Targeting of multiple myeloma-related angiogenesis by miR-199a-5p mimics: in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity.
ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) cells induce relevant angiogenic effects within the human bone marrow milieu (huBMM) by the aberrant expression of angiogenic factors. Hypoxia triggers angiogenic events within the huBMM and the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is over-expressed by MM cells. Since synthetic miR-199a-5p mimics negatively regulates HIF-1?, we here investigated a miRNA-based therapeutic strategy against hypoxic MM cells. We indeed found that enforced expression of miR-199a-5p led to down-modulated expression of HIF-1? as well as of other pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, IL-8, and FGFb in hypoxic MM cells in vitro. Moreover, miR-199a-5p negatively affected MM cells migration, while it increased the adhesion of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, transfection of MM cells with miR-199a-5p significantly impaired also endothelial cells migration and down-regulated the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Finally, we identified a hypoxia\AKT/miR-199a-5p loop as a potential molecular mechanism responsible of miR-199a-5p down-regulation in hypoxic MM cells. Taken together our results indicate that miR-199a-5p has an important role for the pathogenesis of MM and support the hypothesis that targeting angiogenesis via a miRNA/HIF-1? pathway may represent a novel potential therapeutical approach for this still lethal disease.
Project description:MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional gene regulators that are differentially expressed during various diseases and have been implicated in the underlying pathogenesis. We report here that miR-199a is acutely downregulated in cardiac myocytes on a decline in oxygen tension. This reduction is required for the rapid upregulation of its target, hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif)-1alpha. Replenishing miR-199a during hypoxia inhibits Hif-1alpha expression and its stabilization of p53 and, thus, reduces apoptosis. On the other hand, knockdown of miR-199a during normoxia results in the upregulation of Hif-1alpha and Sirtuin (Sirt)1 and reproduces hypoxia preconditioning. Sirt1 is also a direct target of miR-199a and is responsible for downregulating prolyl hydroxylase 2, required for stabilization of Hif-1alpha. Thus, we conclude that miR-199a is a master regulator of a hypoxia-triggered pathway and can be exploited for preconditioning cells against hypoxic damage. In addition, the data demonstrate a functional link between 2 key molecules that regulate hypoxia preconditioning and longevity.
Project description:Regulations between NF-?B and HIF-1 have not been adequately addressed in previous research. Here, we report that hypoxia increased NF-?B in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The HIF-1 protein level was rapidly induced by protein stabilization (by 2 hours) and then moderately decreased, whereas mRNA levels were reciprocally increased. We also found that NF-?B p50 and p65 (RelA), but not c-Rel, bound the HIF-1a promoter, thus increasing its transcription. In contrast, miR-199a-5p and miR-93, c-Rel downstream targets, decreased HIF-1? at both the mRNA and protein levels. Dicer1, a key enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, was decreased by acute hypoxia but was later increased by HIF-1, rather than by the above-mentioned NF-?B subunits. Thus, NF-?B both positively and negatively fine-tuned HIF-1 in hypoxic hepatocarcinoma cells.
Project description:Retinal cell damage caused by diabetes leads to retinal microvascular injury. Roundabout 4 (ROBO4) is involved in angiogenesis, which varies with the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Here, we explored the transcriptional regulation and microRNA-mediated modulation of ROBO4 expression and related retinal cell function in DR. A streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic animal model was established to detect the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), specificity protein 1 (SP1) and ROBO4. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were cultured under hyperglycaemia or hypoxia and used for mechanistic analysis. Furthermore, roles of miR-125b-5p and miR-146a-5p were evaluated, and their targets were identified using luciferase assays. The cell functions were evaluated by MTS assays, permeability analysis and migration assays. The development of DR increased the levels of HIF-1α, SP1 and ROBO4 both in the DR model and in hyperglycaemic/hypoxic RPE cells. They were co-expressed and up-regulated in diabetic retinas and in RPE cells under hyperglycaemia/hypoxia. Knockdown of HIF-1α significantly inhibited SP1 and ROBO4, whereas SP1 down-regulation abolished ROBO4 expression in RPE cells under hyperglycaemia/hypoxia. miR-125b-5p and miR-146a-5p were down-regulated by hyperglycaemia and/or hypoxia. Up-regulation of miRNAs reversed these changes and resulted in recovery of target gene expression. Moreover, luciferase assays confirmed miR-125b-5p targeted SP1 and ROBO4, and miR-146a-5p targeted HIF-1α and ROBO4 directly. The decreased cell viability, enhanced permeability, and increased cell migration under DR conditions were mitigated by knockdown of HIF-1α/SP1/ROBO4 or up-regulation of miR-125b-5p/miR-146a-5p. In general, our results identified a novel mechanism that miR-125b-5p/miR-146a-5p targeting HIF-1α/SP1-dependent ROBO4 expression could retard DR progression.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that silence target gene expression posttranscriptionally, and their impact on gene expression has been reported in various diseases. It has been reported that the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is reduced and that of p53 is increased in lungs from patients with COPD. However, the role of miRNAs associated with these genes in lungs from patients with COPD is unknown.Lung tissue samples from 55 patients were included in this study. Total RNA, miRNA, and protein were extracted from lung tissues and used for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Cell culture experiments were performed using cultured human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs).miR-34a and miR-199a-5p expressions were increased, and the phosphorylation of AKT was decreased in the lung tissue samples of patients with COPD. The miR-199a-5p expression was correlated with HIF-1? protein expression in the lungs of patients with COPD. Transfection of HPMVECs with the miR-199a-5p precursor gene decreased HIF-1? protein expression, and transfection with the miR-34a precursor gene increased miR-199a-5p expression.These data suggest that miR-34a and miR-199a-5p contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD, and these miRNAs may also affect the HIF-1?-dependent lung structure maintenance program.
