Tetrahydronaphthyridine and dihydronaphthyridinone ethers as positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu?).
ABSTRACT: Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Starting from an acetylene-based lead from high throughput screening, an evolved bicyclic dihydronaphthyridinone was identified. We describe further refinements leading to both dihydronaphthyridinone and tetrahydronaphthyridine mGlu5 PAMs containing an alkoxy-based linkage as an acetylene replacement. Exploration of several structural features including western pyridine ring isomers, positional amides, linker connectivity/position, and combinations thereof, reveal that these bicyclic modulators generally exhibit steep SAR and within specific subseries display a propensity for pharmacological mode switching at mGlu5 as well as antagonist activity at mGlu3. Structure-activity relationships within a dihydronaphthyridinone subseries uncovered 12c (VU0405372), a selective mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency, low glutamate fold-shift, acceptable DMPK properties, and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) activators have emerged as a novel approach to the treatment of schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGlu5 have generated tremendous excitement and fueled major drug discovery efforts. Although mGlu5 PAMs have robust efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia, preliminary reports suggest that these compounds may induce seizure activity. Prototypical mGlu5 PAMs do not activate mGlu5 directly but selectively potentiate activation of mGlu5 by glutamate. This mechanism may be critical to maintaining normal activity-dependence of mGlu5 activation and achieving optimal in vivo effects. METHODS:Using specially engineered mGlu5 cell lines incorporating point mutations within the allosteric and orthosteric binding sites, as well as brain slice electrophysiology and in vivo electroencephalography and behavioral pharmacology, we found that some mGlu5 PAMs have intrinsic allosteric agonist activity in the absence of glutamate. RESULTS:Both in vitro mutagenesis and in vivo pharmacology studies demonstrate that VU0422465 is an agonist PAM that induces epileptiform activity and behavioral convulsions in rodents. In contrast, VU0361747, an mGlu5 PAMs optimized to eliminate allosteric agonist activity, has robust in vivo efficacy and does not induce adverse effects at doses that yield high brain concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Loss of the absolute dependence of mGlu5 PAMs on glutamate release for their activity can lead to severe adverse effects. The finding that closely related mGlu5 PAMs can differ in their intrinsic agonist activity provides critical new insights that is essential for advancing these molecules through clinical development for treatment of schizophrenia.
Project description:Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~ 3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs.
Project description:Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu?) is a promising novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia and cognitive disorders. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, allowing for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. The molecular determinants that govern mGlu? modulator affinity versus cooperativity are not well understood. Focusing on the modulators based on the acetylene scaffold, we sought to determine the molecular interactions that contribute to PAM versus NAM pharmacology. Generation of a comparative model of the transmembrane-spanning region of mGlu? served as a tool to predict and interpret the impact of mutations in this region. Application of an operational model of allosterism allowed for determination of PAM and NAM affinity estimates at receptor constructs that possessed no detectable radioligand binding as well as delineation of effects on affinity versus cooperativity. Novel mutations within the transmembrane domain (TM) regions were identified that had differential effects on acetylene PAMs versus 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, a prototypical NAM. Three conserved amino acids (Y658, T780, and S808) and two nonconserved residues (P654 and A809) were identified as key determinants of PAM activity. Interestingly, we identified two point mutations in TMs 6 and 7 that, when mutated, engender a mode switch in the pharmacology of certain PAMs.
Project description:Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a novel strategy for therapeutic intervention into multiple central nervous system disorders, including schizophrenia. Recently, a number of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGlu5 were discovered to exhibit in vivo efficacy in rodent models of psychosis, including PAMs possessing varying degrees of agonist activity (ago-PAMs), as well as PAMs devoid of agonist activity. However, previous studies revealed that ago-PAMs can induce seizure activity and behavioral convulsions, whereas pure mGlu5 PAMs do not induce these adverse effects. We recently identified a potent and selective mGlu5 PAM, VU0403602, that was efficacious in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats. The compound also induced time-dependent seizure activity that was blocked by coadministration of the mGlu5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine. Consistent with potential adverse effects induced by ago-PAMs, we found that VU0403602 had significant allosteric agonist activity. Interestingly, inhibition of VU0403602 metabolism in vivo by a pan cytochrome P450 (P450) inactivator completely protected rats from induction of seizures. P450-mediated biotransformation of VU0403602 was discovered to produce another potent ago-PAM metabolite-ligand (M1) of mGlu5. Electrophysiological studies in rat hippocampal slices confirmed agonist activity of both M1 and VU0403602 and revealed that M1 can induce epileptiform activity in a manner consistent with its proconvulsant behavioral effects. Furthermore, unbound brain exposure of M1 was similar to that of the parent compound, VU0403602. These findings indicate that biotransformation of mGlu5 PAMs to active metabolite-ligands may contribute to the epileptogenesis observed after in vivo administration of this class of allosteric receptor modulators.
Project description:We report the optimization of a series of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) from an acyl dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone class. Investigation of exocyclic amide transpositions with this unique 5,6-bicyclic core were conducted in attempt to modulate physicochemical properties and identify a suitable backup candidate with a reduced half-life. A potent and selective PAM, 1-(2-(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4(5H)-yl)ethanone (9a, VU0462807), was identified with superior solubility and efficacy in the acute amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AHL) rat model with a minimum effective dose of 3mg/kg. Attempts to mitigate oxidative metabolism of the western phenoxy of 9a through extensive modification and profiling are described.
Project description:Schizophrenia is associated with disruptions in N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic signaling. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is a closely associated signaling partner with NMDARs and regulates NMDAR function in forebrain regions implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. Efficacy of mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) in animal models of psychosis and cognition was previously attributed to potentiation of NMDAR function. To directly test this hypothesis, we identified VU0409551 as a novel mGlu5 PAM that exhibits distinct stimulus bias and selectively potentiates mGlu5 coupling to G?q-mediated signaling but not mGlu5 modulation of NMDAR currents or NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus. Interestingly, VU0409551 produced robust antipsychotic-like and cognition-enhancing activity in animal models. These data provide surprising new mechanistic insights into the actions of mGlu5 PAMs and suggest that modulation of NMDAR currents is not critical for in vivo efficacy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Project description:Stress can precipitate or worsen symptoms of many psychiatric illnesses. Dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate system may underlie these disruptions and restoring PFC glutamate signaling has emerged as a promising avenue for the treatment of stress disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3) induces a postsynaptic form of long-term depression (LTD) that is dependent on the activity of another subtype, mGlu5. Stress exposure disrupted this plasticity, but the underlying signaling mechanisms and involvement in higher-order cognition have not yet been investigated. Acute stress was applied by 20-min restraint and early reversal learning was evaluated in an operant-based food-seeking task. We employed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of layer 5 prelimbic (PL)-PFC pyramidal cells to examine mGlu3-LTD and several mechanistically distinct mGlu5-dependent functions. Acute stress impaired both mGlu3-LTD and early reversal learning. Interestingly, potentiating mGlu5 signaling with the mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) VU0409551 rescued stress-induced deficits in both mGlu3-LTD and reversal learning. Other aspects of PL-PFC mGlu5 function were not disrupted following stress; however, signaling downstream of mGlu5-Homer interactions, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3? was implicated in these phenomena. These findings demonstrate that acute stress disrupts early reversal learning and PL-PFC-dependent synaptic plasticity and that potentiating mGlu5 function can restore these impairments. These findings provide a framework through which modulating coordinated mGlu3/mGlu5 signaling may confer benefits for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Impaired transmission through glutamatergic circuits has been postulated to play a role in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDAR) induces a syndrome that recapitulates many of the symptoms observed in patients with schizophrenia. Selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia through facilitation of transmission through central glutamatergic circuits. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel N-aryl piperazine mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 2-(4-(2-(benzyloxy)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)benzonitrile (VU0364289) and 1-(4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)ethanone (DPFE). VU0364289 and DPFE induced robust leftward shifts in the glutamate concentration-response curves for Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Both PAMs displayed micromolar affinity for the common mGlu5 allosteric binding site and high selectivity for mGlu5. VU0364289 and DPFE possessed suitable pharmacokinetic properties for dosing in vivo and produced robust dose-related effects in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a preclinical model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In addition, DPFE enhanced acquisition of contextual fear conditioning in rats and reversed behavioral deficits in a mouse model of NMDAR hypofunction. In contrast, DPFE had no effect on reversing apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These mGlu5 PAMs also increased monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, enhanced performance in a hippocampal-mediated memory task, and elicited changes in electroencephalogram dynamics commensurate with procognitive effects. Collectively, these data support and extend the role for the development of novel mGlu5 PAMs for the treatment of psychosis and cognitive deficits observed in individuals with schizophrenia.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a target for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, mGlu5 has been shown to play an important role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, specifically in long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), which is thought to be involved in cognition. Multiple mGlu5-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been developed from a variety of different scaffolds. Previous work has extensively characterized a common allosteric site on mGlu5, termed the MPEP (2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine) binding site. However, one mGlu5 PAM, CPPHA (N-(4-chloro-2-[(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)methyl]phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide), interacts with a separate allosteric site on mGlu5. Using cell-based assays and brain slice preparations, we characterized the interaction of a potent and efficacious mGlu5 PAM from the CPPHA series termed NCFP (N-(4-chloro-2-((4-fluoro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)methyl)phenyl)picolinamide). NCFP binds to the CPPHA site on mGlu5 and potentiates mGlu5-mediated responses in both recombinant and native systems. However, NCFP provides greater mGlu5 subtype selectivity than does CPPHA, making it more suitable for studies of effects on mGlu5 in CNS preparations. Of interest, NCFP does not potentiate responses involved in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (LTD/LTP), setting it apart from other previously characterized MPEP site PAMs. This suggests that although mGlu5 PAMs may have similar responses in some systems, they can induce differential effects on mGlu5-mediated physiologic responses in the CNS. Such stimulus bias by mGlu5 PAMs may complicate drug discovery efforts but would also allow for specifically tailored therapies, if pharmacological biases can be attributed to different therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:Allosteric modulation of GPCRs represents an increasingly explored approach in drug development. Due to complex pharmacology, however, the relationship(s) between modulator properties determined in vitro with in vivo concentration-effect phenomena is frequently unclear. We investigated key pharmacological properties of a set of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) and their relevance to in vivo concentration-response relationships. These studies identified a significant relationship between in vitro PAM cooperativity (??), as well as the maximal response obtained from a simple in vitro PAM concentration-response experiment, with in vivo efficacy for reversal of amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. This correlation did not exist with PAM potency or affinity. Data across PAMs were then converged to calculate an in vivo concentration of glutamate putatively relevant to the mGlu5 PAM mechanism of action. This work demonstrates the ability to merge in vitro pharmacology profiles with relevant behavioral outcomes and also provides a novel method to estimate neurotransmitter concentrations in vivo.