Cognitive functioning in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Prior research examining the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer on cognitive performance has found inconsistent relationships. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature and determine the effect of ADT on performance across seven cognitive domains using meta-analysis.A search of PubMed Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and Web of Knowledge/Science databases yielded 157 unique abstracts reviewed by independent pairs of raters. Fourteen studies with a total of 417 patients treated with ADT were included in the meta-analysis. Objective neuropsychological tests were categorized into seven cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functioning, language, verbal memory, visual memory, visuomotor ability, and visuospatial ability.Separate effect sizes were calculated for each cognitive domain using pairwise comparisons of patients who received ADT with (1) prostate cancer patient controls, (2) noncancer controls, or (3) ADT patients' own pre-ADT baselines. Patients treated with ADT performed worse than controls or their own baseline on visuomotor tasks (g =?-0.67, p =?.008; n = 193). The magnitude of the deficits was larger in studies with a shorter time to follow-up (p =?.04). No significant effect sizes were observed for the other six cognitive domains (p =?.08-.98).Prostate cancer patients who received ADT performed significantly worse on visuomotor tasks compared to noncancer control groups. These findings are consistent with the known effects of testosterone on cognitive functioning in healthy men. Knowledge of the cognitive effects of ADT may help patients and providers better understand the impact of ADT on quality of life.
Project description:The use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has increased since the early 1990s after early detection efforts and greater use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Although ADT is associated with favorable clinical outcomes, ADT has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance, body mass index and fat body mass. Here we review findings from 11 clinical studies examining the effects of ADT on cognition as measured by standardized tests in cognitive domains such as verbal and spatial memory. Most of these studies have important limitations, including small sample sizes, suboptimal control groups and baseline group differences in confounding factors. Despite these limitations, the best designed studies, those comparing patients on ADT to healthy controls, generally suggest that spatial memory might be especially sensitive to the effects of ADT. Critically, to date there is only one study involving random assignment of ADT versus close clinical observation. That study revealed a decrease in verbal memory with ADT, but was limited in sample size and did not include a measure of spatial memory. A recent observational study revealed no substantial evidence of cognitive impairment with ADT, even in the domain of verbal memory. Like the randomized study, however, this large observational study lacked a measure of spatial memory. Overall, the studies with the best controls suggest a potential negative impact of ADT on spatial memory, and perhaps verbal memory, and a need for continued investigation of the impact of ADT on cognition, particularly in these two cognitive domains.
Project description:Many prostate cancer (PCa) patients are on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as part of their cancer treatments but ADT may lead to cognitive impairments. ADT depletes men of both androgen and estrogen. Whether estradiol supplementation can improve cognitive impairments in patients on ADT is understudied.To summarize data on the effects of estradiol treatment on cognitive function of androgen-deprived genetic male populations (PCa patients and male-to-female transsexuals) and castrated male animals.Publications were identified by a literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar.While some studies showed that estradiol improves cognitive function (most notably, spatial ability) for castrated rats, what remains uninvestigated are: 1) whether estradiol can improve cognition after long-term androgen deprivation, 2) how estradiol affects memory retention, and 3) how early vs. delayed estradiol treatment after castration influences cognition. For androgendeprived genetic males, estradiol treatment may improve some cognitive functions (e.g., verbal and visual memory), but the findings are not consistent due to large variability in the study design between studies.Future studies are required to determine the best estradiol treatment protocol to maximize cognitive benefits for androgen-deprived genetic males. Tests that assess comparable cognitive domains in human and rodents are needed. What particularly under-investigated is how the effects of estradiol on cognitive ability intersect with other parameters; sleep, depression and physical fatigue. Such studies have clinical implications to improve the quality of life for both PCa patients on ADT as well as for male-to-female transsexuals.
