Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.
ABSTRACT: Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered using environmental amenities to explain social health inequalities.Nevertheless, Green spaces that promote good health may have an effect on socioeconomic health inequalities. In developed countries, there is considerable evidence that green spaces have a beneficial effect on the health of urban populations and recent studies suggest they can have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the relationship between green spaces and the spatial distribution of infant mortality taking account neighborhood deprivation levels. METHODS: The study took place in Lyon metropolitan area, France. All infant deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were geocoded at census block level. Each census block was assigned greenness and socioeconomic deprivation levels. The spatial-scan statistic was used to identify high risk cluster of infant mortality according to these neighborhood characteristics. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of infant mortality was not random with a high risk cluster in the south east of the Lyon metropolitan area (p<0.003). This cluster disappeared (p=0.12) after adjustment for greenness level and socioeconomic deprivation, suggesting that these factors explain part of the spatial distribution of infant mortality. These results are discussed using a conceptual framework with 3 hypothetical pathways by which green spaces may have a beneficial effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) a psychological pathway, (ii) a physiological disruption process and (iii) an environmental pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These results add some evidence to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between access to green spaces and pregnancy outcomes but further research is required to confirm this.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether the risk of premature mortality associated with living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods varies according to the health status of individuals. METHODS:Community-dwelling adults (n = 566,402; age = 50-71 years) in 6 US states and 2 metropolitan areas participated in the ongoing prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, which began in 1995. We used baseline data for 565,679 participants on health behaviors, self-rated health status, and medical history, collected by mailed questionnaires. Participants were linked to 2000 census data for an index of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. The main outcome was all-cause mortality ascertained through 2006. RESULTS:In adjusted survival analyses of persons in good-to-excellent health at baseline, risk of mortality increased with increasing levels of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. Neighborhood socioeconomic mortality disparities among persons in fair-to-poor health were not statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, educational achievement, lifestyle, and medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Neighborhood socioeconomic inequalities lead to large disparities in risk of premature mortality among healthy US adults but not among those in poor health.
Project description:Adverse birth outcomes related to air pollution are well documented; however, few studies have accounted for infant sex. There is also scientific evidence that the neighborhood socioeconomic profile may modify this association even after adjusting for individual socioeconomic characteristics. The objective is to analyze the association between air pollution and birth weight by infant sex and neighborhood socioeconomic index. All birth weights (2008-2011) were geocoded at census block level. Each census block was assigned a socioeconomic deprivation level, as well as daily NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We performed a multilevel model with a multiple statistical test and sensible analysis using the spline function. Our findings suggest the existence of a differential association between air pollution and BW according to both neighborhood socioeconomic level and infant sex. However, due to multiple statistical tests and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), all significant associations became either not statistically significant or borderline. Our findings reinforce the need for additional studies to investigate the role of the neighborhood socioeconomic which could differentially modify the air pollution effect.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes-one based on occupation and the other on educational level at the census-tract level.<h4>Methods</h4>A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50 × 50 grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas.<h4>Results</h4>A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic.
Project description:Low neighborhood socioeconomic status has been linked to adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether changing the neighborhood may influence health. We examined 10-year change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation in relation to mortality rate among 288,555 participants aged 51-70 years who enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study in 1995-1996 (baseline) and did not move during the study. Changes in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation between 1990 and 2000 were measured by US Census data at the census tract level. All-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File between 2000 and 2011. Overall, our results suggested that improvement in neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with a lower mortality rate, while deterioration was associated with a higher mortality rate. More specially, a 30-percentile-point reduction in neighborhood deprivation among more deprived neighborhoods was associated with 11% and 19% reductions in the total mortality rate among men and women, respectively. On the other hand, a 30-point increase in neighborhood deprivation in less deprived neighborhoods was associated with an 11% increase in the mortality rate among men. Our findings support a longitudinal association between changing neighborhood conditions and mortality.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Infant mortality rates are higher in nonmetropolitan areas versus large metropolitan areas. Variation by race/ethnicity and cause of death has not been assessed. Urban-rural infant mortality rate differences were quantified by race/ethnicity and cause of death. METHODS:National Vital Statistics System linked birth/infant death data (2014-2016) were analyzed in 2019 by 3 urban-rural county classifications: large metropolitan, medium/small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan. Excess infant mortality rates (rate differences) by urban-rural classification were calculated relative to large metropolitan areas overall and for each racial/ethnic group. The number of excess deaths, population attributable fraction, and proportion of excess deaths attributable to underlying causes of death was calculated. RESULTS:Nonmetropolitan areas had the highest excess infant mortality rate overall. Excess infant mortality rates were substantially lower for Hispanic infants than other races/ethnicities. Overall, 7.4% of infant deaths would be prevented if all areas had the infant mortality rate of large metropolitan areas. With more than half of births occurring outside of large metropolitan areas, the population attributable fraction was highest for American Indian/Alaska Natives (20.3%) and whites, non-Hispanic (14.3%). Excess infant mortality rates in both nonmetropolitan and medium/small metropolitan areas were primarily attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths (42.3% and 31.9%) and congenital anomalies (30.1% and 26.8%). This pattern was consistent for all racial/ethnic groups except black, non-Hispanic infants, for whom preterm-related and sudden unexpected infant deaths accounted for the largest share of excess infant mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS:Infant mortality increases with rurality, and excess infant mortality rates are predominantly attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths and congenital anomalies, with differences by race/ethnicity regarding magnitude and cause of death.
Project description:Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [?=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation in NYC, however, precludes simple interpretation of interactive effects on birth weight, and highlights the importance of considering differential distributions of air pollution concentrations, and potential differences in susceptibility, across deprivation levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The overall survival rate of prostate cancer (PCa) has improved over the past decades. However, huge socioeconomic and racial disparities in overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality exist. The neighborhood-level factors including socioeconomic disadvantage and lack of access to care may contribute to disparities in cancer mortality. This study examines the impact of neighborhood deprivation on mortality among PCa survivors.<h4>Methods</h4>North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) data were used. A total of 2113 men, 1046 AA and 1067 EA, with PCa were included in the analysis. Neighborhood deprivation was measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) at the census block group level using data from the US Census Bureau. Quintiles of ADI were created. Cox proportional hazards and competing risk models with mixed effects were performed to estimate the effect of neighborhood deprivation on all-cause and PCa-specific mortality adjusted for age, race, study site, insurance status, and comorbidities.<h4>Results</h4>Participants living in the most deprived neighborhoods had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (quintiles 4 + 5: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-1.96) compared to those in the least deprived (quintile 1) neighborhoods. The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality was also higher among those living in the deprived neighborhoods (quintiles 4 + 5: aHR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.10-3.50) than those in the least deprived neighborhood.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings suggest neighborhood-level resources or health interventions are essential to improve survival among men with PCa. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms of how the neighborhood environment affects mortality.
Project description:We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p<0.01) higher for nonwhites than for whites. The environmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ?7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: In order to study social health inequalities, contextual (or ecologic) data may constitute an appropriate alternative to individual socioeconomic characteristics. Indices can be used to summarize the multiple dimensions of the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This work proposes a statistical procedure to create a neighborhood socioeconomic index. METHODS: The study setting is composed of three French urban areas. Socioeconomic data at the census block scale come from the 1999 census. Successive principal components analyses are used to select variables and create the index. Both metropolitan area-specific and global indices are tested and compared. Socioeconomic categories are drawn with hierarchical clustering as a reference to determine "optimal" thresholds able to create categories along a one-dimensional index. RESULTS: Among the twenty variables finally selected in the index, 15 are common to the three metropolitan areas. The index explains at least 57% of the variance of these variables in each metropolitan area, with a contribution of more than 80% of the 15 common variables. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed procedure is statistically justified and robust. It can be applied to multiple geographical areas or socioeconomic variables and provides meaningful information to public health bodies. We highlight the importance of the classification method. We propose an R package in order to use this procedure.