Lactate reduces liver and pancreatic injury in Toll-like receptor- and inflammasome-mediated inflammation via GPR81-mediated suppression of innate immunity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS:The NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome induces inflammation in response to organ injury, but little is known about its regulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide the first signal required for activation of the inflammasome and stimulate aerobic glycolysis to generate lactate. We examined whether lactate and the lactate receptor, Gi-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81), regulate TLR induction of signal 1 and limit inflammasome activation and organ injury. METHODS:Primary mouse macrophages and human monocytes were incubated with TLR4 agonists and lactate and assayed for levels of pro-interleukin (IL)1?, NLRP3, and caspase-1 (CASP1); release of IL1?; and activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and caspase-1. Small interfering RNAs were used to reduce levels of GPR81 and arrestin ?-2 (ARRB2), and an NF-?B luciferase reporter transgene was transfected in RAW 264.7 cells. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoprecipitation with an antibody against GPR81. Acute hepatitis was induced in C56BL/6N mice by administration of lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine. Acute pancreatitis was induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide and cerulein. Some mice were given intraperitoneal injections of sodium lactate or small interfering RNA against Gpr81. Activation of NF-?B in tissue macrophages was assessed in mice that expressed a reporter transgene. RESULTS:In macrophages and monocytes, increasing concentrations of lactate reduced TLR4-mediated induction of Il1B, Nlrp3, and Casp1; activation of NF-?B; release of IL1?; and cleavage of CASP1. GPR81 and ARRB2 physically interacted and were required for these effects. The administration of lactate reduced inflammation and organ injury in mice with immune hepatitis; this reduction required Gpr81 dependence in vivo. Lactate also prevented activation of NF-?B in macrophages of mice, and, when given after injury, reduced the severity of acute pancreatitis and acute liver injury. CONCLUSIONS:Lactate negatively regulates TLR induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome and production of IL1?, via ARRB2 and GPR81. Lactate could be a promising immunomodulatory therapy for patients with acute organ injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Biliary atresia (BA) results from a neonatal inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of bile ducts of unknown etiology. Although the innate immune system has been linked to the virally induced mechanism of disease, the role of inflammasome-mediated epithelial injury remains largely undefined. Here, we hypothesized that disruption of the inflammasome suppresses the neonatal proinflammatory response and prevents experimental BA. METHODS:We determined the expression of key inflammasome-related genes in livers from infants at diagnosis of BA and in extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) of neonatal mice after infection with rotavirus (RRV) immediately after birth. Then, we determined the impact of the wholesale inactivation of the genes encoding IL-1R1 (Il1r1-/-), NLRP3 (Nlrp3-/-) or caspase-1 (Casp1-/-) on epithelial injury and bile duct obstruction. RESULTS:IL1R1, NLRP3 and CASP1 mRNA increased significantly in human livers at the time of diagnosis, and in EHBDs of RRV-infected mice. In Il1r1-/- mice, the epithelial injury of EHBDs induced by RRV was suppressed, with dendritic cells unable to activate natural killer cells. A similar protection was observed in Nlrp3-/- mice, with decreased injury and inflammation of livers and EHBDs. Long-term survival was also improved. In contrast, the inactivation of the Casp1 gene had no impact on tissue injury, and all mice died. Tissue analyses in Il1r1-/- and Nlrp3-/- mice showed decreased populations of dendritic cells and natural killer cells and suppressed expression of type-1 cytokines and chemokines. CONCLUSIONS:Genes of the inflammasome are overexpressed at diagnosis of BA in humans and in the BA mouse model. In the experimental model, the targeted loss of IL-1R1 or NLRP3, but not of caspase-1, protected neonatal mice against RRV-induced bile duct obstruction. LAY SUMMARY:Biliary atresia is a severe inflammatory and obstructive disease of bile ducts occurring in infancy. Although the cause is unknown, activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems injures the bile duct epithelium. In this study we found that patients' livers had increased expression of inflammasome genes. Using mice engineered to inactivate individual inflammasome genes, the epithelial injury and bile duct obstruction were prevented by the loss of Il1r1 or Nlrp3, with a decreased activation of natural killer cells and expression of cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, the loss of Casp1 did not change the disease phenotype. Combined, the findings point to a differential role of inflammasome gene products in the pathogenic mechanisms of biliary atresia.
Project description:Intra-amniotic inflammation is strongly associated with spontaneous preterm labor and birth, the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Previous studies have suggested a role for the NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome in the mechanisms that lead to preterm labor and birth. However, a causal link between the NLRP3 inflammasome and preterm labor/birth induced by intra-amniotic inflammation has not been established. Herein, using an animal model of lipopolysaccharide-induced intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI), we demonstrated that there was priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome (1) at the transcriptional level, indicated by enhanced mRNA expression of inflammasome-related genes (Nlrp3, Casp1, Il1b); and (2) at the protein level, indicated by greater protein concentrations of NLRP3, in both the fetal membranes and decidua basalis prior to preterm birth. Additionally, we showed that there was canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the fetal membranes, but not in the decidua basalis, prior to IAI-induced preterm birth as evidenced by increased protein levels of active caspase-1. Protein concentrations of released IL1? were also increased in both the fetal membranes and decidua basalis, as well as in the amniotic fluid, prior to IAI-induced preterm birth. Finally, using the specific NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, we showed that in vivo inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome reduced IAI-induced preterm birth and neonatal mortality. Collectively, these results provide a causal link between NLRP3 inflammasome activation and spontaneous preterm labor and birth in the context of intra-amniotic inflammation. We also showed that, by targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome, adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes can be significantly reduced.
Project description:Salvianolic acid B is one of the main water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Many reports have shown that it has significant anti-myocardial ischemia effect. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our present study demonstrated that Sal B could alleviate myocardial ischemic injury by inhibiting the priming phase of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo, serum c-troponin I (cTn), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, the cardiac function and infract size were examined. We found that Sal B could notably reduce the myocardial ischemic injury caused by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In vitro, Sal B down-regulated the TLR4/NF-?B signaling cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated H9C2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B reduced the expression levels of IL-1? and NLRP3 inflammasome in a dose-dependent manner. In short, our study provided evidence that Sal B could attenuate myocardial ischemic injury via inhibition of TLR4/NF-?B/NLRP3 signaling pathway. And in an upstream level, MD-2 may be the potential target.
Project description:Hypoxia, IL-1? production and oxidative stress are involved in islet graft dysfunction and destruction. However, the link between these events has not yet been determined in transplanted islets. The goal of this study was to determine whether NLRP3 inflammasome is responsible for IL-1? production and if it is activated by hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in transplanted islets. Rat islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice. At different times post-transplantation, blood samples were collected and islet grafts harvested. Rat islets were also incubated in vitro either under normoxia or hypoxia for 24?h, in the absence or presence of inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammasome (CASP1 inhibitor) or oxidative stress (NAC). NLRP3, CASP1, IL1B, BBC3 pro-apoptotic and BCL2 anti-apoptotic genes in transplanted and in vitro incubated islets were then studied using real time PCR. IL-1? released in the blood and in the supernatant was quantified by ELISA. Cell death was analysed by propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining. NLRP3, CASP1 and BBC3 in transplanted rat islets and IL-1? in blood transiently increased during the first days after transplantation. In islets incubated under hypoxia, NRLP3, IL1B and CASP1 and IL-1? released in supernatant increased compared to islets incubated under normoxia. These effects were prevented by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by CASP1 or oxidative stress by NAC. However, these inhibitors did not prevent hypoxia-induced rat islet death. These data show that NLRP3 inflammasome in rat islets is transiently activated after their transplantation and induced through oxidative stress in vitro. However, NRLP3 inflammasome inhibition does not protect islet cells against hypoxia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies reported that URB597 (URB) had therapeutic potential for treating chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction. However, the interaction mechanisms underlying the CCH-induced abnormal excessive autophagy and neuroinflammation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of impaired autophagy in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome activation in the rat hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms under the condition of induced CCH as well as the effect of URB treatment. METHODS:The CCH rat model was established by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo), and rats were randomly divided into 11 groups as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) BCCAo; (3) BCCAo+autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), (4) BCCAo+lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), (5) BCCAo+microglial activation inhibitor minocycline, (6) BCCAo+ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (7) BCCAo+URB, (8) BCCAo+URB+3-MA, (9) BCCAo+URB+CQ, (10) BCCAo+URB+minocycline, (11) BCCAo+URB+NAC. The cell localizations of LC3, p62, LAMP1, TOM20 and NLRP3 were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, p62, LAMP1, BNIP3 and parkin), NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins (NLRP3, CASP1 and IL-1?), microglial marker (OX-42) and proinflammatory cytokines (iNOS and COX-2) were evaluated by western blotting, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-a) were determined by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by dihydroethidium staining. The mitochondrial ultrastructural changes were examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS:CCH induced microglial overactivation and ROS accumulation, promoting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the release of IL-1?. Blocked autophagy and mitophagy flux enhanced the activation of the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome pathway. However, URB alleviated impaired autophagy and mitophagy by decreasing mitochondrial ROS and microglial overactivation as well as restoring lysosomal function, which would further inhibit the activation of the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome pathway. CONCLUSION:These findings extended previous studies indicating the function of URB in the mitigation of chronic ischemic injury of the brain.
Project description:The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a devastating lung disease in preterm infants, includes inflammation, the mechanisms of which are not fully characterized. Here we report that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with the development of BPD. Hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice have increased caspase-1 activation, IL1? and inflammation, and decreased alveolarization. Nlrp3(-/-) mice have no caspase-1 activity, no IL1?, no inflammatory response and undergo normal alveolarization. Treatment of hyperoxia-exposed mice with either IL1 receptor antagonist to block IL1? or glyburide to block the Nlrp3 inflammasome results in decreased inflammation and increased alveolarization. Ventilated preterm baboons show activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with increased IL1?:IL1ra ratio. The IL1?:IL1ra ratio in tracheal aspirates from preterm infants with respiratory failure is predictive of the development of BPD. We conclude that early activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is a key mechanism in the development of BPD, and represents a novel therapeutic target for BPD.
