The dual role of nod-like receptors in mucosal innate immunity and chronic intestinal inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that play, in combination with toll-like receptors, a critical role in innate immunity and inflammation. These proteins are characterized by a central oligomerization domain termed nucleotide-binding domain, and a protein interaction domain containing leucine-rich repeats. Some NLRs, including NOD1 and NOD2, sense the cytosolic presence of conserved bacterial molecular signatures and drive the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the transcription factor NF-κB. A different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of large protein complexes known as inflammasomes. Activation of NLR proteins results in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent inflammatory responses. The critical role of NLRs in innate immunity is underscored by the fact that polymorphisms within their genes are implicated in the development of several immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. Over the past few years, the role of NLRs in intestinal homeostasis has been highlighted, however the mechanism by which dysfunction in these proteins leads to aberrant inflammation is still the focus of much investigation. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the function of NLRs in mucosal innate immunity and understand how genetic or functional alterations in these components can lead to the disruption of intestinal homeostasis, and the subsequent development of chronic inflammation.
Project description:The intestinal microbiome maintains a close relationship with the host immunity. This connection fosters a health state by direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct influences occur mainly through the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gastrointestinal hormones and precursors of bioactive molecules. Indirect mechanisms comprise the crosstalk between bacterial products and the host's innate immune system. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis is a condition found in a large number of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as in diseases associated with low-grade inflammation, such as obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. NOD-Like receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic receptors expressed by adaptive and innate immune cells that form a multiprotein complex, termed the inflammasome, responsible for the release of mature interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. NLRs are also involved in the recognition of bacterial components and production of antimicrobial molecules that shape the gut microbiota and maintain the intestinal homeostasis. Recent novel findings show that NLRs may act as positive or negative regulators of inflammation by modulating NF-?B activation. This mini-review presents current and updated evidence on the interplay between NLRs and gut microbiota and their dual role, contributing to progression or conferring protection, in diabetes and other inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein-like receptors (NLRs) are a recently discovered class of innate immune receptors that play a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response following pathogen recognition. Some NLRs form the framework for cytosolic platforms called inflammasomes, which orchestrate the early inflammatory process via IL-1? activation. Mutations and polymorphisms in NLR-coding genes or in genetic loci encoding inflammasome-related proteins correlate with a variety of autoinflammatory diseases. Moreover, the activity of certain inflammasomes is associated with susceptibility to infections as well as autoimmunity and tumorigenesis. In this review, we will discuss how identifying the genetic characteristics of inflammasomes is assisting our understanding of both autoinflammatory diseases as well as other immune system-driven disorders.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with inappropriate activation of lymphocytes, hyperinflammatory responses, demyelination, and neuronal damage. In the past decade, a number of biological immunomodulators have been developed that suppress the peripheral immune responses and slow down the progression of the disease. However, once the inflammation of the CNS has commenced, it can cause serious permanent neuronal damage. Therefore, there is a need for developing novel therapeutic approaches that control and regulate inflammatory responses within the CNS. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular regulators of inflammation expressed by many cell types within the CNS. They redirect multiple signaling pathways initiated by pathogens and molecules released by injured tissues. NLR family members include positive regulators of inflammation, such as NLRP3 and NLRC4 and anti-inflammatory NLRs, such as NLRX1 and NLRP12. They exert immunomodulatory effect at the level of peripheral immune responses, including antigen recognition and lymphocyte activation and differentiation. Also, NLRs regulate tissue inflammatory responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are placed at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immune responses, such as NLR-dependent pathways, could lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of NLRs in the pathogenesis of MS. We also summarize how anti-inflammatory NLRs regulate the immune response within the CNS. Finally, we speculate the therapeutic potential of targeting NLRs in MS.
Project description:The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1? expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs.
Project description:Innate immunity confers an immediate nonspecific mechanism of microbial recognition through germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Of these, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) have shaped our current understanding of innate regulation of adaptive immunity. It is now recognized that PRRs are paramount in instructing an appropriate adaptive immune response. Their ligands have been the focus of adjuvant research with the goal of generating modern vaccine combinations tailored to specific pathogens. In this review we will highlight the recent findings in the field of adjuvant research with a particular focus on the potential of TLR and NLR ligands as adjuvants and their influence on adaptive immune responses.
Project description:The plant immune system employs intracellular NLRs (nucleotide binding [NB], leucine-rich repeat [LRR]/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors) to detect effector proteins secreted into the plant cell by potential pathogens. Activated plant NLRs trigger a range of immune responses, collectively known as the hypersensitive response (HR), which culminates in death of the infected cell. Plant NLRs show structural and functional resemblance to animal NLRs involved in inflammatory and innate immune responses. Therefore, knowledge of the activation and regulation of animal NLRs can help us understand the mechanism of action of plant NLRs, and vice versa.This review provides an overview of the innate immune pathways in plants and animals, focusing on the available structural and biochemical information available for both plant and animal NLRs. We highlight the gap in knowledge between the animal and plant systems, in particular the lack of structural information for plant NLRs, with crystal structures only available for the N-terminal domains of plant NLRs and an integrated decoy domain, in contrast to the more complete structures available for animal NLRs. We assess the similarities and differences between plant and animal NLRs, and use the structural information on the animal NLR pair NAIP/NLRC4 to derive a plausible model for plant NLR activation.Signalling by cooperative assembly formation (SCAF) appears to operate in most innate immunity pathways, including plant and animal NLRs. Our proposed model of plant NLR activation includes three key steps: (1) initially, the NLR exists in an inactive auto-inhibited state; (2) a combination of binding by activating elicitor and ATP leads to a structural rearrangement of the NLR; and (3) signalling occurs through cooperative assembly of the resistosome. Further studies, structural and biochemical in particular, will be required to provide additional evidence for the different features of this model and shed light on the many existing variations, e.g. helper NLRs and NLRs containing integrated decoys.
Project description:Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular receptors that control innate immunity and other biotic interactions in animals and plants. NLRs have been characterized in plant and animal lineages, but in fungi, this gene family has not been systematically described. There is however previous indications of the involvement of NLR-like genes in nonself recognition and programmed cell death in fungi. We have analyzed 198 fungal genomes for the presence of NLRs and have annotated a total of 5,616 NLR candidates. We describe their phylogenetic distribution, domain organization, and evolution. Fungal NLRs are characterized by a great diversity of domain organizations, suggesting frequently occurring combinatorial assortments of different effector, NOD and repeat domains. The repeat domains are of the WD, ANK, and TPR type; no LRR motifs were found. As previously documented for WD-repeat domains of fungal NLRs, TPR, and ANK repeats evolve under positive selection and show highly conserved repeats and repeat length polymorphism, suggesting the possibility of concerted evolution of these repeats. We identify novel effector domains not previously found associated with NLRs, whereas others are related to effector domains of plant or animals NLRs. In particular, we show that the HET domain found in fungal NLRs may be related to Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains found in animal and plant immune receptors. This description of fungal NLR repertoires reveals both similarities and differences with plant and animals NLR collections, highlights the importance of domain reassortment and repeat evolution and provides a novel entry point to explore the evolution of NLRs in eukaryotes.
Project description:Innate immunity represents an important system with a variety of vital processes at the core of many diseases. In recent years, the central role of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) protein family became increasingly appreciated in innate immune responses. NLRs are classified as part of the signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) clade within the AAA+ ATPase family. They typically feature an N-terminal effector domain, a central nucleotide-binding domain (NACHT) and a C-terminal ligand-binding region that is composed of several leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). NLRs are believed to initiate or regulate host defense pathways through formation of signaling platforms that subsequently trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and NF-kB. Despite their fundamental role in orchestrating key pathways in innate immunity, their mode of action in molecular terms remains largely unknown. Here we present the first comprehensive sequence and structure modeling analysis of NLR proteins, revealing that NLRs possess a domain architecture similar to the apoptotic initiator protein Apaf-1. Apaf-1 performs its cellular function by the formation of a heptameric platform, dubbed apoptosome, ultimately triggering the controlled demise of the affected cell. The mechanism of apoptosome formation by Apaf-1 potentially offers insight into the activation mechanisms of NLR proteins. Multiple sequence alignment analysis and homology modeling revealed Apaf-1-like structural features in most members of the NLR family, suggesting a similar biochemical behaviour in catalytic activity and oligomerization. Evolutionary tree comparisons substantiate the conservation of characteristic functional regions within the NLR family and are in good agreement with domain distributions found in distinct NLRs. Importantly, the analysis of LRR domains reveals surprisingly low conservation levels among putative ligand-binding motifs. The same is true for the effector domains exhibiting distinct interfaces ensuring specific interactions with downstream target proteins. All together these factors suggest specific biological functions for individual NLRs.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome can be widely found in epithelial cells and immune cells. The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family member NLRP3 contains a central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization (NACHT) domain which facilitates self-oligomerization and has ATPase activity. The C-terminal conserves a leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain which can modulate NLRP3 activity and sense endogenous alarmins and microbial ligands. In contrast, the N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) can account for homotypic interactions with the adaptor protein-ASC of NLRP3 inflammasome. These characters enable it function in innate immunity. Its downstream effector proteins include caspase-1 and IL-1? etc. which exhibit protective or detrimental roles in mucosal immunity in different studies. Here, we comprehensively review the current literature regarding the physiology of NLRP3 inflammasome and its potential roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. We also discuss about the complex interactions among the NLRP3 inflammasome, mucosal immune response, and gut homeostasis as found in experimental models and IBD patients.
Project description:Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes assembled by intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and they initiate innate immune responses to invading pathogens and danger signals by activating caspase-1 (ref. 1). Caspase-1 activation leads to the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18, as well as lytic inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. Recently, a new non-canonical inflammasome was described that activates caspase-11, a pro-inflammatory caspase required for lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality. This study also highlighted that previously generated caspase-1 knockout mice lack a functional allele of Casp11 (also known as Casp4), making them functionally Casp1?Casp11 double knockouts. Previous studies have shown that these mice are more susceptible to infections with microbial pathogens, including the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), but the individual contributions of caspase-1 and caspase-11 to this phenotype are not known. Here we show that non-canonical caspase-11 activation contributes to macrophage death during S. typhimurium infection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-? (TRIF)-dependent interferon-? production is crucial for caspase-11 activation in macrophages, but is only partially required for pro-caspase-11 expression, consistent with the existence of an interferon-inducible activator of caspase-11. Furthermore, Casp1(-/-) mice were significantly more susceptible to infection with S. typhimurium than mice lacking both pro-inflammatory caspases (Casp1(-/-)?Casp11(-/-)). This phenotype was accompanied by higher bacterial counts, the formation of extracellular bacterial microcolonies in the infected tissue and a defect in neutrophil-mediated clearance. These results indicate that caspase-11-dependent cell death is detrimental to the host in the absence of caspase-1-mediated innate immunity, resulting in extracellular replication of a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen.