Enhanced risk profiling of implanted defibrillator shocks with circulating SCN5A mRNA splicing variants: a pilot trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the association of SCN5A cardiac sodium (Na(+)) channel mRNA splice variants in white blood cells (WBCs) with risk of arrhythmias in heart failure (HF).HF is associated with upregulation of two cardiac SCN5A mRNA splice variants that encode prematurely truncated, nonfunctional Na(+) channels. Because circulating WBCs demonstrate similar SCN5A splicing patterns, we hypothesized that these WBC-derived splice variants might further stratify patients with HF who are at risk for arrhythmias.Simultaneously obtained myocardial core samples and WBCs were compared for SCN5A variants C (VC) and D (VD). Circulating variant levels were compared among patients with HF, divided into three groups: HF without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), HF with an ICD without appropriate intervention, and HF with an ICD with appropriate intervention.Myocardial tissue-derived SCN5A variant expression levels strongly correlated with circulating WBC samples for both VC and VD variants (r = 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). After controlling for covariates, patients with HF who had received an appropriate ICD intervention had higher expression levels of both WBC-derived SCN5A variants compared with patients with HF with ICDs who had not received appropriate ICD intervention (odds ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.64-6.45; p = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that circulating SCN5A variant levels were highly associated with the risk for appropriate ICD intervention (area under the curve ?0.97).Circulating expression levels of SCN5A variants were strongly associated with myocardial tissue levels. Furthermore, circulating variant levels were correlative with arrhythmic risk as measured by ICD events in an HF population within 1 year. (Sodium Channel Splicing in Heart Failure Trial [SOCS-HEFT]; NCT01185587).
Project description:Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited primary arrhythmia disorder leading to sudden cardiac arrest. SCN5A, encoding the ?-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5), is the most common pathogenic gene of BrS. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the standard treatment for secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate association of the SCN5A variant with this cardiac conduction disturbance and appropriate ICD shock therapy in Thai symptomatic BrS patients with ICD implants.Symptomatic BrS patients diagnosed at university hospital were enrolled from 2008 to 2011. The primary outcome of the study was an appropriate ICD shock defined as having non-pacing-associated ICD shock after the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Associations between SCN5A polymorphisms, cardiac conduction disturbance, and potential confounding factors associated with appropriate ICD shock therapy were analyzed. All 40 symptomatic BrS patients (median age, 43 years) with ICD implantations were followed for 24 months. There were 16 patients (40%) who had the appropriate ICD shock therapy after ICD treatment. An independent factor associated with appropriate ICD shock therapy was SCN5A-R1193Q with an adjusted hazard ratio of 10.550 (95% CI, 1.631-68.232).SCN5A-R1193Q is associated with cardiac conduction disturbances. It may be a genetic marker associated with ventricular arrhythmia leading to appropriate ICD shock therapy in symptomatic BrS patients with ICD treatment. Because of the small sample size of study population and the appropriate ICD shock outcome, further large studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Systemic inflammation contributes to cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, and elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts are an established risk factor. Our goal is to describe changes in WBCs and inflammatory markers after glycemic reductions in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This study enrolled 63 subjects with poorly controlled diabetes, defined as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?8% [64?mmol/mol]. Circulating granulocytes and mononuclear cells were separated by histopaque double-density protocol. Inflammatory markers from these isolated WBCs were assessed at baseline and after 3?months of medical management. RESULTS:After 3?months, significant glycemic reduction, defined as a decrease in HbA1c???1.5%, occurred in 42 subjects. Fasting plasma glucose decreased by 47% (165.6?mg/dL), and HbA1c decreased from 10.2?±?1.8 to 6.8?±?0.9. Glycemic reductions were associated with a 9.4% decrease in total WBC counts, 10.96% decrease in neutrophils, and 21.74% decrease in monocytes. The mRNA levels of inflammatory markers from granulocytes and mononuclear cells decreased, including receptor for advanced glycation endproducts; S100 calcium binding proteins A8, A9, A12; krüppel-like factor 5; and IL-1. Also, circulating levels of IL-1? and C-reactive protein decreased. Insulin dose was a mediator between HbA1c and both total WBC and neutrophil counts, but not changes in WBC inflammatory markers. In contrast, the 17 subjects without significant glycemic reductions showed no significant differences in their WBC counts and proteins of inflammatory genes. CONCLUSION:Significant glycemic reduction in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes led to reduced circulating WBC counts and inflammatory gene expression.
Project description:Human heart failure (HF) increases alternative mRNA splicing of the type V, voltage-gated cardiac Na+ channel ?-subunit (SCN5A), generating variants encoding truncated, nonfunctional channels that are trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this work, we tested whether truncated Na+ channels activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), contributing to SCN5A electric remodeling in HF.UPR and SCN5A were analyzed in human ventricular systolic HF tissue samples and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Cells were exposed to angiotensin II (AngII) and hypoxia, known activators of abnormal SCN5A mRNA splicing, or were induced to overexpress SCN5A variants. UPR effectors, protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), calreticulin, and CHOP, were increased in human HF tissues. Induction of SCN5A variants with AngII or hypoxia or the expression of exogenous variants induced the UPR with concomitant downregulation of Na+ current. PERK activation destabilized SCN5A and, surprisingly, Kv4.3 channel mRNAs but not transient receptor potential cation channel M7 (TRPM7) channel mRNA. PERK inhibition prevented the loss of full-length SCN5A and Kv4.3 mRNA levels resulting from expressing Na+ channel mRNA splice variants.UPR can be initiated by Na+ channel mRNA splice variants and is involved in the reduction of cardiac Na+ current during human HF. Because the effect is not entirely specific to the SCN5A transcript, the UPR may play an important role in downregulation of multiple cardiac genes in HF.
Project description:Recent cases of prion transmission in humans following transfusions using blood donated by patients with asymptomatic variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) implicate the presence of prion infectivity in peripheral blood. In this study, we examined the levels of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC), and the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc) in subpopulations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) from patients with sporadic (s) CJD, age-matched neurological controls and healthy donors. Though widely distributed, the highest levels of PrPC were found in a subpopulation of T lymphocytes: approximately 12,000 PrPC molecules were found per CD4+CD45RA-CD62L- effector memory T helper cell. Although platelets expressed low levels of PrPC on their surface, their high abundance in circulation resulted in the majority of PrPC being platelet associated. Using quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, we found that neither WBC composition nor the amount of cell-surface PrPC molecules was altered in patients with sCJD. Eight different WBC fraction types from the peripheral blood of patients with sCJD were assessed for PrPSc. We were unable to find any evidence for PrPSc in purified granulocytes, monocytes, B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, nonclassical gamma delta T cells, or platelets. If human WBCs harbor prion infectivity in patients with sCJD, then the levels are likely to be low.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) is associated with reduced cardiac Na+ channel (SCN5A) current. We hypothesized that abnormal transcriptional regulation of this ion channel during HF could help explain the reduced current. Using human hearts explanted at the transplantation, we have identified 3 human C-terminal SCN5A mRNA splicing variants predicted to result in truncated, nonfunctional channels. As compared with normal hearts, the explanted ventricles showed an upregulation of 2 of the variants and a downregulation of the full-length mRNA transcript such that the E28A transcript represented only 48.5% (P<0.01) of the total SCN5A mRNA. This correlated with a 62.8% (P<0.01) reduction in Na+ channel protein. Lymphoblasts and skeletal muscle expressing SCN5A also showed identical C-terminal splicing variants. Variants showed reduced membrane protein and no functional current. Transfection of truncation variants into a cell line stably transfected with the full-length Na+ channel resulted in dose-dependent reductions in channel mRNA and current. Introduction of a premature truncation in the C-terminal region in a single allele of the mouse SCN5A resulted in embryonic lethality. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes expressing the construct showed reductions in Na+ channel-dependent electrophysiological parameters, suggesting that the presence of truncated Na+ channel mRNA at levels seen in HF is likely to be physiologically significant. In summary, chronic HF was associated with an increase in 2 truncated SCN5A variants and a decrease in the native mRNA. These splice variations may help explain a loss of Na+ channel protein and may contribute to the increased arrhythmic risk in clinical HF.
Project description:Risk-stratifying heart failure patients for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) remains a challenge, especially for blacks, who have an increased incidence of sudden cardiac death but have been underrepresented in clinical trials. We hypothesized that the S1103Y cardiac sodium channel SCN5A variant influences the propensity for ventricular arrhythmias in black patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.Blacks (n=112) with ejection fractions <35% receiving primary prevention ICDs were identified from the Duke Electrophysiology Genetic and Genomic Studies (EPGEN) biorepository and followed for appropriate ICD therapy (either anti tachycardia pacing or shock) for documented sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. The S1103Y variant was overrepresented in patients receiving appropriate ICD therapy compared with subjects who did not (35% versus 13%, P=0.03). Controlling for baseline characteristics, the adjusted hazard ratio using a Cox proportional hazard model for ICD therapy in Y1103 allele carriers was 4.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.60 to 11.73, P=<0.01). There was no difference in mortality between carriers and noncarriers.This is the first report that the S1103Y variant is associated with a higher incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in blacks with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) has been referred to as the cardiovascular epidemic of our time. Understanding the molecular determinants of HF disease progression and mortality risk is of utmost importance. In this issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. uncover an important link between clinical HF mortality risk and a common variant that regulates SCN5A expression through microRNA-dependent (miR-dependent)mechanisms. They also demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of SCN5A is associated with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a genetically engineered murine model. Their data suggest that even modest depression of SCN5A expression may promote pathologic cardiac remodeling and progression of HF.