Project description:Men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer may be at risk for cognitive impairment; however, evidence is mixed in the existing literature. Our study examined the impact of ADT on impaired cognitive performance and explored potential demographic and genetic predictors of impaired performance.Patients with prostate cancer were assessed before or within 21 days of starting ADT (n = 58) and 6 and 12 months later. Age- and education-matched patients with prostate cancer treated with prostatectomy only (n = 84) and men without prostate cancer (n = 88) were assessed at similar intervals. Participants provided baseline blood samples for genotyping. Mean-level cognitive performance was compared using mixed models; cognitive impairment was compared using generalized estimating equations.ADT recipients demonstrated higher rates of impaired cognitive performance over time relative to all controls (P = .01). Groups did not differ at baseline (P > .05); however, ADT recipients were more likely to demonstrate impaired performance within 6 and 12 months (P for both comparisons < .05). Baseline age, cognitive reserve, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and hot flash interference did not moderate the impact of ADT on impaired cognitive performance (P for all comparisons ? .09). In exploratory genetic analyses, GNB3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1047776 was associated with increased rates of impaired performance over time in the ADT group (P < .001).Men treated with ADT were more likely to demonstrate impaired cognitive performance within 6 months after starting ADT relative to matched controls and to continue to do so within 12 months after starting ADT. If confirmed, findings may have implications for patient education regarding the risks and benefits of ADT.
Project description:Despite a lack of consensus regarding effectiveness, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for non-metastatic, low-risk prostate cancer. To examine a particular clinical concern regarding the possible impact of ADT on cognition, the current study combined neuropsychological testing with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess both brain activation during cognitive performance as well as the integrity of brain connectivity.In a prospective observational cohort analysis of men with non-metastatic prostate cancer at a Veterans Affairs medical center, patients receiving ADT were compared with patients not receiving ADT at baseline and at 6?months. Assessments included fMRI, the N-back task (for working memory), the stop-signal task (for cognitive control), and a quality of life questionnaire.Among 36 patients enrolled (18 in each group), 30 completed study evaluations (15 in each group); 5 withdrew participation and 1 died. Results for the N-back task, stop-signal task, and quality of life were similar at 6?months vs. baseline in each group. In contrast, statistically significant associations were found between ADT use (vs. non use) and decreased medial prefrontal cortical activation during cognitive control, as well as decreased connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and other regions involved with cognitive control.Although ADT for 6?months did not affect selected tests of cognitive function, brain activations during cognitive control and functional brain connectivity were impaired on fMRI. The long-term clinical implications of these changes are not known and warrant future study.
Project description:Recently emerging evidence indicates accelerated age-related changes in the structure and function of the brain in schizophrenia, raising a question about its potential consequences on cognitive function. Using a large sample of schizophrenia patients and controls and a battery of tasks across multiple cognitive domains, we examined whether patients show accelerated age-related decline in cognition and whether an age-related effect differ between females and males. We utilized data of 1,415 schizophrenia patients and 1,062 healthy community collected by the second phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2). A battery of cognitive tasks included the Letter-Number Span Task, two forms of the Continuous Performance Test, the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, the Penn Emotion Identification Test and the Penn Facial Memory Test. The effect of age and gender on cognitive performance was examined with a general linear model. We observed age-related changes on most cognitive measures, which was similar between males and females. Compared to controls, patients showed greater deterioration in performance on attention/vigilance and greater slowness of processing social information with increasing age. However, controls showed greater age-related changes in working memory and verbal memory compared to patients. Age-related changes (?2p of 0.001 to .008) were much smaller than between-group differences (?2p of 0.005 to .037). This study found that patients showed continued decline of cognition on some domains but stable impairment or even less decline on other domains with increasing age. These findings indicate that age-related changes in cognition in schizophrenia are subtle and not uniform across multiple cognitive domains.
Project description:Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity.We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y?<?2.5) and age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task).In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls.Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with cognitive dysfunction.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Using the National Health Insurance Service database of the entire Korean adult prostate cancer population (n=236,391), data on ADT and cognitive dysfunction between 2008 and 2015 were analyzed. We excluded patients previously diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction, dementia, or a cerebral event history. We tested the effect of ADT on the risk of cognitive dysfunction using propensity score-matched Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our final cohort comprised of 35,401 individuals with prostate cancer, including 24,567 men (70.6%) who underwent ADT.<h4>Results</h4>During a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years, 4,741 patients were newly diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction. A statistically significant association was found between ADT and the risk of cognitive dysfunction (hazard ratio, 1.169; p=0.002). Meanwhile, age (? 70 years), diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular history, and peripheral vascular disease were identified as factors that contribute to the increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, the use of statins and aspirin was associated with a lower risk of cognitive dysfunction. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients aged 70 years or older who underwent ADT had the lowest cumulative probability of remaining cognitive dysfunction-free (log-rank p < 0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our.<h4>Results</h4>revealed an association between the use of ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer and an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction in a nationwide population-based study. This finding should be further evaluated in prospective studies.
Project description:See King et al. (doi:10.1093/aww348) for a scientific commentary on this article.Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm. Sparse partial least squares, a variable selection approach, was used to identify lobules associated with motor function, language, executive function, memory, verbal learning, perceptual organization and visuomotor coordination. Motor dysfunctions were chiefly associated with the anterior lobe and posterior lobule HVI. Confrontation naming, noun fluency, recognition, and perceptual organization did not have cerebellar associations. Verb and phonemic fluency, working memory, cognitive flexibility, immediate and delayed recall, verbal learning, and visuomotor coordination were variably associated with HVI, Crus I, Crus II, HVII B and/or HIX. Immediate and delayed recall also showed associations with the anterior lobe. These findings provide preliminary anatomical evidence for a functional topography of the cerebellum first defined in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of normal subjects and support the hypotheses that (i) cerebellar efferents target frontal lobe neurons involved in forming action representations and new search strategies; (ii) there is greater involvement of the cerebellum when immediate recall tasks involve more complex verbal stimuli (e.g. longer words versus digits); and (iii) it is involved in spontaneous retrieval of long-term memory. More generally, they provide an anatomical background for studies that seek the mechanisms by which cognitive and motor dysfunctions arise from cerebellar degeneration. Beyond replicating these findings, future research should employ experimental tasks to probe the integrity of specific functions in cerebellar disease, and new imaging methods to quantitatively map atrophy across the cerebellum.
Project description:Background:Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment for prostate cancer, the physiological impacts of ADT result in functional decline and enhanced risk of chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Purpose:The Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial (IDEA-P) is a single-blind, randomized, pilot trial comparing the effects of a group-mediated, cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary intervention (EX+D) with those of a standard-of-care (SC) control during the treatment of prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Methods:A total of 32 prostate cancer patients (M age = 66.28, SD = 7.79) undergoing ADT were randomly assigned to the 12-week EX+D intervention (n = 16) or control (n = 16). The primary outcome in IDEA-P was change in mobility performance with secondary outcomes including body composition and muscular strength. Blinded assessment of outcomes were obtained at baseline and at 2- and 3-month follow-ups. Results:Favorable adherence and retention rates were observed, and no serious intervention-related adverse events were documented. Intent-to-treat ANCOVA controlling for baseline value and ADT duration demonstrated that EX+D resulted in significantly greater improvements in mobility performance (p < .02), muscular strength (p < .01), body fat percentage (p < .05), and fat mass (p < .03) at 3-month follow-up, relative to control. Conclusion:Findings from the IDEA-P trial suggest that a GMCB-based EX+D intervention resulted in significant, clinically meaningful improvements in mobility performance, muscular strength, and body composition, relative to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the EX+D was a safe and well-tolerated intervention for prostate cancer patients on ADT. The utility of implementing this approach in the treatment of prostate cancer patients on ADT should be evaluated in future large-scale efficacy trials. Clinical Trial information:NCT02050906.
Project description:Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439.