ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit.
Project description:Neutralizing tumor external acidity with oral buffers has proven effective for the prevention and inhibition of metastasis in several cancer mouse models. Solid tumors are highly acidic as a result of high glycolysis combined with an inadequate blood supply. Our prior work has shown that sodium bicarbonate, imidazole, and free-base (but not protonated) lysine are effective in reducing tumor progression and metastasis. However, a concern in translating these results to clinic has been the presence of counter ions and their potential undesirable side effects (e.g., hypernatremia). In this work, we investigate tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, (THAM or Tris), a primary amine with no counter ion, for its effects on metastasis and progression in prostate and pancreatic cancer in vivo models using MRI and bioluminescence imaging. At an ad lib concentration of 200 mmol/L, Tris effectively inhibited metastasis in both models and furthermore led to a decrease in the expression of the major glucose transporter, GLUT-1. Our results also showed that Tris-base buffer (pH 8.4) had no overt toxicity to C3H mice even at higher doses (400 mmol/L). In conclusion, we have developed a novel therapeutic approach to manipulate tumor extracellular pH (pHe) that could be readily adapted to a clinical trial.
Project description:Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine "buffering score", in mmol H+/pH unit. A "buffering score" was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products' buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The "de-buffered" lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer.
Project description:A number of studies have shown that the extracellular pH (pHe) in cancers is typically lower than that in normal tissue and that an acidic pHe promotes invasive tumor growth in primary and metastatic cancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that increased systemic concentrations of pH buffers reduce intratumoral and peritumoral acidosis and, as a result, inhibit malignant growth. Computer simulations are used to quantify the ability of systemic pH buffers to increase the acidic pHe of tumors in vivo and investigate the chemical specifications of an optimal buffer for such purpose. We show that increased serum concentrations of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) can be achieved by ingesting amounts that have been used in published clinical trials. Furthermore, we find that consequent reduction of tumor acid concentrations significantly reduces tumor growth and invasion without altering the pH of blood or normal tissues. The simulations also show that the critical parameter governing buffer effectiveness is its pK(a). This indicates that NaHCO(3), with a pK(a) of 6.1, is not an ideal intratumoral buffer and that greater intratumoral pHe changes could be obtained using a buffer with a pK(a) of approximately 7. The simulations support the hypothesis that systemic pH buffers can be used to increase the tumor pHe and inhibit tumor invasion.
Project description:Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.
Project description:Methylamine buffers can be used for the rapid quantitative removal of acetimidoyl groups from proteins and peptides modified by treatment with ethyl or methyl acetimidate. The half-life for displacement of acetimidoyl groups from fully amidinated proteins incubated in 3.44 M-methylamine/HCl buffer at pH 11.5 and 25 degrees C was approx. 26 min; this half life is 29 times less than that observed in ammonia/HCl buffer under the same conditions of pH and amine concentration. Incubation of acetimidated proteins with methylamine for 4 h resulted in greater than 95% removal of acetimidoyl groups. No deleterious effects on primary structure were detected by amino acid analysis or by automated Edman degradation. Reversible amidination of lysine residues, in conjunction with tryptic digestion, has been successfully applied to the determination of the amino acid sequence of an acetimidated mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain peptide. The regeneration of amino groups in amidinated proteins and peptides by methylaminolysis makes amidination a valuable alternative to citraconoylation and maleoylation in structural studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An important step in the proteomics of solid tumors, including breast cancer, consists of efficiently extracting most of proteins in the tumor specimen. For this purpose, Radio-Immunoprecipitation Assay (RIPA) buffer is widely employed. RIPA buffer's rapid and highly efficient cell lysis and good solubilization of a wide range of proteins is further augmented by its compatibility with protease and phosphatase inhibitors, ability to minimize non-specific protein binding leading to a lower background in immunoprecipitation, and its suitability for protein quantitation. RESULTS:In this work, the insoluble matter left after RIPA buffer extraction of proteins from breast tumors are subjected to another extraction step, using a urea-based buffer. It is shown that RIPA and urea lysis buffers fractionate breast tissue proteins primarily on the basis of molecular weights. The average molecular weight of proteins that dissolve exclusively in urea buffer is up to 60% higher than in RIPA.Gene Ontology (GO) and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) are used to map the collective biological and biophysical attributes of the RIPA and urea proteomes. The Cellular Component and Molecular Function annotations reveal protein solubilization preferences of the buffers, especially the compartmentalization and functional distributions.It is shown that nearly all extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) in the breast tumors and matched normal tissues are found, nearly exclusively, in the urea fraction, while they are mostly insoluble in RIPA buffer. Additionally, it is demonstrated that cytoskeletal and extracellular region proteins are more soluble in urea than in RIPA, whereas for nuclear, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins, RIPA buffer is preferred.Extracellular matrix proteins are highly implicated in cancer, including their proteinase-mediated degradation and remodelling, tumor development, progression, adhesion and metastasis. Thus, if they are not efficiently extracted by RIPA buffer, important information may be missed in cancer research. CONCLUSION:For proteomics of solid tumors, a two-step extraction process is recommended. First, proteins in the tumor specimen should be extracted with RIPA buffer. Second, the RIPA-insoluble material should be extracted with the urea-based buffer employed in this work.
Project description:The external pH of solid tumors is acidic as a consequence of increased metabolism of glucose and poor perfusion. Acid pH has been shown to stimulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in cells before tail vein injection in vivo. The present study investigates whether inhibition of this tumor acidity will reduce the incidence of in vivo metastases. Here, we show that oral NaHCO(3) selectively increased the pH of tumors and reduced the formation of spontaneous metastases in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer. This treatment regimen was shown to significantly increase the extracellular pH, but not the intracellular pH, of tumors by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the export of acid from growing tumors by fluorescence microscopy of tumors grown in window chambers. NaHCO(3) therapy also reduced the rate of lymph node involvement, yet did not affect the levels of circulating tumor cells, suggesting that reduced organ metastases were not due to increased intravasation. In contrast, NaHCO(3) therapy significantly reduced the formation of hepatic metastases following intrasplenic injection, suggesting that it did inhibit extravasation and colonization. In tail vein injections of alternative cancer models, bicarbonate had mixed results, inhibiting the formation of metastases from PC3M prostate cancer cells, but not those of B16 melanoma. Although the mechanism of this therapy is not known with certainty, low pH was shown to increase the release of active cathepsin B, an important matrix remodeling protease.
Project description:The goal of this study is to test ionic strength and buffering capacity in polysome extraction buffer on ribosome footprints in Arabidopsis root and shoot. Overall design: Ribo-seq generated from Arabidopsis root and shoot prepared with four different polysome extraction buffers. All four buffers contain 2% polyoxyethylene 10 tridecyl ether, 1% deoxycholic acid, 1 mM DTT, 100 µg/mL cycloheximide, and 10 unit/mL DNase I, but with different ionic strength or buffering capacity listed below. Buffer A: 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8), 50 mM KCl, 25 mM MgCl2; buffer B: 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8), 40 mM KCl, 20 mM MgCl2; buffer C: 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8), 30 mM KCl, 15 mM MgCl2; buffer D: 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8), 40 mM KCl, 20 mM MgCl2. 8 libraries in total.
Project description:1. Mouse liver heterolysosomes containing (125)I-labelled albumin were incubated at 35 degrees C in 0.25m-sucrose-0.05m-mercaptoethanol, and various concentrations of buffers at pH4, 5, 7 or 8, and the degradation of intraparticulate protein was measured. 2. Buffers at pH4, 7 or 8 inhibited proteolytic activity and the inhibitions were greater with increasing concentrations of buffers. Tris-acetate buffer, pH8, was a more effective inhibitor. Tris-acetate buffer, pH5, neither inhibited nor stimulated proteolytic activity at concentrations up to 0.1m. 3. Inhibition by pH8 buffers could be accounted for by increased breakage rates of heterolysosomes. 4. Preincubation of heterolysosomes in 0.2m-sodium bicarbonate inhibited proteolytic activity when the particles were washed free of bicarbonate, but the inhibition was reversed if these particles were incubated in media containing pH5 buffer. The inhibition was shown not to be due to an increased breakage of heterolysosomes. 5. It was concluded that the pH within heterolysosomes is about 5, and it is possible to alter reversibly the pH within these particles. The possibility for the existence of an intralysosomal buffering system which maintains the pH at about 5 in heterolysosomes is discussed. This buffering system may be related to the presence of large quantities of acidic lipoproteins in lysosomes observed by other investigators.
Project description:In this study, we show that equilibrium pH can be obtained for any specified fluid with any number of buffers and dissociations. This is done by root finding in the equation for charge balance. We demonstrate that this equation is monotonic in proton concentration for conceivable buffers. We show that the total charge on any buffer is a function of only the total buffer concentration and pH, given the thermodynamic dissociation constants. Using the Davies' equation as a placeholder for single-ion activity coefficients as a function of charge and ionic strength, we develop an iterative algorithm, whereby the apparent dissociation constants are updated from the thermodynamic dissociation constants, and from this, the equilibrium is also identified in the nonideal state. We show how this algebra leads to guaranteed conservation of both thermodynamic dissociation constants and total buffer concentrations because the distribution of buffer species is fixed by the updated dissociation constants, actual pH, and total buffer concentration. Strong ions are assumed to contribute fixed charges. In order to concentrate on the process of modeling the equilibrium pH alone, this algorithm is examined against a series of theoretical results in which the Davies' equation was given the same status. However, a large sample of clinical pH measurements is also examined. To enhance the practical utility, CO2 and albumin are present as the default condition. We developed "ABCharge", a package in R, an open source language. The main function returns pH, activity coefficients, buffer species distribution, ionic strength, and charge balance for both the ideal and nonideal cases, for any mixture of any buffers with any number of known thermodynamic dissociation constants. Our algorithm can be updated if a more reliable and practical assessment of single-ion activities becomes available. Can Stock Photo/miceking.