Prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of porcine group C rotaviruses in nursing and weaned piglets in Ohio, USA and identification of a potential new VP4 genotype.
ABSTRACT: Swine fecal samples collected from seven farms were screened for group C rotaviruses (RVCs) using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A total of 380 samples were tested and 19.5% were positive. Of the 128 samples collected in 2012, 23.5% from nursing piglets and 8.5% from weaned piglets were RVC positive, with a higher RVC frequency in diarrheic (28.4%) than in non-diarrheic (6.6%) piglets. Two strains (RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX and RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px) from two different farms were characterized genetically to gain information on virus diversity based on full length sequences of the inner capsid VP6, enterotoxin NSP4 and the outer capsid VP7 and VP4 (partial for RV0104) genes. The VP6 gene of the two strains showed high (99%) nucleotide identity to one another, 84-91% identity to other porcine RVCstrains and 81-82% identity to human and bovine RVC strains. The NSP4 gene analysis revealed that RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX and RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px strains were not closely related to each other (87% identity), but shared higher identity with prototype RVC/Pig-wt/USA/Cowden/1980/G1Px strain (93% and 89%, respectively) and were more distantly related to human strains (72-76% identity). The VP7 gene analysis indicated that the two strains were distantly related to one another (72% identity). RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px was most closely related to porcine RVC G6 strains (82-86% identity), whereas RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX was most closely related to porcine HF (G3) strain (94% identity). Analysis of the full length nucleotide sequence of the VP4 gene revealed that RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px was distantly related to porcine (75%), bovine (74%) and human (70%) strains. The deduced amino acid identities (69.5-75.6%) of VP4 between RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px and other RVCs were low; hence, we propose that this strain comprises a new VP4 genotype. Our results indicate high genetic heterogeneity in RVCs genes and the concurrent co-circulation of different genotypes at the same time. Our findings are useful for the development of more accurate diagnostic tools, for basic research to understand gene function and to provide information for RVC diversity germane to vaccine development.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are becoming increasingly accessible, leading to an expanded interest in the composition of the porcine enteric virome. In the present study, the fecal virome of a non-diarrheic Belgian piglet was determined. Although the virome of only a single piglet was analyzed, some interesting data were obtained, including the second complete genome of a pig group C rotavirus (RVC). This Belgian strain was only distantly related to the only other completely characterized pig RVC strain, Cowden. Its relatedness to RVC strains from other host species was also analyzed and the porcine strain found in our study was only distantly related to RVCs detected in humans and cows. The gene encoding the outer capsid protein VP7 belonged to the rare porcine G3 genotype, which might be serologically distinct from most other pig RVC strains. A putative novel RVC VP6 genotype was identified as well. A group A rotavirus strain also present in this fecal sample contained the rare pig genotype combination G11P, but was only partially characterized. Typical pig RVA genotypes I5, A8, and T7 were found for the viral proteins VP6, NSP1, and NSP3, respectively. Interestingly, the fecal virome of the piglet also contained an astrovirus and an enterovirus, of which the complete genomes were characterized. Results of the current study indicate that many viruses may be present simultaneously in fecal samples of non-diarrheic piglets. In this study, these viruses could not be directly associated with any disease, but still they might have had a potential subclinical impact on pig growth performance. The fast evolution of NGS will be a powerful tool for future diagnostics in veterinary practice. Its application will certainly lead to better insights into the relevance of many (sub)clinical enteric viral infections, that may have remained unnoticed using traditional diagnostic techniques. This will stimulate the development of new and durable prophylactic measures to improve pig health and production.
Project description:Direct interspecies transmissions of group A rotaviruses (RVA) have been reported under natural conditions. However, the pathogenicity of RVA has never been directly compared in homologous and heterologous hosts. The bovine RVA/Cow-tc/KOR/K5/2004/G5P strain, which was shown to possess a typical porcine-like genotype constellation similar to that of the G5P prototype RVA/Pig-tc/USA/OSU/1977/G5P9 strain, was examined for its pathogenicity and compared with the porcine G5P RVA/Pig-tc/KOR/K71/2006/G5P strain possessing the same genotype constellation. The bovine K5 strain induced diarrhea and histopathological changes in the small intestine of piglets and calves, whereas the porcine K71 strain caused diarrhea and histopathological changes in the small intestine of piglets, but not in calves. Furthermore, the bovine K5 strain showed extra-intestinal tropisms in both piglets and calves, whereas the porcine K71 strain had extra-intestinal tropisms in piglets, but not in calves. Therefore, we performed comparative genomic analysis of the K71 and K5 RVA strains to determine whether specific mutations could be associated with these distinct clinical and pathological phenotypes. Full-length sequencing analyses for the 11 genomic segments for K71 and K5 revealed that these strains were genetically nearly identical to each other. Two nucleotide mutations were found in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of NSP5 and the 3' UTR of NSP3, and eight amino acid mutations in VP1-VP4 and NSP2. Some of these mutations may be critical molecular determinants for RVA virulence and/or pathogenicity.
Project description:A human-porcine reassortant strain, RVA/Human-wt/ZMB/UFS-NGS-MRC-DPRU4723/2014/G5P, was identified in a sample collected in 2014 from an unvaccinated 12 month old male hospitalised for gastroenteritis in Zambia. We sequenced and characterised the complete genome of this strain which presented the constellation: G5-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The genotype A8 is often observed in porcine strains. Phylogenetic analyses showed that VP6, VP7, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 genes were closely related to cognate gene sequences of porcine strains (e.g., RVA/Pig-wt/CHN/DZ-2/2013/G5P[X] for VP7) from the NCBI database, while VP1, VP3, VP4, and NSP3 were closely related to porcine-like human strains (e.g., RVA/Human-wt/CHN/E931/2008/G4P for VP1, and VP3). On the other hand, the origin of the VP2 was not clear from our analyses, as it was not only close to both porcine (e.g., RVA/Pig-tc/CHN/SWU-1C/2018/G9P) and porcine-like human strains (e.g., RVA/Human-wt/LKA/R1207/2009/G4P) but also to three human strains (e.g., RVA/Human-wt/USA/1476/1974/G1P). The VP7 gene was located in lineage II that comprised only porcine strains, which suggests the occurrence of independent porcine-to-human reassortment events. The study strain may have collectively been derived through interspecies transmission, or through reassortment event(s) involving strains of porcine and porcine-like human origin. The results of this study underline the importance of whole-genome characterisation of rotavirus strains and provide insights into interspecies transmissions from porcine to humans.
Project description:Swine are economically important food animals, but highly contagious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and rotavirus can afflict pig herds and contribute significantly to piglet morbidity and mortality. While there have been studies on rotavirus group A (RVA) in Thailand, reports of rotavirus group C (RVC) are limited. Here, we aimed to identify the prevalence of RVC circulating on Thai commercial swine farms. We analyzed 769 feces and intestine mucosal contents of pigs affected with diarrhea between 2011 and 2016 using RT-PCR specific for the PEDV spike (S), rotavirus glycoprotein (G) VP7, and protease-sensitive protein (P) VP4 genes. We found that 6.6% (51/769) of samples tested positive for RVC, of which 11 samples were co-infected with RVA and four samples were co-infected with PEDV. Three samples tested positive for all three viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene showed that the most frequent RVC genotype was G1, which grouped with the prototypic RVC Cowden strain. While G6 and G9 were also common, G3 was relatively rare. Analysis of the VP4 gene revealed that the most common P type was P, followed by P, P, and P. In all, there were six G/P combinations (G6P, G1P, G1P, G1P, G9P, and G9P), of which G6P was the most predominant.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that causes watery diarrhea in newborn piglets and results in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Since first reported in Hong Kong in 2012, PDCoV has been subsequently detected in USA, South Korea, Thailand, and mainland China. Here we isolated a strain of PDCoV, named CHN-GD-2016, from the intestinal content of a diseased newborn piglet with severe diarrhea in a pig farm in Guangdong, China. PDCoV CHN-GD-2016 could be identified by immunofluorescence with PDCoV specific rabbit antisera, and typical crown-shaped particles with spiky surface projections of this PDCoV were observed with electron microscopy. Genomic analysis showed that the PDCoV CHN-GD-2016 was closely related to other Chinese PDCoV strains, with the highest sequence similarity with the strain CHN/Tianjin/2016. Importantly, inoculation of newborn piglets with 1 × 105 TCID50 of CHN-GD-2016 by oral feeding successfully reproduced clear clinical symptoms, including vomiting, dehydration, and severe diarrhea in piglets. In addition, the virus RNA in rectal swabs from 1 to 7 days post inoculation was detected, macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestine were observed, and viral antigen was also detected in the small intestines with immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the data show in this study confirms that PDCoV is present in Guangdong, China and is highly pathogenic in newborn piglets.
Project description:Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of serious intestinal disease in piglets. In this study, a novel pig strain was identified in a stool sample from China. The strain was designated RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P and had a G3-P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genome. The viral protein 7 (VP7) and non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) genes of RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P were closely related to cogent genes of human RVAs, suggesting that a reassortment between pig and human strains had occurred. Recombination analysis showed that RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P is a natural recombinant strain between the P and P RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were found at nucleotides (nt) 456 and 804 of the VP4 gene. Elucidating the biological characteristics of porcine rotavirus (PoRV) will be helpful for further analyses of the epidemic characteristics of this virus. The results of this study provide valuable information for RVA recombination and evolution and will facilitate future investigations into the molecular pathogenesis of RVAs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV) strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. CASE PRESENTATION:A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7) and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 - 95 %. CONCLUSIONS:In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.
Project description:Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4PI1, G4PI5, G11PI5, and G5PI5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses.
Project description:Among 175 fecal specimens collected from diarrheic piglets during a surveillance of porcine rotavirus (PoRV) strains in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 39 (22.3%) were positive for group A rotaviruses. Of these, 33.3% (13 of 39) belonged to G3P, which was a rare P genotype seldom reported. Interestingly, their VP4 nucleotide sequences were most closely related to human P strains (Mc323 and Mc345) isolated in 1989 from the same geographical area where these PoRV strains were isolated. These P PoRV strains were also closely related to another human P strain (RMC321), isolated from India in 1990. The VP4 sequence identities with human P were 95.4% to 97.4%, while those to a porcine P strain (4F) were only 87.6 to 89.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 gene revealed that PoRV P strains clustered with human P strains in a monophyletic branch separated from strain 4F. Analysis of the VP7 gene confirmed that these strains belonged to the G3 genotype and shared 97.7% to 98.3% nucleotide identities with other G3 PoRV strains circulating in the regions. This close genetic relationship was also reflected in the phylogenetic analysis of their VP7 genes. Altogether, the findings provided peculiar evidence that supported the porcine origin of VP4 genes of Mc323 and Mc345 human rotaviruses.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine coronavirus that causes diarrhea in piglets. Since the first outbreak of PDCoV in the United States in 2014, this novel porcine coronavirus has been detected in South Korea, Canada, Mexico, Thailand, and China. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HN-2014, was isolated from piglets with severe diarrhea on a pig farm in Henan Province, China, and examined with a specific immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. Genomic analysis showed that CHN-HN-2014 shares 91.6%-99.4% nucleotide identity with other known PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of CHN-HN-2014 was further investigated in 5-day-old and 21-day-old piglets. Both kinds of piglets developed clear clinical symptoms, including vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and severe diarrhea, by 2days postinoculation (DPI), and diarrhea persisted for about 5-6 days. Viral shedding was detected in rectal swabs until 14 DPI in challenged 5-day-old pigs and until 18 DPI in challenged 21-day-old pigs. At necropsy at 4 DPI, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed and viral antigen was detected in the small intestines with immunohistochemical staining. These data demonstrate that Chinese PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 shares high nucleotide identity with previously reported PDCoV strains and is pathogenic in 5-day-old and 21-day-old piglets.