Crystal structure of the dithiol oxidase DsbA enzyme from proteus mirabilis bound non-covalently to an active site peptide ligand.
ABSTRACT: The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery.
Project description:Antibacterial drugs with novel scaffolds and new mechanisms of action are desperately needed to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. The periplasmic oxidative folding system in Gram-negative bacteria represents a possible target for anti-virulence antibacterials. By targeting virulence rather than viability, development of resistance and side effects (through killing host native microbiota) might be minimized. Here, we undertook the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting the interaction between the two key enzymes of oxidative folding, DsbA and DsbB, with the ultimate goal of preventing virulence factor assembly. Structures of DsbB--or peptides--complexed with DsbA revealed key interactions with the DsbA active site cysteine, and with a hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site. The present work aimed to discover peptidomimetics that target the hydrophobic groove to generate non-covalent DsbA inhibitors. The previously reported structure of a Proteus mirabilis DsbA active site cysteine mutant, in a non-covalent complex with the heptapeptide PWATCDS, was used as an in silico template for virtual screening of a peptidomimetic fragment library. The highest scoring fragment compound and nine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for DsbA binding and inhibition. These experiments discovered peptidomimetic fragments with inhibitory activity at millimolar concentrations. Although only weakly potent relative to larger covalent peptide inhibitors that interact through the active site cysteine, these fragments offer new opportunities as templates to build non-covalent inhibitors. The results suggest that non-covalent peptidomimetics may need to interact with sites beyond the hydrophobic groove in order to produce potent DsbA inhibitors.
Project description:The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited substrate-binding specificity.
Project description:Oxidative protein folding in Gram-negative bacteria results in the formation of disulfide bonds between pairs of cysteine residues. This is a multistep process in which the dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase enzyme, DsbA, plays a central role. The structure of DsbA comprises an all helical domain of unknown function and a thioredoxin domain, where active site cysteines shuttle between an oxidized, substrate-bound, reduced form and a DsbB-bound form, where DsbB is a membrane protein that reoxidizes DsbA. Most DsbA enzymes interact with a wide variety of reduced substrates and show little specificity. However, a number of DsbA enzymes have now been identified that have narrow substrate repertoires and appear to interact specifically with a smaller number of substrates. The transient nature of the DsbA-substrate complex has hampered our understanding of the factors that govern the interaction of DsbA enzymes with their substrates. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between Escherichia coli DsbA and a peptide with a sequence derived from a substrate. The binding site identified in the DsbA-peptide complex was distinct from that observed for DsbB in the DsbA-DsbB complex. The structure revealed details of the DsbA-peptide interaction and suggested a mechanism by which DsbA can simultaneously show broad specificity for substrates yet exhibit specificity for DsbB. This mode of binding was supported by solution nuclear magnetic resonance data as well as functional data, which demonstrated that the substrate specificity of DsbA could be modified via changes at the binding interface identified in the structure of the complex.
Project description:The multidrug resistant bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant cause of nosocomial infection. Biofilm formation, that requires both disulfide bond forming and chaperone-usher pathways, is a major virulence trait in this bacterium. Our biochemical characterizations show that the periplasmic A. baumannii DsbA (AbDsbA) enzyme has an oxidizing redox potential and dithiol oxidase activity. We found an unexpected non-covalent interaction between AbDsbA and the highly conserved prokaryotic elongation factor, EF-Tu. EF-Tu is a cytoplasmic protein but has been localized extracellularly in many bacterial pathogens. The crystal structure of this complex revealed that the EF-Tu switch I region binds to the non-catalytic surface of AbDsbA. Although the physiological and pathological significance of a DsbA/EF-Tu association is unknown, peptides derived from the EF-Tu switch I region bound to AbDsbA with submicromolar affinity. We also identified a seven-residue DsbB-derived peptide that bound to AbDsbA with low micromolar affinity. Further characterization confirmed that the EF-Tu- and DsbB-derived peptides bind at two distinct sites. These data point to the possibility that the non-catalytic surface of DsbA is a potential substrate or regulatory protein interaction site. The two peptides identified in this work together with the newly characterized interaction site provide a novel starting point for inhibitor design targeting AbDsbA.
Project description:AIMS:DsbA catalyzes disulfide bond formation in secreted and outer membrane proteins in bacteria. In pathogens, DsbA is a major facilitator of virulence constituting a target for antivirulence antimicrobial development. However, many pathogens encode multiple and diverse DsbA enzymes for virulence factor folding during infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recently identified inhibitors of Escherichia coli K-12 DsbA can inhibit the diverse DsbA enzymes found in two important human pathogens and attenuate their virulence. RESULTS:DsbA inhibitors from two chemical classes (phenylthiophene and phenoxyphenyl derivatives) inhibited the virulence of uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, encoding two and three diverse DsbA homologues, respectively. Inhibitors blocked the virulence of dsbA null mutants complemented with structurally diverse DsbL and SrgA, suggesting that they were not selective for prototypical DsbA. Structural characterization of DsbA-inhibitor complexes showed that compounds from each class bind in a similar region of the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the Cys30-Pro31-His32-Cys33 (CPHC) active site. Modeling of DsbL- and SrgA-inhibitor interactions showed that these accessory enzymes could accommodate the inhibitors in their different hydrophobic grooves, supporting our in vivo findings. Further, we identified highly conserved residues surrounding the active site for 20 diverse bacterial DsbA enzymes, which could be exploited in developing inhibitors with a broad spectrum of activity. Innovation and Conclusion: We have developed tools to analyze the specificity of DsbA inhibitors in bacterial pathogens encoding multiple DsbA enzymes. This work demonstrates that DsbA inhibitors can be developed to target diverse homologues found in bacteria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 29, 653-666.
Project description:There are two distinct pathways for disulfide formation in prokaryotes. The DsbA-DsbB pathway introduces disulfide bonds de novo, while the DsbC-DsbD pathway functions to isomerize disulfides. One of the key questions in disulfide biology is how the isomerase pathway is kept separate from the oxidase pathway in vivo. Cross-talk between these two systems would be mutually destructive. To force communication between these two systems we have selected dsbC mutants that complement a dsbA null mutation. In these mutants, DsbC is present as a monomer as compared with dimeric wild-type DsbC. Based on these findings we rationally designed DsbC mutants in the dimerization domain. All of these mutants are able to rescue the dsbA null phenotype. Rescue depends on the presence of DsbB, the native re-oxidant of DsbA, both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that dimerization acts to protect DsbC's active sites from DsbB-mediated oxidation. These results explain how oxidative and reductive pathways can co-exist in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.
Project description:A disulfide-bond formation system for nascent proteins in the Escherichia coli periplasm contains efficient electron transfer systems for the catalysis of oxidation. This electrochemical system has interesting implications in vivo. Disulfide bonds are formed by disulfide-bond formation protein A (DsbA), which contains two reactive cysteines. DsbA is reoxidized by a membrane protein, disulfide-bond formation protein B (DsbB), which has four catalytic cysteines. The oxidation of DsbA by DsbB seems energetically unfavorable on the basis of the redox potential. The oxidizing power of ubiquinone (UQ), which endogenously binds with DsbB, is believed to promote this reaction. However, using UQ-deficient DsbB, it was found that the oxidation of DsbA by DsbB proceeds independently of UQ. Thus, the reaction mechanism of DsbA oxidation by DsbB is under debate. In this study, we used the quartz crystal microbalance technique, which detects the intermediate complex between DsbA and DsbB during DsbA oxidation as a change in mass, to obtain kinetic parameters of DsbA oxidation under both the oxidized and reduced states of UQ at acidic and basic pH. In addition, we utilized sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay technique to determine the pK a of the cysteine thiol groups in DsbA and DsbB. We found that DsbA oxidation proceeded independently of UQ and was greatly affected in kinetics by the shuffling of electrons among the four cysteine residues in DsbB, regardless of pH. These results suggest that DsbA oxidation is driven in an entropy-dependent manner, in which the electron-delocalized intermediate complex is stabilized by preventing a reverse reaction. These findings could contribute to the design of bio-inspired electrochemical systems for industrial applications.
Project description:AIMS: The intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, a major source of morbidity and mortality in southeast Asia and northern Australia. The need to develop novel antimicrobials is compounded by the absence of a licensed vaccine and the bacterium's resistance to multiple antibiotics. In a number of clinically relevant Gram-negative pathogens, DsbA is the primary disulfide oxidoreductase responsible for catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds in secreted and membrane-associated proteins. In this study, a putative B. pseudomallei dsbA gene was evaluated functionally and structurally and its contribution to infection assessed. RESULTS: Biochemical studies confirmed the dsbA gene encodes a protein disulfide oxidoreductase. A dsbA deletion strain of B. pseudomallei was attenuated in both macrophages and a BALB/c mouse model of infection and displayed pleiotropic phenotypes that included defects in both secretion and motility. The 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of BpsDsbA revealed differences from the classic member of this family Escherichia coli DsbA, in particular within the region surrounding the active site disulfide where EcDsbA engages with its partner protein E. coli DsbB, indicating that the interaction of BpsDsbA with its proposed partner BpsDsbB may be distinct from that of EcDsbA-EcDsbB. INNOVATION: This study has characterized BpsDsbA biochemically and structurally and determined that it is required for virulence of B. pseudomallei. CONCLUSION: These data establish a critical role for BpsDsbA in B. pseudomallei infection, which in combination with our structural characterization of BpsDsbA will facilitate the future development of rationally designed inhibitors against this drug-resistant organism.
Project description:DsbA is a protein-folding catalyst from the periplasm of Escherichia coli that interacts with newly translocated polypeptide substrate and catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in these secreted proteins. The precise nature of the interaction between DsbA and unfolded substrate is not known. Here, we give a detailed analysis of the DsbA crystal structure, now refined to 1.7 A, and present a proposal for its interaction with peptide. The crystal structure of DsbA implies flexibility between the thioredoxin and helical domains that may be an important feature for the disulfide transfer reaction. A hinge point for domain motion is identified-the type IV beta-turn Phe 63-Met 64-Gly 65-Gly 66, which connects the two domains. Three unique features on the active site surface of the DsbA molecule-a groove, hydrophobic pocket, and hydrophobic patch-form an extensive uncharged surface surrounding the active-site disulfide. Residues that contribute to these surface features are shown to be generally conserved in eight DsbA homologues. Furthermore, the residues immediately surrounding the active-site disulfide are uncharged in all nine DsbA proteins. A model for DsbA-peptide interaction has been derived from the structure of a human thioredoxin:peptide complex. This shows that peptide could interact with DsbA in a manner similar to that with thioredoxin. The active-site disulfide and all three surrounding uncharged surface features of DsbA could, in principle, participate in the binding or stabilization of peptide.
Project description:The Dsb family of enzymes catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the gram-negative periplasm, which is required for folding and assembly of many secreted proteins. Pertussis toxin is arguably the most complex toxin known: it is assembled from six subunits encoded by five genes (for subunits S1 to S5), with 11 intramolecular disulfide bonds. To examine the role of the Dsb enzymes in assembly and secretion of pertussis toxin, we identified and mutated the Bordetella pertussis dsbA, dsbB, and dsbC homologues. Mutations in dsbA or dsbB resulted in decreased levels of S1 (the A subunit) and S2 (a B-subunit protein), demonstrating that DsbA and DsbB are required for toxin assembly. Mutations in dsbC did not impair assembly of periplasmic toxin but resulted in decreased toxin secretion, suggesting a defect in the formation of the Ptl secretion complex.