Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.
ABSTRACT: From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (?0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.
Project description:From March to May 2006, type 1 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) was isolated from one case patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and six unimmunized healthy contacts in isolated mountain villages in Guangxi, China. We conducted epidemiological investigations in the affected communities and nucleotide sequence analyses of the cVDPV isolates. The results of the investigations showed that the AFP patient, an unimmunized 10-year-old boy, and five laboratory-confirmed contacts lived in the same village; one contact lived in a neighboring village. Only approximately 27% of children 5 to 10 years of age in the affected villages had received three or more doses of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the cVDPV isolates differed from the Sabin 1 (S1) isolate at 1.4 to 2.2% of VP1 nucleotide positions and shared 12 nucleotide substitutions within VP1. All isolates were S1/S2/S1/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination junctions. Key determinants of attenuation were replaced. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the cVDPV circulated locally for approximately 12 months following the initiating OPV dose. No VDPVs were found after mass OPV immunizations, conducted from May to June 2006, that targeted all children <12 years of age. Our findings reinforce the point that VDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps. Maintenance of sensitive AFP and poliovirus surveillance is essential to permit early detection and a rapid response to VDPV circulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). METHODS:In 2014, two VDPVs type 2 were identified during routine surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Consequently, a retrospective VDPV survey was conducted to ensure that there was no circulating VDPV in the country. All Sabin poliovirus isolates identified in Uganda 6 months before and 6 months after were re-screened; Sabin 1 and 3 polioviruses were re-screened for Sabin 2 and Sabin 2 polioviruses were re-screened for VDPVs type 2. The Poliovirus rRT-PCR ITD/VDPV 4.0 assay and sequencing were used respectively. RESULTS:The first two VDPVs type2 were identified in Eastern Uganda and the third was identified during the survey from South-western Uganda. These regions had low OPV coverage and poor AFP surveillance indicators. CONCLUSION:The retrospective VDPV survey was a useful strategy to screen for VDPVs more exhaustively. Supplementary surveillance methods need to be encouraged.
Project description:The Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) may evolve into pathogenic viruses, causing sporadic cases and outbreaks of poliomyelitis. Such vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) generally exhibit altered antigenicity. The current paradigm to distinguish VDPV from OPV and wild polioviruses is to characterize primarily those poliovirus isolates that demonstrate deviations from OPV in antigenic and genetic intratypic differentiation (ITD) tests. Here we report on two independent cases of poliomyelitis caused by VDPVs with "Sabin-like" properties in several ITD assays. The results suggest the existence of diverse pathways of OPV evolution and necessitate improvement of poliovirus surveillance, which currently potentially misses this class of VDPV.
Project description:A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), differing from the Sabin 2 strain at 8.6% (78/903) of VP1 nucleotide positions, was isolated from seawater collected from a seaport in São Paulo State, Brazil. The P1/capsid region is related to the Sabin 2 strain, but sequences within the 5'-untranslated region and downstream of the P1 region were derived from recombination with other members of Human Enterovirus Species C (HEV-C). The two known attenuating mutations had reverted to wild-type (A481G in the 5'-UTR and Ile143Thr in VP1). The VDPV isolate had lost the temperature sensitive phenotype and had accumulated amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites 3a and 3b. The date of the initiating OPV dose, estimated from the number of synonymous substitutions in the capsid region, was approximately 8.5 years before seawater sampling, a finding consistent with a long time of virus replication and possible transmission among several individuals. Although no closely related type 2 VDPVs were detected in Brazil or elsewhere, this VDPV was found in an area with a mobile population, where conditions may favor both viral infection and spread. Environmental surveillance serves as an important tool for sensitive and early detection of circulating poliovirus in the final stages of global polio eradication.
Project description:From 1988 to 1993, 30 cases of poliomyelitis associated with poliovirus type 2 were found in seven governorates of Egypt. Because many of the cases were geographically and temporally clustered and because the case isolates differed antigenically from the vaccine strain, it was initially assumed that the cases signaled the continued circulation of wild type 2 poliovirus. However, comparison of sequences encoding the major capsid protein, VP1 (903 nucleotides), revealed that the isolates were related (93 to 97% nucleotide sequence identity) to the Sabin type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strain and unrelated (<82% nucleotide sequence identity) to the wild type 2 polioviruses previously indigenous to Egypt (last known isolate: 1979) or to any contemporary wild type 2 polioviruses found elsewhere. The rate and pattern of VP1 divergence among the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) isolates suggested that all lineages were derived from a single OPV infection that occurred around 1983 and that progeny from the initiating infection circulated for approximately a decade within Egypt along several independent chains of transmission. Complete genomic sequences of an early (1988) and a late (1993) cVDPV isolate revealed that their 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and noncapsid- 3' UTR sequences were derived from other species C enteroviruses. Circulation of type 2 cVDPVs occurred at a time of low OPV coverage in the affected communities and ceased when OPV coverage rates increased. The potential for cVDPVs to circulate in populations with low immunity to poliovirus has important implications for current and future strategies to eradicate polio worldwide.
Project description:Oral polio vaccine has been used successfully as a powerful tool to control the spread of wild polioviruses throughout the world; however, during replication in under immunized children, some vaccine viruses revert and acquire the neurovirulent phenotypic properties. In this study, we describe the evolution and circulation of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses (VDPVs) in Helmand province of Afghanistan. We investigated 2646 AFP cases of Afghan children from June 2009-February 2011 and isolated 103 (04%) vaccine viruses, 45(1.7%) wild type polioviruses and six (0.22%) type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). These cVDPVs showed 97.7%-98.2% nucleotide and 98%-98.7% amino acid homology in VP1 region on comparison with Sabin type 2 reference strain. All these cVDPVs had two signature mutations of neurovirulent phenotypes and 12 additional mutations in P1 capsid region that might also have contributed to increase neurovirulence and replication. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these viruses were closely related and originated from previously reported Sabin like 2 virus from Pakistan which did not conform to the standard definition of VDPVs at that time. It was also observed that initial OPV dose was administered approximately 9 months prior to the collection of first stool specimen of index case. Our findings support that suboptimal surveillance and low routine immunization coverage have contributed to the emergence and spread of these viruses in Afghanistan. We therefore recommend high quality immunization campaigns not only in affected district Nad Ali but also in the bordering areas between Pakistan and Afghanistan to prevent the spread of cVDPVs.
Project description:From 2001 to 2004, Switzerland switched from routine vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), using both vaccines in the intervening period. Since IPV is less effective at inducing mucosal immunity than OPV, this change might allow imported poliovirus to circulate undetected more easily in an increasingly IPV-immunized population. Environmental monitoring is a recognized tool for identifying polioviruses in a community. To look for evidence of poliovirus circulation following cessation of OPV use, two sewage treatment plants located in the Zurich area were sampled from 2004 to 2006. Following virus isolation using either RD or L20B cells, enteroviruses and polioviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 20 out of 174 wastewater samples were positive for 62 Sabin-like isolates. One isolate from each poliovirus-positive sample was analyzed in more detail. Sequencing the complete viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid coding region, as well as intratypic differentiation (ITD), identified 3 Sabin type 1, 13 Sabin type 2, and 4 Sabin type 3 strains. One serotype 1 strain showed a discordant result in the ITD. Three-quarters of the strains showed mutations within the 5' untranslated region and VP1, known to be associated with reversion to virulence. Moreover, three strains showed heterotypic recombination (S2/S1 and S3/S2/S3). The low number of synonymous mutations and the partial temperature sensitivity are not consistent with extended circulation of these Sabin virus strains. Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity.
Project description:Enormous progress has been made in global efforts to eradicate poliovirus, using live-attenuated Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as the incidence of disease due to wild poliovirus has declined, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) has emerged in areas of low-vaccine coverage. Coordinated global cessation of routine, type 2 Sabin OPV (OPV2) use has not resulted in fewer VDPV outbreaks, and continued OPV use in outbreak-response campaigns has seeded new emergences in low-coverage areas. The limitations of existing vaccines and current eradication challenges warranted development of more genetically stable OPV strains, most urgently for OPV2. Here, we report using codon deoptimization to further attenuate Sabin OPV2 by changing preferred codons across the capsid to non-preferred, synonymous codons. Additional modifications to the 5' untranslated region stabilized known virulence determinants. Testing of this codon-deoptimized new OPV2 candidate (nOPV2-CD) in cell and animal models demonstrated that nOPV2-CD is highly attenuated, grows sufficiently for vaccine manufacture, is antigenically indistinguishable from Sabin OPV2, induces neutralizing antibodies as effectively as Sabin OPV2, and unlike Sabin OPV2 is genetically stable and maintains an attenuation phenotype. In-human clinical trials of nOPV2-CD are ongoing, with potential for nOPV strains to serve as critical vaccine tools for achieving and maintaining polio eradication.
Project description:Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge in areas with low poliovirus immunity and cause outbreaks* of paralytic polio (1-5). Among the three types of wild poliovirus, type 2 was declared eradicated in 2015 (1,2). The use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 Sabin strains) ceased in April 2016 via a 1-month-long, global synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 Sabin strains) in immunization activities (1-4). Monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2; type 2 Sabin strain) is available for cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak response immunization (1-5). The number and geographic breadth of post-switch cVDPV2 outbreaks have exceeded forecasts that trended toward zero outbreaks 4 years after the switch and assumed rapid and effective control of any that occurred (4). New cVDPV2 outbreaks have been seeded by mOPV2 use, by both suboptimal mOPV2 coverage within response zones and recently mOPV2-vaccinated children or contacts traveling outside of response zones, where children born after the global switch are fully susceptible to poliovirus type 2 transmission (2-4). In addition, new emergences can develop by inadvertent exposure to Sabin OPV2-containing vaccine (i.e., residual response mOPV2 or tOPV) (4). This report updates the January 2018-June 2019 report with information on global cVDPV outbreaks during July 2019-February 2020 (as of March 25, 2020)† (2). Among 33 cVDPV outbreaks reported during July 2019-February 2020, 31 (94%) were cVDPV2; 18 (58%) of these followed new emergences. In mid-2020, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) plans to introduce a genetically stabilized, novel OPV type 2 (nOPV2) that has a lower risk for generating VDPV2 than does Sabin mOPV2; if nOPV2 is successful in limiting new VDPV2 emergences, GPEI foresees the replacement of Sabin mOPV2 with nOPV2 for cVDPV2 outbreak responses during 2021 (2,4,6).
Project description:To assess the dynamics of genetic reversion of live poliovirus vaccine in humans, we studied molecular evolution in Sabin-like poliovirus isolates from Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis cases obtained from routine surveillance. We employed a novel modeling approach to infer substitution and recombination rates from whole-genome sequences and information about poliovirus infection dynamics and the individual vaccination history. We confirmed observations from a recent vaccine trial that VP1 substitution rates are increased for Sabin-like isolates relative to the rate for the wild type due to increased nonsynonymous substitution rates. We also inferred substitution rates for attenuating nucleotides and confirmed that reversion can occur in days to weeks after vaccination. We combine our observations for Sabin-like virus evolution with the molecular clock for VP1 of circulating wild-type strains to infer that the mean time from the initiating vaccine dose to the earliest detection of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) is 300 days for Sabin-like virus type 1, 210 days for Sabin-like virus type 2, and 390 days for Sabin-like virus type 3. Phylogenetic relationships indicated transient local transmission of Sabin-like virus type 3 and, possibly, Sabin-like virus type 1 during periods of low wild polio incidence. Comparison of Sabin-like virus recombinants with known Nigerian vaccine-derived poliovirus recombinants shows that while recombination with non-Sabin enteroviruses is associated with cVDPV, the recombination rates are similar for Sabin isolate-Sabin isolate and Sabin isolate-non-Sabin enterovirus recombination after accounting for the time from dosing to the time of detection. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the oral polio vaccine in the field.The global polio eradication effort has completed its 26th year. Despite success in eliminating wild poliovirus from most of the world, polio persists in populations where logistical, social, and political factors have not allowed vaccination programs of sustained high quality. One issue of critical importance is eliminating circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) that have properties indistinguishable from those of wild poliovirus and can cause paralytic disease. cVDPV emerges due to the genetic instability of the Sabin viruses used in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in populations that have low levels of immunity to poliovirus. However, the dynamics responsible are incompletely understood because it has historically been difficult to gather and interpret data about evolution of the Sabin viruses used in OPV in regions where cVDPV has occurred. This study is the first to combine whole-genome sequencing of poliovirus isolates collected during routine surveillance with knowledge about the intrahost dynamics of poliovirus to provide quantitative insight into polio vaccine evolution in the field.