Project description:AIM:Lactates accumulate in ischemic brains. G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) is an endogenous receptor for lactate. We aimed to explore whether lactate is involved in ischemic injury via activating GPR81. METHODS:N2A cells were transfected with GFP-GPR81 plasmids 24 h previously, and then treated with GPR81 antagonist 3-hydroxy-butyrate (3-OBA) alone or cotreated with agonists lactate or 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, 5-DHBA) during 3 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Adult male C57BL/6J mice and primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with 3-OBA at the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or OGD, respectively. RESULTS:The GPR81 overexpression increased the cell vulnerability to ischemic injury. And GPR81 antagonism by 3-OBA significantly prevented cell death and brain injury after OGD and MCAO, respectively. Furthermore, inhibition of GPR81 reversed ischemia-induced apoptosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling may be involved in the neuroprotection. CONCLUSIONS:G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) inhibition attenuated ischemic neuronal death. Lactate may aggravate ischemic brain injury by activating GPR81. GPR81 antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signaling pathway is a highlighted topic in the field of inflammation. However, there is little research on the relationship between the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA). The aim of this study was to examine the expression of inflammatory mediators related to the NLRP3 inflammasome in the synovial fluid of patients with condylar cartilage degeneration and verify the clinical effects of sodium hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment on TMJOA.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMJID) without condylar defects and TMJOA with condylar defects were divided into two groups. There were thirty patients in each group, and inflammatory mediators related to the NLRP3 inflammasome, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), IL-18, NLRP3, and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 1 (CASP1), in synovial fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eighteen patients in the TMJOA group were retested after two HA treatments to evaluate the therapeutic effects of HA.<h4>Results</h4>IL-1?, IL-18, NLRP3 and CASP1 were all positive in the two groups, and TMJOA patients with condylar defects had higher expression of these molecules than TMJID patients (P?<?0.05). IL-1?, IL-18, and NLRP3 were decreased after two HA treatments (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in CASP1 after two HA injections (P?=?0.549).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway may be involved in condylar degeneration. HA could reduce some inflammatory molecules to alleviate inflammation.
Project description:Although the molecular links underlying the causative relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are not completely understood, compelling evidence suggests a pivotal role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Here we tested the hypothesis that either a selective pharmacological inhibition or a genetic downregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in reduction of the diet-induced metabolic alterations. Male C57/BL6 wild-type mice and NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> littermates were fed control diet or high-fat, high-fructose diet (HD). A subgroup of HD-fed wild-type mice was treated with the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]). HD feeding increased plasma and hepatic lipids and impaired glucose homeostasis and renal function. Renal and hepatic injury was associated with robust increases in profibrogenic markers, while only minimal fibrosis was recorded. None of these metabolic abnormalities were detected in HD-fed NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> mice, and they were dramatically reduced in HD-mice treated with the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. BAY 11-7082 also attenuated the diet-induced increase in NLRP3 inflammasome expression, resulting in inhibition of caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 production (in liver and kidney). Interestingly, BAY 11-7082, but not gene silencing, inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-?B nuclear translocation. Overall, these results demonstrate that the selective pharmacological modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates the metabolic abnormalities and the related organ injury/dysfunction caused by chronic exposure to HD, with effects similar to those obtained by NLRP3 gene silencing.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in intestinal homeostasis as well as inflammation. However, in vivo studies investigating the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report contrasting results, leaving it unclear if the NLRP3 inflammasome augments or attenuates intestinal inflammation. To investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway in a model of acute intestinal inflammation, we modified a previously established in vitro triple culture model of the healthy and inflamed intestine (Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12/THP-1). Using THP-1 knockout cell lines, we analyzed how the NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream enzyme caspase-1 (CASP1) affect inflammatory parameters including barrier integrity and cytotoxicity, as well as gene expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucus. Furthermore, we investigated differences in inflammation-mediated cytotoxicity towards enterocyte-like (Caco-2) or goblet-like (HT29-MTX-E12) epithelial cells. As a complementary approach, inflammation-related cytotoxicity and gene expression of cytokines was analyzed in intestinal tissue explants from wildtype (WT) and Nlrp3-/- mice. Induction of intestinal inflammation impaired the barrier, caused cytotoxicity, and altered gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucins in vitro, while the knockout of NLRP3 and CASP1 in THP 1 cells led to attenuation of these inflammatory parameters. The knockout of CASP1 tended to show a slightly stronger attenuating effect compared to the NLRP3 knockout model. We also found that the inflammation-mediated death of goblet-like cells is NLRP3/caspase-1 dependent. Furthermore, inflammation-related cytotoxicity and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was present in ileal tissue explants from WT, but not Nlrp3-/- mice. The here presented observations indicate a pro-inflammatory and adverse role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages during acute intestinal inflammation.