Project description:Hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance in cancer patients. Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in the acquired drug resistance in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the role of miRNA in hypoxia-induced CRC drug resistance remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified a hypoxia-triggered feedback loop that involves hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1? (HIF-1?)-mediated repression of miR-338-5p and confers drug resistance in CRC. In this study, the unbiased miRNA array screening revealed that miR-338-5p is downregulated in both hypoxic CRC cell lines tested. Repression of miR-338-5p was required for hypoxia-induced CRC drug resistance. Furthermore, we identified interleukin-6 (IL-6), which mediates STAT3/Bcl2 activation under hypoxic conditions, as a direct miR-338-5p target. The resulting HIF-1?/miR-338-5p/IL-6 feedback loop was necessary for drug resistance in colon cancer cell lines. Using CRC patient samples, we found miR-338-5p has a negative correlation with HIF-1? and IL-6. Finally, in a xenograft model, overexpressing miR-338-5p in CRC cells and HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478 were able to enhance the sensitivity of CRC to oxaliplatin (OXA) via suppressing the HIF-1?/miR-338-5p/IL-6 feedback loop in vivo. Taken together, our results uncovered an HIF-1?/miR-338-5p/IL-6 feedback circuit that is critical in hypoxia-mediated drug resistance in CRC; targeting each member of this feedback loop could potentially reverse hypoxia-induced drug resistance in CRC.
Project description:The underlying molecular mechanisms that the hypoxic microenvironment could aggravate neuronal injury are still not clear. In this study, we hypothesized that the exosomes, exosomal miRNAs, and the mTOR signaling pathway might be involved in hypoxic peritumoral neuronal injury in glioma. Multimodal radiological images, HE, and HIF-1? staining of high-grade glioma (HGG) samples revealed that the peritumoral hypoxic area overlapped with the cytotoxic edema region and directly contacted with normal neurons. In either direct or indirect coculture system, hypoxia could promote normal mouse hippocampal neuronal cell (HT22) injury, and the growth of HT22 cells was suppressed by C6 glioma cells under hypoxic condition. For administrating hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomes (HIGDE) that could aggravate oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reperfusion neuronal injury, we identified that exosomes may be the communication medium between glioma cells and peritumoral neurons, and we furtherly found that exosomal miR-199a-3p mediated the OGD/reperfusion neuronal injury process by suppressing the mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the upregulation of miRNA-199a-3p in exosomes from glioma cells was induced by hypoxia-related HIF-1? activation. To sum up, hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomal miRNA-199a-3p can be upregulated by the activation of HIF-1? and is able to increase the ischemic injury of peritumoral neurons by inhibiting the mTOR pathway.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the expression of long-chain noncoding growth stasis specific protein 6 antisense RNA1 (lncRNA DLX6-AS1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and cells, and its regulatory effect on malignant phenotypes of NPC cells. METHODS:The expressions of DLX6-AS1, miR-199a-5p, and HIF-1? mRNA in NPC issues and cells were detected by qRT-PCR. The proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of cells were monitored via MTT and transwell assay. The interactions between DLX6-AS1 and miR-199a-5p, miR-199a-5p and HIF-1? were verified by luciferase activity assay. Western blot was performed to determine the regulatory effect of DLX6-AS1 and miR-199a-5p on HIF-1? protein. RESULTS:The expression of lncRNA DLX6-AS1 was up-regulated in NPC tissues and cells. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of NPC were enhanced by overexpressed DLX6-AS1 but inhibited by DLX6-AS1 knockdown. In addition, DLX6-AS1 can be used as a kind of ceRNA to regulate miR-199a-5p and, thereby modulating the expression of HIF-1?. CONCLUSION:We found that DLX6-AS1 was a cancer-promoting lncRNA to facilitate the progression of NPC, and its underlying mechanism was suppressing miR-199a-5p expression. This study can provide novel clues for the treatment of NPC.