Project description:Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is employed for the management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). ECP involves the extracorporeal exposure of white blood cells (WBCs) to a photosensitizer, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), in the context of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, followed by WBC reinfusion. Historically, the therapeutic activity of ECP has been attributed to selective cytotoxicity on circulating CTCL cells. However, only a fraction of WBCs is exposed to ECP, and 8-MOP is inactive in the absence of UVA light, implying that other mechanisms underlie the anticancer effects of ECP. Recently, ECP has been shown to enable the physiological differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs) that efficiently cross-present tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to CD8+ T lymphocytes to initiate cognate immunity. However, the source of TAAs and immunostimulatory signals for such DCs remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that 8-MOP plus UVA light reduces melanoma cell viability along with the emission of ICD-associated danger signals including calreticulin (CALR) exposure on the cell surface and secretion of ATP, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and type I interferon (IFN). Consistently, melanoma cells succumbing to 8-MOP plus UVA irradiation are efficiently engulfed by monocytes, ultimately leading to cross-priming of CD8+ T cells against cancer. Moreover, malignant cells killed by 8-MOP plus UVA irradiation in vitro vaccinate syngeneic immunocompetent mice against living cancer cells of the same type, and such a protection is lost when cancer cells are depleted of calreticulin or HMGB1, as well as in the presence of an ATP-degrading enzyme or antibodies blocking type I IFN receptors. ECP induces bona fide ICD, hence simultaneously providing monocytes with abundant amounts of TAAs and immunostimulatory signals that are sufficient to initiate cognate anticancer immunity.
Project description:Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from ventricular tachyarrhythmias accounts for approximately 450,000 annual deaths in the United States; many of these cases involve patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Prediction of which HF patients are most susceptible to SCD is difficult, and it is uncertain whether gene polymorphisms associated with HF outcomes are also linked to arrhythmic risk.We evaluated 485 patients with chronic HF to see whether the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) 1166A/C or angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms were associated with a higher rate of ventricular arrhythmias requiring implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies over a 5-year period. We assessed the correlation between polymorphisms and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) and/or ICD shocks.Patients with AT1R-1166CC genotype had an increased rate of all events: ATP plus ICD shocks (P = .02). There was no association between ACE I/D genotype and ICD therapies. Furthermore, circulating levels of microRNA-155 (miR-155), a microRNA known to posttranscriptionally regulate AT1R expression, were significantly decreased in the CC compared with the AC and AA genotypes and were associated with ICD events.Our study suggests that the AT1R-1166CC genotype is associated with increased ICD therapies in patients with chronic HF, and the level of circulating miR-155 may be a potential marker for arrhythmic risk. Although these findings are novel, they will need replication and validation in larger cohorts of chronic HF patients.
Project description:Variants in SCN10A, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel, are associated with alterations of cardiac conduction parameters and the cardiac rhythm disorder Brugada syndrome; however, it is unclear how SCN10A variants promote dysfunctional cardiac conduction. Here we showed by high-resolution 4C-seq analysis of the Scn10a-Scn5a locus in murine heart tissue that a cardiac enhancer located in Scn10a, encompassing SCN10A functional variant rs6801957, interacts with the promoter of Scn5a, a sodium channel-encoding gene that is critical for cardiac conduction. We observed that SCN5A transcript levels were several orders of magnitude higher than SCN10A transcript levels in both adult human and mouse heart tissue. Analysis of BAC transgenic mouse strains harboring an engineered deletion of the enhancer within Scn10a revealed that the enhancer was essential for Scn5a expression in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, the common SCN10A variant rs6801957 modulated Scn5a expression in the heart. In humans, the SCN10A variant rs6801957, which correlated with slowed conduction, was associated with reduced SCN5A expression. These observations establish a genomic mechanism for how a common genetic variation at SCN10A influences cardiac physiology and predisposes to arrhythmia.