inhibited melanin biosynthesis by down-regulating tyrosinase activity and melanin production via regulation of gene expression of melanogenesis-related proteins through modulation of MITF activity, which promoted phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in melan-a cells. Together, these results suggest that sesamol strongly inhibits melanin biosynthesis, and therefore, sesamol represents a new skin-whitening agent for use in cosmetics.
Project description:Although autophagy plays a role in melanogenesis by regulating melanosome degradation and biogenesis in melanocytes, a detailed understanding of the regulatory functions of autophagy factors is lacking. Here, we report a mechanistic link between microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) activation and melanogenesis. We observed high expression of LC3 in melanosome-associated pigment-rich melanocytic nevi of sun-exposed skin, as indicated by patterns of melanosomal protein MART1 expression. Rapamycin-induced autophagy significantly increased the melanin index, tyrosinase activity and expression of several proteins linked to melanosome biogenesis, including microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), pre-melanosome protein and tyrosinase, in Melan-a melanocytes. siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3, but not beclin-1 or ATG5, decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity. LC3 knockdown also markedly inhibited MITF expression and subsequent rapamycin-induced melanosome formation. More importantly, LC3 knockdown suppressed α-MSH-mediated melanogenesis by attenuating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and MITF expression in Melan-a cells via decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Overexpression of constitutively active ERK reversed the effect of LC3 knockdown on CREB phosphorylation and MITF expression. These findings demonstrate that LC3 contributes to melanogenesis by increasing ERK-dependent MITF expression, thereby providing a mechanistic insight into the signaling network that links autophagy to melanogenesis.
Project description:The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA. In addition, OEA may suppress melanogenesis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-independent pathway. Moreover, OEA activated ERK, Akt, p38 pathways and inhibits CREB pathway in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 partly blocked OEA-inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity and partly abrogated the OEA-suppressed expression of melanogenic proteins. Furthermore, OEA presented remarkable inhibition on the body pigmentation in the zebrafish model system. Our findings demonstrated that OEA is an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation through activation of ERK, Akt and p38 pathways, inhibition of the CREB pathway, and subsequent down-regulation of MITF, TRP-1 and tyrosinase production.
Project description:Medicinal plants have been used to treat diseases from time immemorial. We aimed to examine the efficacy of the ethyl acetate fraction of Nymphaea nouchali flower extract (NNFE) against melanogenesis process, and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Paper spray ionisation mass spectroscopy and (+) mode electrospray ionisation revealed the presence of seven flavonoids, two spermidine alkaloids, 3,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxy-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one, and shoyuflavone C in NNFE. NNFE (100?µg/mL) significantly inhibited the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase at 94.90?±?0.003% and 93.034?±?0.003%, respectively. NNFE significantly suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in vitro in melan-a cells and in vivo in HRM2 hairless mice. Furthermore, NNFE inhibited tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, thereby blocking melanin synthesis. In particular, NNFE suppressed cAMP production with subsequent downregulation of CREB phosphorylation. Additionally, it stimulated MAP kinase phosphorylation (p38, JNK, and ERK1/2) and the proteasomal debasement pathway, leading to degradation of tyrosinase and MITF and the suppression of melanin production. Moreover, selective inhibitors of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 attenuated NNFE inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, and MG-132 (a proteasome inhibitor) prevented the NNFE-induced decline in tyrosinase protein levels. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NNFE is a potential therapy for hyperpigmentation.
Project description:In this study, the antimelanogenic effect of an ethyl acetate fraction of Oroxylum indicum Vent. seeds (OISEA) and its underlying mechanisms in melan-a cells were investigated. Antimelanogenesis activity was confirmed by assessing inhibition of tyrosinase activity and melanin content in the cells. Both transcriptional and translational expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related protein-1 and 2 (TYRP-1 and TYRP-2), were also examined. The results depicted that pretreatment of OISEA significantly inhibits not only tyrosinase activity, but melanin production and intracellular tyrosinase activity. By repressing the expression of tyrosinase, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, and MITF, OISEA interrupted melanin production. Additionally, OISEA interfered with the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), with the reversal of OISEA-induced melanogenesis inhibition after treatment with the specific inhibitors SB239063, U0126, and SP600125. Overall, these results suggest that OISEA can stimulate p38, ERK1/2, JNK phosphorylation, and subsequent suppression of melanin, leading to the inhibition of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, possibly owing to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.
Project description:Flumequine is a well-known second generation quinolone antibiotic that induces phototoxicity. However, the effect of flumequine on skin melanogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we, for the first time, investigated whether flumequine regulates melanogenesis. The present study showed that flumequine slightly inhibited in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity but significantly increased extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and promoted the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. Additionally, flumequine remarkably increased melanin pigmentation in zebrafish larvae without any toxicity. We also found that flumequine stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK resulted in significant downregulation of extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and pigmentation of zebrafish larvae accompanied with suppression of MITF and tyrosinase expression, indicating that flumequine-mediated p38 and JNK promote melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. According to the molecular docking prediction, flumequine targeted dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase 16 (DUSP16), which is a major negative regulator of p38 MAPK and JNK. Our findings demonstrate that flumequine induces an increase in melanin content in B16F10 cells and zebrafish larvae by activating p38 MAPK and JNK. These data show the potential of flumequine for use as an anti-vitiligo agent.
Project description:It has long been believed that histamine is associated with cutaneous melanogenesis. Specifically, H2-receptor antagonists reportedly inhibit melanogenesis, but H1-receptor antagonists, which are some of the most commonly prescribed medicines in dermatology, have not been studied to determine whether and how they regulate melanogenesis. Therefore, we screened H1-receptor antagonists to determine whether they inhibit melanogenesis and found that loratadine was particularly effective, in this regard without compromising cellular viability. Loratadine downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase in melanocytes. To determine the intracellular signaling pathways, Akt was consistently activated by loratadine. PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, LY294002, restored the reduced melanin content that was induced by loratadine. In addition, phospho-GSK-3? also was found to be increased following loratadine treatment. Loratadine reduced the amount of PKC-?II in the membrane fraction, thereby decreasing its activity. Taken together, our data indicate that loratadine regulates melanogenesis via Akt/MITF and PKC-?II signaling, thereby leading to the inhibition of melanogenic proteins. The antimelanogenic effects of loratadine have potentially significant and useful roles in dermatologic practice, although further clinical studies will be required to test this.
Project description:Fisetin is found in many fruits and plants such as grapes and onions, and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anticancer activity. However, whether fisetin regulates melanogenesis has been rarely studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of fisetin on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cell and zebrafish larvae. The current study revealed that fisetin slightly suppressed in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity; however, molecular docking data showed that fisetin did not directly bind to mushroom tyrosinase. Unexpectedly, fisetin significantly increased intracellular and extracellular melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells regardless of the presence or absence of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH). We also found that the expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), were highly increased 48 h after fisetin treatment. Pigmentation of zebrafish larvae by fisetin treatment also increased at the concentrations up to 200 µM and then slightly decreased at 400 µM, with no alteration in the heart rates. Molecular docking data also revealed that fisetin binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Therefore, we evaluated whether fisetin negatively regulated GSK-3?, which subsequently activates ?-catenin, resulting in melanogenesis. As expected, fisetin increased the expression of ?-catenin, which was subsequently translocated into the nucleus. In the functional assay, FH535, a Wnt/?-catenin inhibitor, significantly inhibited fisetin-mediated melanogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Our data suggested that fisetin inhibits GSK-3?, which activates ?-catenin, resulting in melanogenesis through the revitalization of MITF and tyrosinase.
Project description:In this study, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenic effects of 3,8-dihydroxyquinoline (jineol) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, the mechanisms responsible for its inhibition of melanogenesis in melan-a cells, and its antioxidant efficacy. Mushroom tyrosinase activities and melanin contents were determined in melan-a cells, and the protein and mRNA levels of MITF, tyrosinase, TYRP-1, and TYRP-2 were assessed. Jineol exhibited significant, concentration-dependent antioxidant effects as determined by DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. Jineol significantly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity by functioning as an uncompetitive inhibitor, and markedly inhibited melanin production and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-a cells. In addition, jineol abolished the expressions of tyrosinase, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, and MITF, thereby blocking melanin production and interfering with the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and p38 prevented melanogenesis inhibition by jineol, and the proteasome inhibitor (MG-132) prevented jineol-induced reductions in cellular tyrosinase levels. Taken together, jineol was found to stimulate MAP-kinase (ERK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation and the proteolytic degradation pathway, which led to the degradations of MITF and tyrosinase, and to suppress the productions of melanin.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of KHG26792 (3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy) methyl)azetidine hydrochloride), a potential skin whitening agent, on melanin synthesis and identify the underlying mechanism of action. Our data showed that KHG26792 significantly reduced melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, KHG26792 downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, although tyrosinase was not inhibited directly. KHG26792 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas an ERK pathway inhibitor, PD98059, rescued KHG26792-induced hypopigmentation. These results suggest that KHG26792 decreases melanin production via ERK activation. Moreover, the hypopigmentary effects of KHG26792 were confirmed in a pigmented skin equivalent model using Cervi cornus Colla (deer antler glue), in which the color of the pigmented artificial skin became lighter after treatment with KHG26792. In summary, our findings suggest that KHG26792 is a novel skin whitening agent.