Project description:Hypoxia-driven changes in the tumor microenvironment facilitate cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory cross talk between endocytic pathway, hypoxia, and tumor metastasis. Dynamin 2 (DNM2), a GTPase, is a critical mediator of endocytosis. Hypoxia decreased the levels of DNM2. DNM2 promoter has multiple hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-binding sites and genetic deletion of them relieved hypoxia-induced transcriptional suppression. Interestingly, DNM2 reciprocally regulated HIF. Inhibition of DNM2 GTPase activity and dominant-negative mutant of DNM2 showed a functional role for DNM2 in regulating HIF. Furthermore, the opposite strand of DNM2 gene encodes miR-199a, which is similarly reduced in cancer cells under hypoxia. miR-199a targets the 3'-UTR of HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Decreased miR-199a expression in hypoxia increased HIF levels. Exogenous expression of miR-199a decreased HIF, cell migration, and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. miR-199a-mediated changes in HIF levels affected expression of the matrix-remodeling enzyme, lysyloxidase (LOX). LOX levels negatively correlated with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients. These results demonstrate a regulatory relationship between DNM2, miR-199a, and HIF, with implications in cancer metastasis.
Project description:Hypoxia is a critical aspect of the glioma microenvironment and has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to various therapies. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoxic survival of glioma cells remain unclear. Recent studies strongly suggest that microRNAs act as critical mediators of the hypoxic response. We thus hypothesized their prominent role in hypoxia resistance in glioblastoma (GBM) and aimed to identify those.With this study, we present the first detailed analysis of small RNA transcriptome of cell line U87MG, a grade IV glioma cell line, and its alteration under hypoxic condition. Based on deep sequencing and microarray data, we identify a set of hypoxia regulated microRNAs, with the miR-210-3p and its isomiRs showing highest induction in GBM cell lines U87MG and U251MG. We show miR-210-3p, miR-1275, miR-376c-3p, miR-23b-3p, miR-193a-3p and miR-145-5p to be up-regulated, while miR-92b-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-10b-5p, miR-181a-2-3p and miR-185-5p are down-regulated by hypoxia. Interestingly, certain hypoxia-induced miRNAs are also known to be over-expressed in GBM tumors, suggesting that hypoxia may be one of the factors involved in establishing the miRNA signature of GBM. Transcription factor binding sites for Hypoxia inducible factor 1 A (HIF1A) were identified in the promoter region (5 kb upstream) of 30 hypoxia-induced miRNAs. HIF-1A over-expression and silencing studies show regulation of specific miRNAs, including miR-210-3p, to be HIF1A dependent. On the other hand, miR-210-3p leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of HIF and its target genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9). MiR-210-3p levels were found to be high in GBM patient samples and showed good correlation with the known hypoxia markers CA9 and VEGF. We show that miR-210-3p promotes hypoxic survival and chemoresistance in GBM cells and targets a negative regulator of hypoxic response, HIF3A. Additionally, a total of 139 novel miRNAs were discovered by the analysis of deep sequencing data and three of these were found to be differentially expressed under hypoxia.Overall, our study reveals a novel miRNA signature of hypoxia in GBM and suggests miR-210-3p to be an oncogenic player and a novel potential intrinsic marker of hypoxia in glioblastoma.
Project description:Objective: The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) has emerged as a novel player in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hypoxia is a common characteristic of the microenvironment of HCC. This study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA-NEAT1 is induced by hypoxia in HCC, and the mechanism that underlies LncRNA-NEAT1 function. Methods: The expression changes of lncRNA-NEAT1 in HCC cell lines under hypoxic conditions were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The regulatory effect of HIF-1? on lncRNA-NEAT1 was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays. The function of lncRNA-NEAT1 on HCC cell growth under hypoxic conditions was determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. lncRNA -NEAT1 was predicted to serve as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) within microRNA (miRNA)/mRNA axes based on microarray data, public HCC-related datasets and integrative bioinformatics analysis, and the miR-199a-3p/UCK2 axis was selected and validated by qRT-PCR, western blotting, RNA immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter analyses. The role of miR-199a-3p/UCK2 in HCC and its functional association with lncRNA-NEAT1 were assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Results: LncRNA-NEAT1 expression was significantly induced by hypoxia in SNU-182 and HUH7 cells. HIF-1? was shown to regulate lncRNA-NEAT1 transcription. Under hypoxic conditions, lncRNA-NEAT1 maintained the growth of HCC cells and inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. LncRNA-NEAT1 was predicted to regulate a panel of HCC-associated miRNA-mRNA pairs consisting of 8 miRNAs and 13 mRNAs. LncRNA-NEAT1 was shown to function as a ceRNA of miR-199a-3p/UCK2 both in HCC cells under hypoxic conditions and in an animal model. Conclusion: LncRNA-NEAT1 is a hypoxia-responsive lncRNA in HCC cell lines Insilico evidence suggested that LncRNA-NEAT1 may sustainthe growth of HCC cells by regulating HCC-associated mRNAs that interact with tumor-suppressive miRNAs. The lncRNA-NEAT1/miR-199a-3p/UCK2 pathway may contribute to the progression of HCC cell lines in a hypoxic microenvironment and therefore may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC.